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CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS. 


CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS.: 


THEIR  AGENTS,  AND  THEIR  RESULTS. 


BY 

T.   W.  M.  MARSHALL 


A  FRUCTIBUS  EORUM  COGNOSCETIS  EOS.— S.  MATT.  711.  16. 


VOL  II. 


NEW   YORK: 
I)    &  J.  SADLIER   &   CO.,  31    BARCLAY    STREET. 

MONTREAL :  COR.  NOTRE-DAME  AND  ST.  FRANCIS  XAVIER  STS. 

MRS.    HICKET,    123    FEDEHAL    STUEUT,    BOSTOK. 

18G5. 


RENNIR,  SHKA  ft  LINDSAY, 

BT«BKOTYP«RS  AND  ELKCTHOTYPEKS,  QEO.  W.  WOOD,  PRiMTEft, 

81,  83  A  85  CKNTRE-STUEET,  No-  2  Dutch-st.,  N.  Y. 

NEW  YORK. 


CONTENTS  OF  VOLUME  II. 


Missions  in  the  Levant,  Syria  and  Armenia 1 

"        Mediterranean 2 

"        Greece 6 

"        European  Turkey 15 

Catholic  Missions  in  Turkey 20 

Missions  in  Asiatic  Turkey 29 

Missions  in  Jerusalem ; 43 

Kussian  Missions  and  Sclavonic  Unity 60 

The  Maronites 87 

The  Druses -. 96 

Missions  in  Armenia 99 

Protestant  Missions  in  the  Levant 110 

Georgia  and  Persia 119 

Missions  in  South  America 123 

"        in  Brazil 131 

"        in  Guyana 164 

"        in  Carthegena  and  the  Blessed  Peter  Claver 169 

"        in  Peru  and  Chili 172 

Present  State  of  the  South  American  Provinces 176 

Modern  Missionaries  in  South  America 189 

Missions  in  Paraguay ." 193 

"        in  North  America 221 

"        in  Guatemala 223 

"        in  Central  America 227 

"        in  Mexico 229 

"        in  Texas 244 

"        in  California 250 

"        in  Oregon 262 

"        in  Rocky  Mountains 268 

"        in  British  Columbia 276 

"        in  Canada 283 

"        in  Newfoundland,  Greenland,  and  Lapland 333 

"        in  United  States 339 

The  Pilgrim  Fathers ..  342 


yi  CONTENTS  OF  VOL.   II. 

Anglican  Missions  in  the  United  States 351 

The  American  Negroes 373 

The  American  Indians 387 

Conclusion 396 

Summary 401 

General  Contrast 406 

The  City  of  God  and  the  City  of  Confusion 420 

Results  of  Catholic  and  Protestant  Education 427 

Celibacy  and  Marriage 435 

Contrast  in  Social  Results 439 

The  Church  and  the  Sects 446 

The  End  of  the  Conflict 451 

Germany 452 

Switzerland 456 

France 458 

Holland 458 

England 459 

Sweden  Norway  and  Denmark 4G5 

The  Reformation  Hypothesis 469 

Conclusion 473 

Index  of  Contents. . .  481 


CHRISTIAN  MISSIONS. 


CHAPTER  VIII. 

MISSIONS  IN  THE  LEVANT,  SYRIA,  AND  ARMENIA. 


MANY  lands  have  now  been  passed  in  review,  and  each  has 
proclaimed  in  turn  the  same  unvarying  tale.  We  have  visited 
the  Chinese  and  the  Hindoo,  the  Cingalese  and  the  Maori,  the 
Philippine  and  the  many  tribes  who  people  the  island  world  of 
the  Pacific.  We  have  interrogated  the  Moor  and  the  Copt,  the 
JS"egro  and  the  Abyssinian  ;  and  now  at  length  the  Kaffir  and 
the  Hottentot  have  added  their  voice,  and  have  told  us  that 
they  too,  in  spite  of  the  mists  which  cloud  both  heart  and 
brain,  are  learning  to  discriminate  between  the  apostles  of 
Jesus  and  the  emissaries  of  man.  All  have  bowed  in  turn  be 
fore  the  meek  but  fearless  pastors  who  went  amongst  them  bear 
ing  the  Cross,  and  have  confessed,  in  love  or  in  hate,  that  they 
indeed  came  from  God ;  while  all  have  agreed  to  spurn,  as 
only  men  like  themselves,  the  crowd  of  rival  teachers  having 
neither  the  gifts  nor  the  calling  of  apostles,  and  to  utter  the  tes 
timony  which  the  evil  spirits  have  so  often  been  forced  to  pro 
claim  by  the  mouth  of  the  heathen,  "  Jesus  I  know,  and  Paul 
I  know,  but  who  are  you  ?"* 

And  now  we  approach  the  regions  where  the  mightiest  races 
of  the  human  family  have  in  turn  reigned  or  served,  and  the 
lands,  immortal  both  in  sacred  and  profane  story,  where  Chris 
tianity  yielded  its  first  martyrs,  and  won  its  earliest  triumphs. 
They  have  changed  since  then,  yet  not  as  other  lands  have 
changed ;  for  in  this  mysterious  East,  which  still  silently  rebukes 
by  its  grave  and  solemn  mien  the  fickle  and  clamorous  races  of 
the  West,  even  error  knows  how  to  simulate  the  prerogatives 
of  truth,  and  still  wears  the  same  outward  form,  after  the  lapse 

*  Acts  xix.  32. 

YOL.  H.  2 


2  CHAPTER   VIIT. 

of  centuries,  in  which  it  defied  the  sentence  of  God  at  Ephesus 
and  Chalcedon.  The  lessons  of  a  thousand  years,  and  the 
abject  misery  of  the  last  four  hundred,  have  failed  to  admonish 
the  disciples  of  Photius  and  Eutyches  and  Kestorius  ;  until  in 
these  last  days  a  new  call  to  repentance  and  conversion  has 
been  heard  amongst  them,  of  which  we  are  about  to  trace  the 
noble  results.  We  are  going  to  speak  of  the  Greek  and  the 
Syrian,  of  the  Moslem  who  rules  over  both,  and  of  the  Kussian 
who  is  planning  in  secret  how  he  may  set  his  heel  on  them  all. 


THE    MEDITERRANEAN. 

We  have  come  from  Africa,  and  must  therefore  enter  the 
Mediterranean  through  that  famous  strait  at  whose  mouth 
England  keeps  watch  from  her  strongest  fortress.  Let  us  be 
gin  our  new  voyage  from  this  spot ;  for  even  in  Gibraltar, 
where  but  a  few  thousand  men  are  crowded  together,  we  shall 
find  one  more  example,  worthy  of  a  moment's  attention,  of  the 
eternal  contrast  between  the  children  of  the  Church  and  the 
children  of  the  world. 

An  Episcopalian  clergyman,  who  had  left  his  flock  in  America, 
hut  addressed  to  them  from  every  place  which  he  visited  pastoral 
letters,  of  which  the  main  object  seems  to  have  been  to  keep 
alive  during  his  absence  their  aversion  to  the  Catholic  Church, 
found  materials  for  an  animated  discourse  even  in  Gibraltar. 
He  visited  both  the  Catholic  and  Protestant  church  in  that 
place,  and  then  dispatched  to  his  remote  congregation  a  de 
scription  of  what  even  he  was  constrained  to  call  "the  striking 
contrast."  In  the  Protestant  church,  he  tells  them,  he  never 
saw  "  one  of  the  attending  soldiers  on  his  knees  ;"  and  then  he 
exclaims,  "  to  what  advantage  do  the  Catholics  appenr  in  this 
striking  contrast !"  "  The  hundreds  that  stood  there"  he  adds, 
when  he  had  passed  from  the  worship  to  the  preaching,  u  were 
all  eye  and  ear ;  but  here  (in  the  Protestant  church)  nothing 
could  be  seen  but  yawning,  and  drowsiness,  and  inattention."* 

This  unfavorable  report  of  an  American  minister  is  more 
than  confirmed  by  an  Anglican  writer,  who  observes  :  "  The 

*  Glimpses  of  the  Old  World,  by  the  Rev.  Jolm  A.  Clark,  D.D  ,  Rector  of  St. 
Andrew's  Church,  Philadelphia,  vol.  i.,  ch.  ii.,  pp.  56,  68.  An  Anglican  min 
ister  gives  the  same  account  of  a  church  of  the  Waldenses,  who  are  repre 
sented  on  English  platforms  as  the  most  devout  Christians  of  Italy.  '  There 
did  not  appear  to  be  much  external  reverence  among  the  congregation,  who 
went  in  and  out  incessantly,  nor  was  the  attendance  at  all  proportioned  to  the 
size  of  the  church."  The  Italian  Valleys  of  the  Pennine  Alps,  by  Rev.  S.  W. 
King,  M.A,  ch.  x.,  p.  226. 


MISSIONS   IN   THE   LEVANT,    ETC.  3 

state  of  religion  when  I  was  at  Gibraltar  was  most  dishearten 
ing.  .  .  .  There  is  literally  no  Church  feeling  in  Gibraltar."* 

It  is  perhaps  worthy  of  remark,  that  a  Russo-Greek  traveller, 
the  amiable  Count  Schouvaloff,  seems  to  have  owed  the  grace 
of  conversion  to  his  continual  observation  of  the  same  u  striking 
contrast"  which  produced  only  a  transient  impression  on  Dr. 
Clark.  "  What  struck  and  edified  me  in  the  Catholic  churches," 
he  says,  "  was  the  profound  recollection  of  the  faithful  in  the 
act  of  prayer.  I  compared  their  modest  and  humble  attitude 
with  the  often  unbecoming  movements,  the  deep  ennui,  and  the 
distracted  looks,  of  a  great  number  of  my  co-religionists  during 
the  divine  office;  and  I  was  obliged  to  confess,  in  spite  of 
myself,  that  there  was  more  piety  among  the  Catholics  than 
among  the  Greeks."f 

Let  us  stay  also  for  a  moment  at  another  fortress,  also  a 
symbol  of  Anglo-Saxon  might,  which  we  shall  pass  on  our  way 
to  the  isles  of  Greece.  Malta  has  been  for  more  than  a  quarter 
of  a  century  the  headquarters  of  Protestantism  in  the  Levant. 
Nearly  forty  years  ago  Mr.  Jowett  recommended  it  to  English 
missionary  societies  as  a  centre  for  their  operations,  because,  as 
he  said,  "  it  is  verj  far  from  unhealthy,  British  protection  is 
here  fully  enjoyed,  together  with  a  degree  of  comfort  seldom  to 
be  attained  in  foreign  countries;  rendering  it  a  peculiarly 
eligible  residence  for  a  missionary  family."^:  These  character 
istic  considerations  prevailed,  and  for  thirty  years  an  eruption 
of  tracts  and  Bibles  has  flowed  out  of  Malta,  and  covered  both 
shores  of  the  Mediterranean.  In  the  single  year  1831,  they 
boast  to  have  issued  from  this  eligible  residence  "four  millions 
seven  hundred  and  sixty  thousand  pages,  all  in  modern  Greek.  '§ 
By  the  same  year  the  Americans  alone  had  dispersed  "  about 
three  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  volumes,  containing  twenty- 
one  million  pages." |  Both  English  and  Americans  have  been 
dispersing  them  at  an  increased  rate  ever  since.  How  many 
converts  have  been  made  by  this  abundant  literature,  and  of 
what  sort,  we  shall  learn  presently. 

It  is  here  also  that  the  "  Malta  Protestant  College"  has 
been  established,  with  the  object  of  providing  suitable  instruc 
tion,  as  well  as  food  and  lodging,  for  any  orientals  who  could 
be  induced  to  enter  it.  Of  the  actual  results  obtained  in  this 
institution,  which  appears  to  have  been  hitherto  a  kind  or 

*  The  Canary  Isles,  &c.,  by  the  Rev.  Thomas  Debary,  M.A.,  cli.  xviii.,  pp. 
213,  225. 

f  Schouvaloff,  Ma  Conversion  et  ma  Vocation,  ch.  iii.,  p.  209. 
\.  Christian  Researches  in  the  Mediterranean,  p.  876,  3d  edition. 
§  History  of  American  Missions,  by  the  Rev.  Joseph  Tracy,  p.  213. 


4  CHAPTER  VIII. 

hospital  for  astute  adventurers  of  every  class,  we  shall  have  a 
sufficiently  accurate  notion  when  we  have  completed  our 
review  of  missions  in  the  Levant.  It  was  here  that  Achilli 
found  refuge ;  and  it  may  be  doubted  whether  any  four  walls 
in  Christendom  have  contained  within  them,  at  a  given 
moment,  so  singular  an  assemblage  of  adroit  comedians  as  the 
Malta  Protestant  College.  Even  Achilli  is  not,  as  we  shall 
see,  an  exaggerated  specimen  of  its  inmates.  The  gentleman 
who  bears  the  title  of  "  Bishop  of  Gibraltar,"  we  are  told,  "  said 
he  was  not  pleased  with  Achilli,  as  he  expected,  after  the 
friendly  intercourse  they  had  had,  knowing  the  favorable 
opinion  he  had  of  the  Church  of  England,  that  he  would  have 
joined  himself  to  our  Church,  rather  than  have  laid  the  founda 
tion  of  another."* 

ISTo  doubt  Achilli,  who  is  said  to  have  become  ultimately  a 
Swedenborgian,  had  encouraged  this  expectation,  and  found  his 
profit  in  affecting  esteem  for  the  Church  of  England.  A  person 
so  fertile  in  resources  would  find  little  difficulty  in  outwitting 
the  amiable  gentleman  of  whom  a  well-known  traveller  gives 
this  irreverent  description  :  "  Dr.  Tomlinson  acted  like  an  Epis 
copalian  tight-rope  dancer,  always  balancing  himself  between 
Puseyism  and  Evangelicalism,  and  so  distracted  the  few  Prot 
estants  at  Malta.  He  is  eminently  a  man  of  no  decision  of 
character."!  Achilli  and  his  companions  appear  to  have 
detected  this  infirmity.  But  the  Malta  College  wanted  recruits, 
and  was  willing  to  accept  them  on  their  own  terms;  and  this 
fact  becoming  known  throughout  the  Levant,  the  revenues  of 
the  College  were  constantly  dilapidated  by  ingenious  orientals, 
who  adapted  the  new  drama  of  "Achilli  and  the  Bishop  of 
Gibraltar,"  through  every  possible  modification  of  comedy  and 
burlesque,  but  always  to  their  own  advantage.  A  few  exam 
ples,  recorded  by  Protestant  writers,  deserve  attention. 

The  first  is  the  case  of  Dr.  Naudi,  reported  at  length  by 
Dr.  Clark.  Professing  to  be  a  Protestant  convert,  Naudi  was 
long  supported  by  the  Church  Missionary  Society,  to  whom  he 
forwarded  welcome  periodical  reports,  setting  forth  the  rapid 
increase  of  oriental  Protestants,  and  the  inconveniently  crowded 
btate  of  his  own  chapel  in  consequence.  The  "  spread  of  Prot 
estantism  in  the  Levant"  became  the  theme  of  many  a  glowing 
oration,  till  Dr.  Joseph  Wolff,  always  active  and  inquisitive, 
resolved  to  visit  "  Naudi's  place  of  worship,"  in  order  to  be  an 
eye-witness  of  his  evangelical  triumphs ;  and  then  was  revealed 
an  unexpected  fact.  "He  ascertained,"  says  Dr.  Clark,  "that 

*  Dr.  Achilli,  and  the  Malta  Protestant  College,  p.  9  (1851). 

f  Richardson,  Travels  in  the  Great  Desert  of  Sahara,  vol.  i.,  ch.  viii.,  p.  235. 


ETC.  5 

Dr.  Kaudi  had  never  held  service  here,  although  lie  had  for 
years  made  his  reports  in  relation  to  what  he  was  doing,  and 
received  funds  from  England  to  enable  him  to  carry  on  his 
operations  !"* 

The  next  case  is  related  by  Dr.  Wolff  himself.  "Antonio 
Fabri,  the  Cancelliere  of  the  British  Consul,  told  us  he  was 
convinced  of  the  truth  of  the  Protestant  religion."  But  An 
tonio  was  a  very  inferior  performer  to  Dr.  Naudi,  and  betrayed 
his  secret  too  soon.  "We  found  out,"  says  Dr.  Wolff,  "  that  he 
said  this  in  order  to  induce  us  to  give  our  consent  to  his 
marrying  our  English  maid-servant. "f 

Stephanos  Carapiet  was  another  of  the  same  class  of  converts. 
"  He  arrived  from  Beyrout,  and  asked  me  to  give  him  money 
to  go  to  Malta,  to  join  the  American  missionaries  there,  by 
whom  he  said  he  had  been  converted.  He  was  a  Greek  priest." 
Apparently  Dr.  Wolff  was  generous  enough  to  comply  with  the 
request,  for  he  adds,  "  after  he  had  stayed  a  few  days  lie  got 
extremely  drunk,  so  we  sent  him  away.":f 

Dr.  Game  also  tells  us,  amongst  other  examples,  of  "  two 
brothers,"  who  came  from  Mount  Lebanon. — the  fame  of  the 
Protestant  missionaries  having  evidently  spread  in  all  directions, 
— "  clever  and  designing  fellows  both  of  them,  who  agreed  to 
be  baptized  and  become  useful  agents,  on  the  promise  of  some 
hundred  pounds,  to  be  paid  them  by  a  zealous  and  wealthy 
supporter  of  the  cause."§  We  shall  hear  of  many  similar  cases 
when  we  get  into  Syria,  and  these  may  suffice  for  the  present. 
It  is  curious  that  these  playful  orientals  never  even  attempt  to 
practise  their  frauds  upon  Catholic  missionaries,  perhaps  bp- 
cause  they  have  detected  that  the  latter  do  not  pay  for  conver 
sions  ;  and  that  it  is  the  English,  who  deem  themselves  the 
most  discerning,  and  the  Americans,  who  claim  to  be  the  keen 
est  people  in  the  universe,  who  are  their  only  victims. 

Let  us  leave  Malta  and  its  college,  the  value  of  which  we 
shall  learn  to  appreciate  still  more  exactly  hereafter,  but  not 
without  noticing  words  which  it  seems  to  have  chosen  as  its 
motto  and  device.  "Here  we  are,"  says  one  of  its  officials,  and 
the  college  printed  and  circulated  the  announcement,  "  safe 
from  the  withering  influence  of  Puseyism,  Romanism,  and  all 
the  rest  of  Satan's  isms."|| 

*  Glimpses,  &c.,  di.  viii.,  p.  165. 

f  Journal,  p.  161. 

\  P.  148. 

§  Letters  from  the  East,  by  John  Came,  Esq.,  vol.  ii.,  p.  115,  3d  edition. 

I   The  Fifth  Annual  Report  of  the  Malta  Protestant  College,  p.  13  (1853). 


CHAPTER  VIII. 


GREECE. 

And  now  we  come  to  Greece,  famous  for  great  actions  which 
she  has  long  ceased  to  imitate,  more  fruitful  in  words  than  in 
works,  abounding  rather  in  poets  than  in  prophets,  and  as 
careless  in  the  nineteenth  century  as  she  was  in  the  fifteenth  of 
the  miseries  which  her  errors  have  provoked,  and  the  blessings 
which  her  crimes  have  forfeited.  If  there  be  a  people  in  the 
world  whose  history  may  be  compared  to  that  of  the  Jews,  and 
who  seem,  by  the  singularity  of  their  fate,  to  have  been  struck 
by  the  heavy  hand  of  God  before  the  face  of  all  nations,  the 
Greeks  are  that  people.  From  the  hour  in  which  the  Photian 
schism  was  accomplished,  and  Michael  Cerularius  first  uttered 
a  curse,  in  1053,  against  the  Vicar  of  Christ,  they  have  never 
ceased  to  endure  such  affliction  and  ignominy  as  no  other 
Christian  people  ever  knew.*  Again  and  again  reconciled  to 
the  Church,  it  was  only  to  relapse  into  schism.  Vainly  they 
were  warned  by  prelates  of  their  own  nation,  perpetually  af 
firming  their  allegiance  to  the  Holy  See,  or  admonished  by 
chastisements  which  their  pride  refused  to  comprehend.  But 
the  Greeks  were  fast  filling  up  the  measure  of  their  crimes,  and 
judgment  was  at  hand.  Already,  as  Pachy meres,  Gregoras, 
and  other  Greek  historians  relate,  "  there  was  scarcely  a  city  in 
the  empire  which  had  not  been  twice  or  thrice  in  the  presence 
of  an  enemy."  Already  they  had  this  in  common  with  that 
fated  race  to  whom  their  prodigious  calamities  have  caused 
them  to  be  compared,  that  every  fresh  act  of  faithlessness  was 
promptly  followed  by  some  signal  judgment.-)-  The  West  had 
sent  forth  the  avenging  hosts  which  scourged  the  one,  and  now 
the  East  was  arraying  the  more  terrible  armies  which  were  to 
crush  the  other.  The  fearful  power  which  was  destined  to 
trample  them  under  foot  was  gathering  strength  day  by  day. 
The  Ottomans  were  knocking  at  their  gates,  and,  like  raging 
lions,  "  demanding  their  prey  from  God." 

At  this  moment,  fear  and  dismay,  false  and  hypocritical  even 
in  their  deep  abjection,  urged  them  once  more  to  seek  recon 
ciliation  with  the  chair  of  Peter;  and  at  the  Council  of  Florence, 
in  1439,  all  the  prelates  of  the  Greek  and  Oriental  Churches 
again  confessed,  with  one  voice,  that  "  the  Koman  Pontiff  is 
the  true  Vicar  of  Christ  and  head  of  the  whole  Church," — and 

*  A  few  lines  are  inserted  here  from  a  paper,  written  some  years  ago,  on  the 
"  Russo-Greek  and  Oriental  Churches,"  and  printed  by  the  author  in  the  Dub 
lin  Review,  Dec.,  1847. 

f  Leo  Allatius,  De  Eccles.  Occident,  et  Orient.  Perpet.  Consens.;  Maimbourg, 
Histoire  da  fichisme  des  Grecs. 


MISSIONS  IN  THE  LEVANT,  ETC.  7 

Joseph,  tlie  Patriarch  of  Constantinople,  bequeathed  from  his 
death-bed,  as  his  last  legacy  to  his  nation  and  people,  that 
famous  exhortation  to  obedience  and  unity  of  which  he  had 
himself  given  an  immortal  example,  and  in  uttering  which  he 
yielded  up  his  soul  to  God.* 

But  Greek  perfidy  was  still  to  provoke  another  and  a  final 
judgment.  Gregory,  the  successor  of  Joseph,  after  struggling 
in  vain  against  the  new  schism,  retired  to  Rome  in  1451,  pre 
dicting  the  coming  fall  of  Constantinople.  Isidore,  the  met 
ropolitan  of  Russia,  and  delegate  of  the  Patriarch  of  Antioch; 
and  Bessarion,  once  the  ablest  champion  of  the  Greeks,  followed 
his  example.  In  vain  the  Sovereign  Pontiff,  Nicholas  the  Fifth, 
warned  the  twelfth  and  last  Constantine,  in  the  spirit  of 
prophecy,  that  "  if  before  three  years  they  did  not  repent  and 
return  to  holy  unity,  they  would  be  dealt  with  as  the  fig-tree 
in  the  Gospel,  which  was  cut  down  to  the  roots  because  of  its 
sterility. "f  The  prophecy  was  spoken  in  1451,  the  Moslem 

fathered  round  the  devoted  city,  and,  in  1453,  "  struck  by  the 
and  of  God,"  in  the  words  of  the  Patriarch  of  Constantinople, 
the  schismatical  metropolis  fell.  Two  hundred  thousand  bar 
barians,  more  merciless  than  the  legions  of  Titus,  ceased  not  to 
strike  till  their  weary  arms  could  no  longer  hold  the  sword. 
Here  fell  the  last  Byzantine  emperor.  Here  the  most  gorgeous 
temple  of  the  Christian  faith,  polluted  by  incurable  schism, 
became  a  temple  of  the  Arabian  impostor.  *  "  Weep,  oh,  wreep," 
said  a  Greek  bishop,  one  of  the  captives  of  that  sorrowful  clay, 
"  weep  for  your  miseries,  and  condemn  yourselves  rather  than 
others ;  for  like  the  Jews  carried  away  captive  to  Babylon,  you 
have  despised  the  prophet  Jeremy,  foretelling  the  destruction 
and  the  captivity  of  Jerusalem.";); 

The  judgment  so  long  provoked  was  now  consummated.  From 
that  houivnisery,  contempt,  and  oppression  have  been  the  bitter 
portion  of  the  erring  communities  of  the  East.  "  Confounded 
with  barbarians,"  says  an  eminent  philosopher,  "they  bear  the 
penalty  of  their  schism,  and  remain — significant  judgment  !— 
the  only  Christian  people  subject  to  masters  who  are  not  so."§ 
The  destruction  of  Constantinople  by  Mahomet  II.,  and  the 
subsequent  fate  of  the  Greek  people,  present,  as  Montesquieu 
observed,  all  the  marks  of  a  Divine  judgment.!  And  to  this 
hour,  with  the  exception  of  those  who  have  been  reconciled  to 
unity,  and  have  recovered  by  a  noble  submission  the  freedom 

*  Maimbourg,  liv.  vi.,  ann.  1439. 

f  Gennadius,  Adv.  Gracos :  Theolog.  Curs.  Complet.,  torn,  v.,  p.  480. 

j  Leonard!  Echiensis,  Episc.  Mitylen,  Lib.  de  Captuitate  Comtantinopotia. 

§  M.  De  Bonald,  Legislation  Primitive,  tome  iv.,  sec.  v.,  p.  175. 

I  Grandeur  et  Decadence  des  Komains,  ch.  xxii. 


8  CHAPTER  VIII. 

and  dignity  which  they  had  lost,  the  Photian  sects  are  still  the 
most  degraded  of  all  Christian  races.  "  Since  they  fell  away 
from  the  centre  of  unity,"  says  one  who  has  long  dwelt  among 
them,  "  they  have  been  completely  isolated  from  the  movement 
of  civilization  and  of  science  which  is  ever  stimulating  the 
onward  march  of  the  other  people  of  Europe.  All  intellectual 
activity  has  died  away  among  them In  losing  the  ele 
vated  sense  of  Christianity,  they  have  transformed  it  into  a 
religion  of  purely  pharisaieal  ceremonies.  The  priests  have  no 
longer  the  virtue  of  the  celibate ;  all  the  bishoprics,  including 
the  patriarchate  of  Constantinople,  have  become  the  object  and 
the  prize  of  base  intrigue,  upon  which  the  temporal  powrer 
eagerly  speculates,  while  it  openly  exposes  to  auction  these  sa 
cred  dignities.  Simony  has  spread  itself  like  a  leprosy  over  the 
whole  hierarchy,  and  they  make  merchandise  of  holy  things."* 

"  The  sport  which  they  make  of  the  miserable  dignities  of 
the  Greek  Church,"  said  Edmund  Burke,  "  the  little  factions  of 
the  harem  to  which  they  make  them  subservient,  the  continual 
sale  to  which  they  expose  and  re-expose  the  same  dignity,  .  .  . 
is  nearly  equal  to  all  the  other  oppressions  together,  exercised 
by  Mussulmen  over  the  unhappy  members  of  the  Oriental 
Church."  "  The  secular  clergy,"  he  added,  "  by  being  married 

are  universally  fallen  into  such  contempt,  that  they  are 

never  permitted  to  aspire  to  the  dignities  of  their  own  Church. "f 

But  enough  upon  the  well-known  abasement  of  the  Greek 
and  other  schismatical  communities  of  the  East.  We  shall  visit 
them,  one  by  one,  in  the  course  of  this  chapter.  "  Notre  plume 
se  refuse,"  says  one  who  had  traced  their  earlier  history,  "  a 
tracer  des  tableaux  qui  ne  sont  que  trop  humiliants  pour  notre 
triste  condition  humaine."J 

The  very  Turks  themselves,  detecting  the  immense  distinction 
between  the  Latin  and  Byzantine  Christians,  denote  by  certain 
habitual  and  emphatic  designations  their  respect  for  the  one 
and  their  contempt  for  the  other ;  and  as  two  centuries  ago  they 
sjtyled  Catholics  Beysadez,  or  uthe  noble,"  and  the  Greeks 
Taif,  or  "  the  populace," — so  they  still  call  the  former  Francs, 
the  term  of  respect  and  honor,  and  the  latter  Kaffirs,  the  Mus 
sulman  synonym  for  "a  man  without  any  religion." 

The  Moslem,  we  are  told  by  a  modern  traveller,  "  is  astonished 
when  he  hears  them  classed  among  the  great  family  of  the  Chris 
tians  of  the  West."  "  They  have  preserved,"  he  adds,  "nothing 
of  Christianity  but  the  name.  The  clergy  do  not  even  compre- 

*  M.  Eugene  Bore,  Correspondance  et  Memoires  d'un  Voyageur  en  Orient, 
tome  i.,  p.  152. 

f  On  the  Penal  Laws  against  Irish  Catholics,  Works,  vol.  vi.,  pp.  285,  290. 
\  Grece,  par  M.  Pouqueville,  Membre  de  1'Institut,  p.  447. 


MISSIONS   IN   THE   LKVANT,    ETC.  9 

hend  the  prayers  of  the  liturgy.  We  have  seen  them  selling 
prayers  to  Turkish  women,  who  came  secretly  to  drink  the  waters 
of  some  miraculous  fountain.  We  have  seen  them  selling 
"brandy  at  the  door  of  their  church,  and  converting,  so  to  speak, 
the  sanctuary  into  a  tavern,  before  the  eyes  of  the  Mussulmen, 
justly  disgusted  by  the  profanation."  Even  woman,  who  owes 
all  her  dignity  and  influence  to  the  Christian  religion,  has  re 
lapsed,  throughout  the  schismatical  communities  of  the  East, 
into  a  kind  of  barbarism  ;  and  while  modern  Protestants,  who 
shall  be  quoted  hereafter,  notice  the  nobility  and  freedom  of 
the  Catholic  women  among  the  same  races,  sole  exceptions  to 
the  general  humiliation  because  they  alone  have  kept,  or  re 
covered,  the  faith,  "the  schismatical  Greeks  and  Armenians 
have  caused  their  social  system  and  their  families  to  retrograde 
towards  the  Mussulman  level.  Their  women  fly  from  the  sight 
of  a  Franc  with  a  barbarism  even  more  wild  and  senseless  than 
that  of  the  Turkish  females."* 

The  facts  here  indicated  are  all  confirmed,  with  ample  details, 
by  English  and  American  Protestants  of  our  own  day,  who 
have  been  eye-witnesses  of  them.  "  The  utter  desolation  of  the 
unhappy  Greeks,"  says  Dr.  Game,  "forces  itself  on  one's 
notice  every  day."f  "The  gross  ignorance  of  the  inferior 
clergy,"  observes  Mr.  Spencer,  "  not  only  in  theology,  but  in 
the  common  rudiments  of  education,  the  dissolute  habits  of  too 
many  of  the  higher  ecclesiastics,  and  the  infamous  practices 
carried  on  in  the  monasteries,  have  become  household  words 
throughout  all  Greece."  And  this  applies  to  Greece  Proper, 
of  which,  he  adds,  "  the  inhabitants  are  more  demoralized  than 
they  were  under  the  rule  of  the  Turk."J  "  To  the  Greek," 
says  Mr.  Warrington  Smyth,  in  1854,  "  a  large  proportion  of 
the  crimes  of  the  country  is  to  be  traced,"  even  within  the 
Ottoman  dominions.§  "  The  Patriarchate,"  an  American 
writer  reports,  in  1861,  "is  a  seat  of  barefaced  corruptions. 
Nine-tenths  of  the  Greek  clergy  are  ignorant,  vulgar,  drunken 

debauchees They  are,  therefore,  detested  by  a  large 

majority  of  the  hi  embers  of  that  religion. <J[  "  Divorce  is 
nearly,  if  not  quite,  as  easy,"  says  Sir  Adolphus  Slade,  "  in 
the  Greek  religion  as  in  the  Mussulman," — and  as  it  is  now  in 
the  Anglican  or  Prussian.  "  The  license  is  much  abused,  and 
the  bishops,  each  of  whom  has  the  power,  grant  it  on  the 
slightest  pretext."  And  then  he  adds,  by  way  of  contrast,  of 

*  M.  Bore.     Cf.  Ubicini,  Letters  on  Turkey,  vol.  ii.,  Letter  ii. 

f  Letters  from  the  East,  vol.  i.,  p.  87. 

^  Travels  in  European  Turkey,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  xv.,  pp.  280,  289. 

§  A  Year  with  the  Turks,  ch.  xiii.,  p.  295. 

1  Constantinople  Correspondent  of  the  New  York  Herald,  April  16,  1861. 


10  CHAPTER   VIII. 

the  Catholic  population,  "Divorce  is  not  permitted  among 
them."*  But  we  reserve  the  full  exhibition  of  this  contrast  to 
a  later  period. 

Yet  there  are  not  wanting  men  in  our  own  country,  who  have 
agreed,  for  party  purposes,  to  exalt  the  Greek  as  a  convenient 
ally  of  Protestants  against  the  Catholic  Church.  It  is  true 
that  the  Greeks,  and  all  the  oriental  communities,  have  again 
and  again  anathematized  the  Anglican  religion,  and  vehemently 
declined,  in  spite  of  their  own  miseries,  even  the  semblance  of 
intercourse  with  any  of  its  professors.  Not  long  ago,  as  an 
English  writer  lamented  in  1854,  the  schismatical  Greek 
Patriarch  bluntly  described  its  emissaries  in  the  Levant,  in 
an  official  document  addressed  to  his  co-religionists,  as  "  satan- 
ical  heresiarchs  from  the  caverns  of  hell."t  But  this  does  not 
deter  Anglican  writers,  always  soliciting  a  recognition  which 
they  everywhere  implore  in  vain,  from  an  affectation  of  sym 
pathy  with  communities  which  display  such  repugnance  towards 
their  own  ;  and  whose  chiefs,  after  reciting  on  a  solemn  occasion 
—the  deposition  of  Cyril  Lucar — the  tenets  of  Anglicanism  as 
set  forth  in  the  "  Thirty-nine  Articles,"  declared  all  who  hold 
them  to  be  "  heretics  who  vomit  forth  blasphemies  against 
God,"  and  then  promulgated  their  decree,  by  the  hands  of 
Jeremy  of  Constantinople,  as  "  A  reply  to  the  inhabitants  of 
Great  Britain,"  to  whom  its  anathemas  principally  referred. £ 

It  is  a  notable  feature  in  the  oriental  communities,  that  they 
spurn  the  modern  errors  which  they  have  never  accepted,  as 
obstinately  as  they  reject  the  ancient  truth  which  they  once 
held.  When  the  advocates  of  Protestantism,  vexed  rather  than 
convinced  by  the  terrible  array  of  evidence  in  JSTicole's  cele 
brated  work,  La  Perpetuite  de  la  Foi,  appealed  in  despair  to 
the  oriental  sectaries  in  support  of  their  profane  denial  of  the 
Sacrament  of  the  Altar,  they  did  not  gain  much  by  the  appeal. 
Instructions  were  sent,  as  Prince  Galitzin  notices,  to  all  the 
ambassadors  and  consuls  throughout  the  Levant,  and  "  profes 
sions  of  faith  were  received  from  the  patriarchs,  archbishops, 
and  bishops  of  all  the  various  Churches  of  the  East,  affirming 
in  the  most  positive  terms  the  doctrine  of  the  Keal  Presence, 
and  bitterly  complaining  of  the  calumny"  which  they  thus 
effectually  refuted.g  Let  us  see  how  they  have  replied  in  our 
own  day  to  the  same  overtures  which  in  earlier  times  they  re 
jected  with  such  vehement  disdain. 

*  Records  of  Travel,  &c.,  cli.  xxiii.,  p.  444  (1854). 

f  Journal  of  a  Deputation  to  the  East,  vol.  ii.,  p.  816  (1854). 

J  Theiner,  Pieces  Justijicatives,  p.  363. 

§  Un  Missionaire  Itusse,  par  le  Prince  Augustin  Galitzin,  p.  83. 


MISSIONS   IN   THE   LEVANT,  ETC.  11 

We  are  going  to  trace  briefly  the  efforts  which  have  recently 
been  made  by  Frotestanta  to  introduce  their  opinions  in  the 
Levant.  It  is  from  Protestants  exclusively  that  we  shall,  as 
usual,  derive  all  our  information.  For  more  than  a  quarter  of 
a  century  they  have  conducted  their  operations,  distributing  on 
every  side,  according  to  their  wont,  Bibles  and  gold,  tracts  and 
dollars.  The  Americans  boast  that  by  them  alone  "the  annual 
sum  spent  for  several  years"  is  fifteen  thousand  pounds.*  The 
English,  as  usual,  have  been  still  more  profuse  ;  and  Dr.  Wilson 
exults  in  the  fact,  that  "the  whole  sum  expended  by  Protest 
ants  in  missionary  efforts  is  annually  double  of  that  expended 
by  Rome,"t  though  the  former  have  neither  churches  nor 
flocks,  while  the  latter  numbers  its  converts  alone  by  hundreds 
of  thousands.  Thirty  years  ago,  the  active  emissaries  of  the 
United  States  were  circulating,  not  only  Bibles  and  tracts  which 
nobody  looked  at,  but  "  geographies  and  arithmetics,  apparatus 
for  lectures,  and  compendious  histories,"  which  received  a  much 
heartier  welcome.;):  Indeed,  for  many  years  the  education  of 
the  various  sectaries  of  these  regions  was  mainly  in  their  hands. 
We  should  not  perhaps  exaggerate  in  supposing  that  the  Prot 
estant  missionaries  in  the  Levant  have  consumed  already  more 
than  a  million  s'terling.  If  we  ask  them  what  has  been  the 
actual  result  of  efforts  prolonged  through  so  many  years,  they 
are  willing  to  tell  us. 

Let  us  begin  at  Athens.  The  English,  as  usual,  have  em 
ployed  only  agents  who  could  persuade  no  one  to  listen  to  them. 
An  emissary  of  the  British  and  Foreign  School  Society,  as  Dr. 
Wolff  relates,  "was  sent  for  the  purpose  of  establishing  schools, 
but  he  soon  gave  up  that  project,  and  delivered  lectures  on  polit 
ical  economy."§  The  Americans  have  been  more  successful. 
"  Our  country,"  says  an  ardent  American,  "  has  reason  to  be 
proud  of  its  missionaries  here."||  In  the  following  year,  another 
citizen  of  the  United  States,  still  writing  from  Athens,  exclaims, 
"The  cause  of  education  and  Christianity  is  making  rapid  prog- 
ress."T  It  was  not  quite  true,  as  we  shall  see,  but  it  was  hoped 
that  it  might  be  verified  later.  "In  Greece,"  says  a  third  trans 
atlantic  writer,  with  equal  complacency,  "the  only  schools  of 
instruction  are  those  established  by  American  missionaries,  and 
supported  by  the  liberality  of  American  citizens."**  Nearly 

*  Journal  of  a  Deputation,  &c.,  p.  826. 

\  Lands  of  the  Bible,  by  John  Wilson,  D.D.,  F.R.S.,  vol.  ii.,  p.  599. 
I  Excursions  to  Cairo,  &c.,  by  the  Rev.  George  Jones,  ch.  xxi.,  p.  321  (1836). 
£  Journal,  p.  97. 

j  Wanderings  in  Europe  and  the  Orient,  by  Samuel  S.  Cox,  ch.  xiv.,  p.  197 
11852). 

I  Yusef,  by  J.  Ross  Browne,  ch.  xi.,  p.  100. 
**  Incidents  of  Travel,  by  J.  L.  Stephens,  Esq.,  ch.  xxviii.,  p.  212. 


12  CHAPTER  VIII. 

twenty  years  earlier,  an  English  writer  had  noticed,  that  five 
hundred  Greek  children  already  attended  the  American  schools 
in  Athens;  and  that  in  those  which  were  taught  by  Mrs.  Hill, 
the  wife  of  a  missionary,  "  the  daughters  of  many  of  the  first 
Greek  families  of  Constantinople,  as  well  as  of  the  most  dis 
tinguished  of  Greece  Proper,"  received  their  education.*  Dr. 
King  also  rivalled  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Hill  in  influence  and  in  the 
number  of  his  pupils. 

If,  however,  from  these  facts  we  infer  that  these  gentlemen 
and  their  companions  were  making  progress  as  missionaries^ 
the  real  aim  to  which  all  their  efforts  tended,  later  events  will 
dispel  the  illusion.  Like  their  brethren  in  all  parts  of  the 
world,  they  were  tolerated  for  such  benefits  as  couM  be  derived 
from  them,  but  the  moment  they  began  to  mistake  their  position, 
and  to  venture  upon  the  subject  of  religion,  grave  incidents 
occurred  to  admonish  them  of  their  error.  In  spite  of  the  influ 
ence  which  they  had  acquired  by  their  relations  with  the  higher 
classes, — in  spite  of  the  services  which  they  had  unquestionably 
rendered  as  secular  teachers,  and  of  the  active  sympathy  of  the 
Queen  of  Greece, — no  sooner  did  they  attempt  to  emerge  from 
the  humble  function  of  schoolmaster  to  assume  that  of  mission 
ary,  than  a  menacing  murmur,  which  soon  became  a  loud  and 
universal  outcry,  revealed  to  them  their  real  position.  For 
twenty-four  years  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Hill  had  conducted  their  schools 
in  peace,  and  might  well  consider  their  permanence  secured  ; 
but  at  the  first  hint  they  understood  what  was  coming,  "and 
thought  it  best  to  discontinue  their  school  for  boys.";):  Dr.  King 
attempted  to  brave  the  storm,  "  in  spite  of  episcopal  and  patri 
archal  anathemas,"  but  the  resistance  was  more  energetic  than 
effectual.  The  Greeks,  though  enfeebled  by  schism,  were  at 
least  resolved  to  fall  no  lower;  and  so  intense  was  their  indigna 
tion  at  the  attempt  to  introduce  Protestantism  among  them, 
that,  as  Mr.  Irenseus  Prime  relates,  "there  were  serious  and 
deeply  concerted  schemes  for  Dr.  King's  assassination, "§ — whose 
life  was  only  saved  by  transferring  the  consular  flag  to  his  resi 
dence,  "  a  flag,"  as  a  sympathizing  fellow-countryman  observes, 
"containing  quite  a  number  of  stripes,  and  more  stars."|| 

Finally,  an  English  traveller  informs  us,  in  1854,  that  "last 
year  at  Athens,  an  American  missionary,  the  Rev.  Dr.  King, 
was  tried  by  the  civil  courts,  and  condemned  to  fifteen  days 

*  Greece  Revisited,  by  Edgar  Garston,  vol.  i.,  ch.  v.,  p.  101. 

f  An  English  traveller  speaks  of  one  of  them  who  "  has  named  his  four  sons 
Leonidas,  Miltiades,  Themistocles,  and  Epaminondas !"  Narrative  of  a  Yaiuht 
Voyage  in,  the  Mediterranean,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  vii.,  p.  100  (1842). 

±  Notes  of  Travel  in  the  East,l>y  Benjamim  Dorr,  D.D.,  ch.  xv.,  p.  353  (1856). 

S  Travels  in  Europe  and  the  East,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  xiv.,  p.  188  (1855). 

|  Cox,  ch.  xiv. 


MISSIONS   IN  THE   LEVANT,    ETC.  13 

imprisonment,  and  to  ~be  banished  the  country ',  for  preaching  the 
Gospel  to  the  natives  in  his  own  house,  and  publishing  a 
pamphlet  opposed  to  some  of  the  doctrines  of  the  Greek 
Church."*  It  seems  that  in  his  pamphlet  he  spoke  against 
devotion  to  our  Blessed  Lady,  a  crime  which  even  Greeks  are 
not  prepared  to  tolerate,  nor  able  to  witness  with  composure. 

At  the  same  time,  a  Mr.  Buell,  also  a  missionary,  who  refused 
to  allow  a  crucifix  to  be  suspended  in  his  school  at  the  Piraeus, 
was  summoned  before  the  tribunals,  his  school  closed  by  order 
of  the  government,  and  a  fine  of  fifty  drachmas  imposed  upon 
the  profane  schoolmaster,  f 

Such  was  the  termination  of  the  educational  labors  of  a 
quarter  of  a  century.  The  Greek  conscience,  though  not  fas 
tidiously  delicate,  was  outraged  by  the  first  accents  of  Protest 
antism,  and  while  its  agents  were  branded  by  the  Patriarch  as 
"  heresiarchs  from  the  caverns  of  hell,"  the  people  answered 
its  invitations  by  a  shout,  which  came  from  the  heart  of  the 
nation,  of  "  anathema"  and  "  banishment." 

It  is  not  uninteresting  to  notice  the  effect  of  this  popular  out 
burst  upon  the  Protestant  missionaries  and  their  supporters. 
Hitherto  they  had  spoken,  always  with  respect,  often  with  a 
kind  of  reverence,  of  this  "  ancient"  and  "  venerable"  Church, 
in  the  hope  that  it  might  be  induced  to  countenance  their  own 
more  recent  institutions.  The  language  of  praise  was  now  to 
be  heard  no  more.  We  have  seen  that  in  India,  as  soon  as  the 
Nestorians,  upon  whom  so  much  courtesy  had  been  lavished, 
declined  the  respectful  overtures  of  the  Anglican  authorities, 
these  disdainful  heretics  were  consigned  to  ignominy  by  Prot 
estant  prelates,  whose  precarious  "  orders"  they  had  refused  to 
recognize,  and  even  stigmatized  as  "  worse  than  Romanists." 
The  same  thing  happened  in  Greece.  "The  Greek  Church," 
said  Dr.  Wilson,  recording  the  discomfiture  of  his  co-religion 
ists,  "  agrees  with  the  Church  of  Rome  in  most  matters  of  the 
greatest  moment.  It  has  the  essential  characteristic  of  Anti 
christ."^: 

It  was  thus  that  these  gentlemen  revenged  themselves  upon 
the  Greeks,  once  objects  of  almost  timid  eulogy.  "  I  would 
say,"  adds  Dr.  Wilson,  confessing  at  length  the  futility  of  past 
missionary  schemes,  "  that  at  present  it  seems  a  very  difficult 
matter  to  impregnate  the  Greek  Church  with  evangelical  truth 
and  influence ;  and  that  its  circumstances  are  much  less  en 
couraging  than  those  of  the  other  oriental  churches."  So  they 


*  Journal  of  a  Deputation,  &c.,  p.  590. 

f  Journal  d'un  Voyage  au  Levant,  pp.  281,  311. 

j  Lands  of  the  Bible,  vol.  ii.,  p.  466. 


14  CHAPTER  VIII. 

turned  to  these  more  promising  fields,  with  what  success,  we 
shall  see  in  the  course  of  this  chapter. 

"  In  regard  to  the  Greeks,"  says  Dr.  Hawes,  an  American 
Protestant  minister,  "the  success  of  efforts  made  in  their  behalf 
has  been  less  than  was  reasonably  anticipated  ;"  and  then,  as  if 
he  felt  that  this  was  hardly  an  adequate  account  of  the  matter, 
he  adds,  "  The  missionaries  have  felt  themselves  obliged,  for 
the  present,  to  withdraw,  in  a  great  measure,  from  this 
field."* 

Messrs.  Eli  Smith  and  Dwight,  more  emphatic  in  their  re- 
Bentment,  confound  the  Catholics  with  the  Greeks,  and  even 
seem  to  attribute  their  misadventures  to  the  influence  of  the 
former.  "A  missionary,"  they  observe,  "  can  hardly  set  his 
foot  upon  any  spot  in  that  field,  the  Mediterranean,  without 
encountering  some  sentinel  of  the  '  Mother  of  Harlots,'  ready 
to  challenge  him  and  shout  the  alarm. "f  Yet  the  Greeks  do 
not  appear  to  have  needed  any  suggestions  from  that  quarter, 
and  would  certainly  have  received  them  with  surprise  if  they 
had  been  offered. 

Lastly,  a  representative  of  English  Protestantism  swells  the 
gloomy  chorus,  and  discovers,  a  quarter  of  a  century  too  late, 
that  "  the  Greek  Church  is  opposed  to  the  general  circulation 
of  the  Bible  ;"  and  that  "  the  priests  have  always  strenuously 
opposed  the  distribution  of  the  Bible  in  modern  Greek. ";£  Yet 
the  Bible  Society  used  to  assure  its  subscribers,  as  we  have 
seen,  that  they  had  no  more  promising  sphere  of  action,  and 
that  even  the  Greek  soldiery  fortified  themselves  with  the 
Protestant  version  during  the  intervals  of  combat,  "  while  en 
camped,  and  in  expectation  of  the  enemy."  It  was,  no  doubt, 
to  gratify  this  pious  habit  of  the  Greeks,  that  the  English 
missionaries  issued  in  a  single  year  from  their  fortress  at  Malta 
"  four  million  seven  hundred  and  sixty  thousand  pages,  all  in 
modern  Greek  ;"  and  that  the  Americans  had  already  dis 
persed,  thirty  years  ago,  "about  three  hundred  and  fifty 
thousand  volumes  containing  twenty-one  million  pages."  And 
of  this  enormous  but  perfectly  useless  distribution,  since  in 
creased  fifty-fold,  the  Protestants  of  these  two  enlightened 
nations  have  cheerfully,  but  not  wisely,  defrayed  the  whole 
cost. 

We  must  admit,  however,  before  we  pass  from  Greece  to 
Turkey,  that  Protestant  teaching  has  not  been  absolutely 
without  effect  in  the  former  kingdom.  Let  us  notice  a  single 


*  Travels  in  the  East,  by  J.  Hawes,  D.D.,  p.  168. 

f  Missionary  Researches  in  Armenia,  Letter  xi.,  p.  210. 

i  Journal  of  a  Deputation,  p.  594. 


MISSIONS   IN   THE   LEVANT,    ETC.  15 

example  of  its  influence.  An  accomplished  Greek  lady,  of 
rare  intelligence  and  attainments,  the  eloquent  advocate  of  her 
race  and  nation,  had  the  misfortune  to  lose  her  parents,  and 
was  brought  up  by  a  Protestant  pastor.  The  result  of  his  in 
structions,  if  we  may  judge  by  her  own  writings,  has  been  to 
substitute  for  faith  a  cold  and  arrogant  skepticism,  to  engender 
a  fierce  hatred  of  the  Catholic  religion,  which  this  lady  calls 
u  Christian  Mahometanisin,"  and  to  give  her  courage  to  assert 
that  divorce,  which  has  become  a  kind  of  national  institution 
in  Greek  and  Protestant  lands,  is  not  an  evil,  but  an  engine  of 
morality  !*  There  is  a  good  deal  more  of  the  same  kind  in 
the  writings  of  this  distinguished  lady,  which  it  would  be  both 
painful  and  unprofitable  to  notice,  but  which  may  at  least  con 
firm  our  conviction  that  Greece  did  well  in  crying  "anathema" 
to  Protestant  missionaries. 

What  the  Catholic  apostles  have  done  for  the  Greeks,  by 
their  own  confession,  we  shall  see  a  little  later,  but  will  first 
follow  their  rivals  to  Turkey,  that  we  may  complete  the  his 
tory  of  their  operations  in  the  Levant. 


EUROPEAN   TURKEY. 

In  European  Turkey,  the  English  do  not  appear  to  have  or 
ganized  any  systematic  missionary  efforts  ;  and  throughout  the 
Levant  the  Anglican  Establishment  has  been  represented,  al 
most  exclusively,  as  in  India  and  elsewhere,  by  members  of 
other  communities.  Mr.  Perkins,  an  American  missionary,  to 
whom  we  shall  have  to  refer  presently,  remarks  that  the  em 
ployment  of  "so  many  men  of  a  different  religious  communion 
reveals  a  painful  deficiency  in  the  missionary  spirit  of  the 
Church  of  England,  that  men  of  devotion  to  the  cause  cannot 
be  found  in  sufficient  numbers  within  her  pale  to  go  in  person 
and  apply  her  missionary  funds."f  "  At  present,"  adds  a  Prot 
estant  historian  of  American  missions,  with  quiet  contempt, 
"  she  has  more  means  than  men."J 

Perhaps,  however,  the  Church  of  England  has  no  reason  to 
regret  this  fact,  considering  the  impression  which  her  rare 
representatives  usually  produce  upon  the  oriental  mind.  When 
Mr.  Jowett,  one  of  her  clergy,  was  asked  by  a  schismatical 
Greek  bishop,  what  was  the  doctrine  of  his  Church  about  the 
"  Double  Procession"  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  his  answer  must  have 

*  Les  Femmes  en  Orient,  par  Mme.  la  Csse.  Dora  D'Istria,  pp.  71,  84  (1860). 
f  Residence  in  Persia  among  the  Nestorian  Christians,  by  liev.  Justin  Per- 
kins,  ch.  iii.'p.  52. 

J  Tracy,  History  of  American  Missions,  p.  594. 


16  CHAPTER  VIII. 

astonished  even  such  an  inquirer.  "  It  is  a  point,  I  replied, 
which,  in  the  present  day,  has  not  been  much  controverted, 
being  considered  as  somewhat  indifferent  !"* 

But  several  years  have  elapsed  since  Mr.  Jowett's  visit,  and 
the  Greek  prelates  have  had  time  to  forget  both  him  and  his 
Church.  So  complete  has  been  the  oblivion,  that  when  Mr. 
Curzon  not  long  ago  presented  a  letter  of  introduction  from  the 
Queen's  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  to  the  Sultan's  Archbishop 
of  Constantinople,  the  following  curious  conversation  occurred. 

"  And  who,  quoth  the  Patriarch  of  Constantinople,  the  su 
preme  head  and  primate  of  the  Greek  Church  in  Asia — who 
is  l  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  ?' 

"  What  ?  said  I,  a  little  astonished  at  the  question. 

"  Who,  said  he,  is  this  Archbishop  ? 

"  Why,  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury. 

"  Archbishop  of  what  f  said  the  Patriarch. 

"  Canterbury,  said  I. 

"  Oh  !  said  the  Patriarch.     Ah  !  yes  !  and  who  is  he  ?"f 

The  Church  Missionary  Society,  in  their  sixty-third  report, 
1862,^:  give  this  quotation  from  their  principal  agent  in  Tur 
key.  u  Dr.  Pfander  takes  this  sober  view  of  the  mission  at  the 
close  of  the  year  1861  :  'Though  there  is  no  particular  move 
ment  going  on  among  the  Mohammedans,  yet  there  is  the  fact 
that  they  continue  to  visit  the  missionaries.  .  .  .  Our  work  is 
indeed  but  small  as  yet ;  still  I  am  thankful  that  some  progress 
has  been  made  during  the  year,  and,  above  all,  that  the  trans 
lation  and  printing  of  the  Mit'tah  and  the  Mizan,  through  God's 
help,  has  been  accomplished.'"  Perhaps  some  may  think  that 
the  only  "  help"  in  such  proceedings  came  from  the  money  of 
the  Church  Missionary  Society. 

The  Americans  have  acquired  more  notoriety  in  these  regions. 
Their  operations  in  Turkey  commenced  in  1826,  and  by  1844 
they  had  already  thirty-one  missionaries  in  that  country. §  Not 
that  they  have  "attempted  any  conversion  except  of  tlie  Chris 
tians"  as  Mr.  Walpole  remarks ;  the  Turks,  he  adds,  they  are 
"afraid"  of  provoking.||  But  they  are  active  enough  amongst 
the  Armenian  sectaries,  both  here  and  in  Armenia,  as  we  shall 
see  when  we  enter  the  latter  country.  Meanwhile,  it  seems  to 
be  a  tranquil  and  jocund  life  which  these  thirty -one  mission 
aries  lead  in  Turkey.  u  Personal  trials  are  very  few,"  says  the 
candid  wife  of  one  of  them;  "many  are  the  comforts  and 

*  Christian  Researches,  &c.,  p.  17. 

f  Monaster-ies  of  the  Levant,  ch.  xxii.,  p.  336. 

i  P.  59. 

|  Baird,  Religion  in  the  U.  8.  of  America,  book  viii.,  ch.  iii.,  p.  691. 

\  The  Ansavrii.  &c.,  ch.  xvi.,  p.  366. 


MISSIONS  IN  THE  LEVANT,   ETC.  17 

pleasant  things  about  this  life  in  the  East."*  And  she  was 
evidently  not  singular  in  her  keen  appreciation  of  them.  The 
Rev.  Justin  Perkins  tells  us  of  a  missionary  wedding  at  Constan 
tinople  in  these  terms:  "Mr.  Schauffler  was  married  to  Miss 
Reynolds,  February  25th.  I  could  not  help  feeling  that  there 
was  a  moral  sublimity  in  the  scene  presented. "f  Perhaps 
there  was;  but  another  witness,  Sir  Adolphus  Slade,  who 
knows  these  regions  even  better  than  Mr.  Perkins,  and  is 
evidently  much  less  impressed  by  the  moral  sublimity  of  mis 
sionary  nuptials,  gives  the  following  candid  account  of  the 
Protestant  missionaries  in  Turkey  and  the  Levant. 

"  To  what  purpose  do  the  missionaries  on  the  shores  of  the 
Turkish  empire  frequent  them?  to  convert  those  who  are  already 
Christiana.  The  utter  unprofitableness  of  these  gentlemen 
cannot  be  sufficiently  pointed  out.  One  comes  to  Malta,  and 
settles  there  with  his  lady.  Another  comes  to  Tino,  and  while 
learning  Greek,  to  be  enabled  to  labor  on  the  continent,  falls 
in  love,  and  marries  an  amiable  Tiniote — his  spiritual  ardor 
takes  another  course.  Another  fixes  himself  at  Smyrna,  finding 
that  demi-Frank  city  pleasanter  than  the  interior  of  Turkey, 
whither  he  was  destined.  Another  takes  a  disorder,  and  dies  of 
it  on  the  shores  of  the  Persian  Gulf.  Another  quietly  pursues 
his  own  studies  at  Alexandria,  regardless  of  others'  souls,  to 
qualify  himself  for  a  situation  in  one  of  the  London  colleges. 
All  are  living  on  the  stipends  granted  by  the  missionary 
societies,  and  occupied  in  forwarding  their  particular  views. 
Far  be  it  from  me  to  say  that  human  weakness  does  not  merit 
indulgence ;  but  they  who  embark  in  a  holy  cause  should  quit 
it  when  they  find  that  the  flesh  overpowers  the  spirit.  Religion 
is  the  last  asylum  where  hypocrisy  should  find  shelter.";): 

Admiral  Slade  adds,  "  It  will  scarcely  be  credited  that  mis 
sionaries  arrive  in  the  Levant,  to  preach,  to  convert,  knowing 
absolutely  no  other  than  their  mother  tongue!"  Yet  we  shall 
presently  hear  one  of  their  number  asserting,  with  perfect 
indifference  to  the  more  veracious  testimony  of  a  crowd  of 
Protestant  writers,  that  he  and  his  friends  had  done  more  for 
education  in  Syria  in  twenty  years  than  "all  the  Catholic 
missionaries'*  in  two  centuries ;  though  the  former  have  had 
neither  scholars  nor  disciples,  and  were  for  the  most  part  per 
fectly  incapable  of  teaching  them  if  they  had. 

A  few  words  will  suffice  on  the  final  results  of  Protestant 
missions  in  Turkey.  The  American  Episcopalians  sent  Dr. 
Southgate,  one  of  their  bishops,  to  recommend  their  form  of 

*  Memoir  of  Mrs.  Van  Lennep,  ch.  xi.,  p.  267  (1851). 
f  Residence,  &c.,  ch.  iii.,  p.  76. 
t  Ch.  xxvii.,  p.  517. 
VOL.  ii  a 


18  CHAPTER  VIII. 

religion  to  the  inhabitants.  He  seems  to  have  had  some  vague 
idea  of  ecclesiastical  principles,  and  is  even  charged  by  his  own 
countrymen,  of  other  sects,  with  supporting  the  schismatical 
oriental  bishops  in  their  resistance  to  the  proselyting  schemes  of 
the  Protestant  missionaries,  whom  he  openly  taxed  with  intro 
ducing  amongst  the  Armenians  "the  revolutionary  sentiments 
of  European  radicalism."  He  had,  too,  sufficient  courage  and 
honesty  to  confess,  after  ample  experience,  that  the  Protestant 
converts  are  "infidels  and  radicals,  who  deserve  no  sympathy 
from  the  Christian  public."* 

Dr.  Southgate  recommends  also  the  employment  of  mission 
aries  "unrestrained  by  family  ties," — though  he  does  not  suggest 
where  they  are  to  be  found, — and  after  deploring  the  activity  of 
"  our  brethren  of  other  denominations,"  predicts  this  as  the 
only  fruit  of  their  labors :  "  Horrid  schism  will  lift  itself  up 
from  beneath,  and  rend  and  scatter  the  quivering  members  of 
the  body  of  Christ."f  Yet  this  gentleman,  who  had  so  much 
distaste  for  horrid  schism  in  others,  actually  intrigued  to  get  a 
firman  issued  against  the  Catholics,  whom  he  could  only  oppose 
by  physical  force,  in  favor  of  the  Jacobite  heretics,  whose 
"  numerous  points  of  affinity"  with  his  own  sect  he  had  detected 
with  satisfaction.^; 

We  are  not  surprised  to  hear  that  Dr.  Southgate  failed.  For 
a  long  time,  he  confesses,  his  mission  at  Constantinople  received 
from  a  single  congregation  in  Philadelphia  one  thousand  dollars 
annually.  But  money  could  not  save  it.  "The  mission,"  we 
are  told  in  1852,  "  has  been  abandoned,  at  least  for  the  present, 
after  a  heavy  expenditure.  Bishop  Southgate  has  returned  to  the 
United  States,and  resigned  the  appointment  of  Missionary  Bishop 
to  Turkey."§  ^wo  .Tears  later  another  Protestant  authority 
says,  "  the  bishop  had  to  acknowledge  the  complete  failure  of 
his  mission,  and  was  recalled  by  his  society. "[  It  is  exactly  the 
tale  which  we  have  heard  in  so  many  other  lands.  Not  one  of 
the  customary  incidents  is  wanting,  and  they  follow  one  another 
in  their  usual  and  invariable  order:  first,  "horrid  schism;" 
then,  "heavy  expenditure;"  and  finally,  "complete  failure." 

Of  the  operations  of  the  other  American  sects  at  Constan 
tinople,  there  is  no  need  to  speak.  We  shall  presently  survey 
them  on  a  larger  scale  in  Syria  and  Armenia.  Mr.  Dwight,  in 
a  work  which  reveals  the  real  designs  of  his  co-religionists  in 


*  Christianity  in  Turkey,  by  Rev.  H.  G.  0.  Dwight,  ch.  x.,  p.  244  (1854). 
f  Narrative  of  a  Tour  in  Turkey  and  Persia,  by  Rev.  Horatio  Southgate, 
vol.  i.,  ch.  xxiii.,  p.  805. 

i  Mr.  Southgate  and  the  Missionaries  at  Constantinople,  p.  27  (Boston,  1844). 
§  Colonial  Church  Chronicle,  p.  896  (1852). 
j  Journal  of  a  Deputation  to  the  East,  vol.  ii.,  p.  806. 


MISSIONS  IN  THE  LEVANT,  ETC.  19 

the  East,  declares  in  1850,  that  "at  the  capital  the  number 
of  Armenians  who  declared  themselves  Protestants  rapidly 
increased."*  Their  number  is,  in  fact,  perfectly  insignificant ; 
and  many  Protestant  writers  will  tell  us,  before  we  conclude 
this  chapter,  as  Dr.  Southgate  has  already  told  us,  what  an 
Armenian  really  becomes  when  lie  professes  to  embrace  Prot 
estant  tenets.  They  will  also  assist  us  to  comprehend  what 
even  they  consider  the  work  of  "  corruption  and  demoraliza 
tion"  in  which  the  American  missionaries  are  engaged,  though 
happily,  up  to  the  present  date,  within  a  narrow  sphere.  It  is 
true,  however,  that  they  have  succeeded,  by  lavish  expenditure 
— we  have  been  told  that  they  consume  thirty  thousand  pounds 
per  annum  in  Turkey — in  collecting  together  a  few  Jews  and 
Armenians,  who  have  more  admiration  for  their  dollars  than 
their  doctrines,  and  who  abandon  their  old  religion  without 
adopting  a  new  one ;  and  that  these  form  what  they  call  the 
"  Protestant  Church,"  or,  as  Mr.  Dwight  styles  them,  "the  people 
of  God,"  in  Constantinople.  Such  are  the  "  wild  grapes  "  of 
which  they  make  sour  wine,  to  set  their  own  teeth  on  edge. 
"  The  Protestant  Church  of  Turkey,"  says  Mr.  Cuthbert  Young, 
"  is  now  recognized  by  the  government,"  owing  to  the  ener 
getic  action  peculiar  to  this  branch  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  family, 
"  with  an  officer  of  the  Porte,  a  Turk,  as  its  temporal  head. 
This  last  circumstance  cannot  be  regarded  as  auguring  well  for 
the  interests  of  vital  Christianity,  "f 

A  few  years  later,  we  learn  from  a  competent  witness,  the 
prediction  of  Mr.  Young  was  unpleasantly  verified,  and  the 
Porte,  though  probably  quite  as  capable  of  promoting  "  vital 
Christianity  "  as  the  Hebrew  and  Armenian  Protestants  to  whom 
it  lent  a  temporal  head,  proved  to  be  only  a  Moslem  Pharaoh, 
from  whose  ungentle  sway  Mr.  Dwight's  "  people  of  God"  are 
already  desirous  to  escape.  The  Mahometan  gentleman  who 
consented  to  become  the  Caliph  of  Turkish  Protestants  has  evi 
dently  formed  a  serious  estimate  of  his  own  office.  "  All  the 
Protestants  in  the  country,"  we  are  told  by  a  missionary  in  1860, 
"must  be  enrolled  in  his  books."  And  the  enrolment  is  by  no 
means  a  mere  matter  of  form.  From  that  moment,  a  marriage, 
an  interment,  or  any  other  of  the  various  ceremonies  of  joyful 
or  sorrowing  humanity,  "  can  only  be  done  through  him?  And 
this  is  not  all.  "  For  the  support  of  this  officer,"  whose  ap 
pointment,  the  Protestant  missionaries  hailed  with  such  lively 
satisfaction,  "  the  Protestants  all  over  the  country  have  been 
called  upon  to  contribute,"  apparently  on  a  very  liberal  scale; 
and  as  this  special  tax  does  not  exempt  them  from  the  burdens 

*  Cliristianity  Revived  in  the  East,  p.  32  (1850). 
t  Ihe  Levant  and  the  Nile,  ch.  iii.,  p.  76. 


20  CHAPTER  VIII. 

common  to  the  rest  of  the  population,  "  the  Protestants  are 
deeply  in  debt,"  says  the  same  missionary,  "  and  it  has  become 
a  serious  question  with  them,  whether  they  should  not  dissolve 
their  civil  establishment  entirely.  This  would  doubtless  open 
the  way  for  a  general  persecution  of  the  Protestants  through 
out  the  empire,  the  result  of  which  none  can  foresee,"* — but 
which,  considering  the  motives  of  Jews  and  Armenians  in  pro 
fessing  Protestantism,  would  certainly  involve  the  final  disap 
pearance  of  all  the  unstable  disciples  who  have  been  the  costly 
stipendiaries  of  English  or  American  missionary  societies,  but 
who,  as  Dr.  Southgate  ascertained,  "  are  infidels  and  radicals, 
who  deserve  no  sympathy  from  the  Christian  public." 

CATHOLIC   MISSIONS   IN   TURKEY. 

And  now  let  us  speak  briefly,  before  we  enter  Asia,  of  Catho 
lic  missions  in  the  regions  which  we  are  about  to  quit.  Not 
that  we  can  hope  to  give,  within  the  limits  at  our  disposal,  even 
a  sketch  of  labors  as  distinguished  by  supernatural  patience 
and  charity  as  any  which  we  have  hitherto  narrated.  A  few 
examples  must  suffice,  but  they  will  abundantly  illustrate  the 
familiar  contrast  which  we  have  proposed  to  trace  in  all  lands. 
We  are  going  to  speak,  though  unworthy  even  to  record  their 
names,  of  a  band  of  apostles  whom  even  a  Protestant  minister 
calls,  with  honest  enthusiasm,  "  the  best  instructed  and  most 
devoted  missionaries  that  the  world  has  seen  since  primitive 
times.^  We  have  heard  what  sort  of  agents  the  Sects  employ  ; 
let  us  contemplate  for  a  moment  another  order  of  workmen, 
and  see  what  the  munificent  bounty  of  God  can  do  for  men 
whom  His  own  decree  has  called  to  the  apostolic  life.  Too 
long  we  have  listened  to  the  mean  sounds  of  earth — it  is  time 
to  open  our  ears  to  voices  from  Heaven. 

As  early  as  1610,  the  son  of  St.  Ignatius  had  begun  to  convert 
both  Jews  and  schismatics  at  Constantinople.  So  irresistible  was 
the  influence,  here  as  elsewhere,  of  men  in  whom  religion  dis 
played  its  most  fascinating  form,  and  self  was  all  but  annihilated, 
that,  as  Yon  Hammer  notices,  the  Grand  Vizir  told  de  Solignac, 
the  French  ambassador,  that  "  he  would  rather  see  ten  ordinary 
ecclesiastics  at  Pera  than  one  Jesuit.";);  A  century  later,  for 
these  men  do  not  change,  a  schismatical  Armenian  patriarch 
thus  addressed  a  Catholic  who  had  abandoned  the  schism,  and 

*  Three  Years  in  Turkey,  the  Journal  of  a  Medical  Missionary  to  the  Jews, 
by  John  Masen,  L.R.C.S.E.,  app.,  p.  373  (I860). 

f  Williams,  The  Holy  City,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  vi.,  p.  570. 

i  Histoire  de  I' Empire  Ottoman,  par  J.  Von  Hammer,  tome  viii.,  liv.  iii, 
p.  166,  ed.  Hellert, 


MISSIONS  IN  THE  LEVANT,   ETC.  21 

•was  about  to  be  martyred  :  "  Your  blood  be  upon  the  Jesuits 
who  have  converted  you  and  so  many  members  of  our  Church."* 

In  the  single  year  1712,  for  we  must  not  attempt  to  trace  the 
whole  history,  fere  Jacques  Cachod,  to  whom  was  given  the 
noble  title  of  "  Father  of  the  Slaves,"  reconciled  three  hundred 
schismatics  to  the  Church. f  Five  years  earlier,  nearly  one- 
third  of  the  population  of  Constantinople  died  of  the  plague ; 
and  it  was  at  that  date  that  Pere  Cachod,  compelled  by  holy 
obedience  to  give  an  account  of  actions  which  he  would  have 
preferred  to  hide,  wrote  as  follows  to  his  superior,  Pere  Tarillon: 

"  I  have  just  quitted  the  Bagnio,  where  I  have  given  the  last 
Sacraments  to,  and  closed  the  eyes  of,  eighty-six  persons.  .  .  . 
The  greatest  danger  which  I  have  encountered,  or  to  which  I 
shall  perhaps  ever  be  exposed  in  my  life,  was  at  the  bottom  of 
the  hold  of  a  ship-of-war  of  eighty-two  guns.  The  slaves,  by 
the  consent  of  their  guards,  had  obtained  my  admission  into 
this  place  in  the  evening,  in  order  that  I  might  spend  the  whole 
night  in  hearing  their  confessions,  and  say  Mass  for  them  very 
early  in  the  morning.  We  were  shut  in  with  double  locks,  ac 
cording  to  custom.  Of  fifty-two  slaves  whom  I  confessed  and 
communicated,  twelve  were  already  plague-stricken,  and  three 
died  before  I  quitted  them.  You  may  judge  what  sort  of  an 
atmosphere  I  breathed  in  this  inclosed  space,  to  which  there 
was  not  the  slightest  opening.  God,  who  by  His  goodness  has 
preserved  me  in  this  danger,  will  save  me  also  from  many 
others."  Twelve  years  later  he  perished,  struck  down  by  the 
pestilence  which  he  thought  he  might  henceforth  defy.  And 
the  only  reflection  which  such  a  narrative,  and  such  a  fate, 
suggested  to  the  other  Fathers  was  this :  "  If  we  were  more 
numerous,  how  much  more  good  we  could  do  !"J 

But  if  these  generous  apostles  displayed  a  zeal  which  knew 
not  fear,  it  was  regulated  always  by  prudence  and  forethought. 
"  During  the  seasons  of  the  plague,"  says  one  of  them,  "  as  it  is 
necessary  to  be  close  at  hand  in  order  to  succor  those  who  are 
seized  by  it,  our  custom  is  that  only  one  Father  should  enter 
the  Bagnio,  and  that  he  should  remain  there  during  the  whole 
time  that  the  pest  rages.  The  one  who  obtains  the  permission 
of  the  Superior  prepares  himself  for  his  duty  by  a  retreat  of  some 
days,  and  bids  farewell  to  his  brethren,  as  one  about  to  die. 
Sometimes  his  sacrifice  is  consummated,  at  others  he  survives 
the  danger.  The  last  Jesuit  who  died  in  this  exercise  of 
charity  was  Father  Yandermans  ....  Since  his  death,  the 


*  Histovre  de  V Empire  Ottoman,  tome  xiii.,  liv.  Ixii.,  p.  186. 
f  Lettres  Edifiantes,  tome  i.,  p.  14. 
%  Ibid.,  p.  23. 


22  CHAPTER  VIII. 

only  victim  has  been  Father  Peter  Besnier,  so  well  known  for 
his  genius  and  rare  gifts." 

It  is  impossible  to  trace  here  the  details  of  the  apostolic 
history  of  which  this  is  only  a  characteristic  episode.  The 
public  cemetery  of  Constantinople,  filled  with  the  bodies  of 
Jesuits  who  died  between  1585  and  1756,  is  their  only  monu 
ment.  Smyrna,  Aleppo,  Trebizonde,  and  many  other  oriental 
cities,  gave  a  tomb  to  missionaries  of  the  same  class.  At 
Smyrna,  where  ten  thousand  perished  by  plague  in  the  same 
year,  a  Jesuit  bishop  became  a  martyr  of  charity  at- eighty 
years  of  age.  In  Aleppo,  Father  Besson, — "who  united  to  his 
immense  labors  perpetual  mortification,  allowed  himself  but 
scanty  repose  at  night,  and  rose  long  before  the  dawn  in  order 
to  spend  many  hours  in  prayer," — "  after  having  procured  a 
holy  death  to  a  large  number  of  persons,  found  the  crown 
which  he  sought."  He  was  followed,  both  in  his  life  and 
death,  by  Father  Deschamps ;  and  almost  at  the  same  moment, 
Father  de  Clermont,  of  the  illustrious  family  of  that  name,  was 
added  to  the  company  of  martyrs.  It  was  at  this  time,  and  by 
the  labors  of  such  men,  that  the  schismatical  Patriarchs  of 
Armenia  (Erivan),  of  Aleppo,  Alexandria,  and  Damascus,  were 
all  reconciled  to  the  Church. 

In  1709,  Michael  Paleologus  becomes  the  disciple  of  Father 
Braconnier.  Father  Bernard  Couder  is  the  next  in  this  band 
of  Christian  heroes.  More  than  nine  hundred  families  in  the 
city  of  Aleppo  were  formed  by  him  to  a  life  of  piety.  Six 
times  he  solicited  and  obtained  the  coveted  permission  to  de 
vote  himself  to  the  plague-stricken;  and  so  perfect  was  his 
obedience,  that  when  ordered  by  his  superior  to  quit  a  city  in 
which  he  had  attracted  a  veneration  which  might  prove  dan 
gerous  to  his  humility,  "  he  began  on  the  instant  to  make  his 
preparations  for  departure." 

In  1719,  when  the  plague  raged  in  Aleppo  from  March  to 
September,  "I  was  often  obliged,''  says  the  celebrated  Father 
Nacehi,  u  to  bend  down  between  two  victims  of  the  pestilence, 
to  confess  them  by  turns,  keeping  my  ear  glued  as  it  were  to 
their  lips,  in  order  to  catch  their  dying  sounds."  And  when 
death  had  done  its  work,  these  apostles,  nurtured  themselves  in 
delicacy  and  refinement,  often  the  most  accomplished  scholars 
of  their  age,  and  not  unfrequently  members  of  illustrious 
houses,  would  wash  the  bodies  and  clothes  of  the  dead,  u  reek 
ing  with  a  horrible  infection,"  and  having  borne  them  with 
their  own  hands  to  the  common  cemetery,  hasten  back  to  re 
peat  the  same  oftice  of  charity  for  others. 

Such  deeds,  which  Catholics  have  learned  to  consider  natural 
in  their  clergy,  of  whatever  rank,  would  hardly  deserve  mention, 


MISSIONS   IN  THE   LEVANT,   ETC.  23 

but  that  we  are  tracing  a  contrast.  There  is  probably  not  one 
of  the  thousand  priests  in  our  own  England  who  would  not  imi 
tate  them  to-morrow,  and  few  of  their  number  who  have  not 
already  exposed  their  lives,  many  a  time,  with  the  same  tranquil 
composure.  It  is  not  many  years  since  an  English  bishop,  and 
fifty  priests,  died  within  ten  months,  ministering  to  the  victims 
of  typhus.  "  The  good  shepherd  giveth  his  life  for  the  sheep." 
But  let  us  complete  the  narrative  which  we  have  begun. 

"  Father  Emanuel  died  in  my  arms,"  says  the  learned  Nac- 
chi,  "  after  devoting  himself  incessantly  for  four  months  to  the 
victims  of  the  plague.  After  him  I  assisted  Father  Arnoudie, 
and  Brother  John  Martha,  both  destroyed  by  the  same  disease." 
Father  Clisson,  after  an  apostolate  of  thirty  years  in  Syria,  met 
the  same  death ;  and  was  followed  by  Father  Nau,  of  whom  his 
companions  used  to  say,  "he  has  received  from  heaven  all  the 
gifts  necessary  for  the  apostolic  life."  Then  came  the  noble 
brothers  de  la  Thuillerie,  Joseph  and  James,  the  elder  dying 
on  the  bosom  of  the  younger.  The  next  was  Father  Rene 
Pillon,  for  the.7  fell  fast,  whose  only  form  of  recreation  was  to 
visit  and  console  the  sick,  and  whose  daily  prayer  it  was  "that 
he  might  die  in  the  service  of  the  dying."  To  him  succeeded 
Father  Blein,  whose  humility  so  touched  the  hearts  of  the 
Greeks  that  they  flocked  to  see  his  dead  body,  and  though  he 
died  of  the  plague,  carried  away  fragments  of  his  clothes  as 
relics.  Beyrout  saw  the  last  combat  of  Father  John  Amieu, 
"  who  predicted  his  own  death  to  one  who  lay  ill  by  his  side, 
but  assured  the  latter  of  his  recovery."*  And  these  are  only  a 
few  names  out  of  a  multitude  known  to  God,  and  written  in 
the  book  of  life.  Of  them  it  may  be  truly  said  that  they  re 
sembled  one  another  so  exactly,  that  they  were  like  brothers  of 
one  family.  And  even  the  most  malignant  spirit  of  heresy 
could  not  resist  them.  "  You  seek  only  our  conversion,"  was  a 
common  saying  of  the  sectaries,  "the  others  ask  for  our  money." 
And  they  often  contrasted  their  manner  of  life  with  that  of  the 
Protestants  who  had  already  begun  to  dwell  amongst  them. 
"  The  English  and  Dutch  in  Aleppo,"  one  of  the  missionaries 
remarks,  "observe  neither  fast  nor  abstinence,  to  the  scandal  of 
everybody.  The  people  of  the  country  say  that  they  cannot  be 
Christians,  and  even  the  Turks  regard  them  as  void  of  religion/' 
And  the  results  of  a  contrast  which  even  pagans  have  noticed, 
in  every  region  of  the  world,  were  such  as  these.  In  .Damascus, 
where  there  were  only  three  Catholic  families  when  the  Jesuits' 
arrived,  there  were  in  1750  nearly  nine  thousand  converts.  In 
Smyrna  and  Aleppo,  almost  the  whole  schisrnatical  population 

*  Ibid.,  p.  200.     Cf.  Missions  du  Levant,  tome  iv.,  p.  39. 


24:  CHAPTER   VIII. 

has  been  converted;  the  work  being  continued  in  our  own  day, 
as  Protestant  travellers  will  presently  assure  us,  by  men  in 
whom  even  they  recognize  the  apostolic  virtues  of  their  prede 
cessors.  Throughout  all  Syria,  as  we  shall  learn  from  the  same 
witnesses,  the  heirs  of  the  martyrs  are  now  laboring  with  such 
fruit,  that  from  the  banks  of  the  Orontes  to  those  of  the 
Tigris  and  the  Euphrates,  the  wanderers  are  flocking  to  the 
true  fold,  and  even  Chaldea,  as  we  shall  be  told  by  men 
who  vainly  strove  to  mar  the  work,  has  become  a  Catholic 
nation. 

When  the  Society  of  Jesus  was  suppressed,  the  enemy  tri 
umphed  for  a  moment  in  Turkey  and  the  Levant,  as  in  so 
many  other  lands.  But  the  Fathers  of  the  Order  of  St.  Lazarus 
wrere  chosen  by  Providence  to  supply  their  place,  at  least  for  a 
time,  and  we  must  now  say  a  word  of  their  labors  in  the  East. 

In  1840,  there  were  already  in  Greece  Proper  four  bishops, 
one  hundred  priests,  and  twenty- three  thousand  Catholics.  At 
the  same  date,  in  the  three  principalities  of  Moldavia,  Wallachia, 
and  Servia,  there  were  three  bishops,  and  seventy-one  thousand 
Catholics.  In  the  kingdom  of  Turkey  there  were  eleven  arch 
bishops,  four  hundred  and  twenty-three  priests,  and  two  hun 
dred  arid  eighty-one  thousand  Catholics.*  This  total  of  three 
hundred  and  seventy-five  thousand  has  probably  trebled  dur 
ing  the  last  twenty  years,  so  that  Ubicini  reckons  the  whole 
number  of  Latin  Christians  in  European  Turkey  alone,  in  1856, 
at  six  hundred  and  forty  thousand,  of  whom  five  hundred  and 
five  thousand  were  natives  ;f  while  the  total  number  of  Greeks 
under  the  sceptre  of  the  Sultan  had  dwindled  twenty  years  ago 
to  one  million. ;£  It  is  even  said  that  there  is  hope  of  the  early 
reconciliation  of  the  entire  Bulgarian  nation,  though  the  influ 
ence  of  Russia  will  no  doubt  be  employed  to  prevent  it. 
^  At  the  close  of  the  year  1840,  the  celebrated  Lazarist  Fathei 
Etienne  gave  this  report  to  the  heads  of  his  Order :  "  The  chief 
obstacle  opposed  by  error  to  the  progress  of  the  Gospel  is  pro 
found  ignorance,  the  common  basis  both  of  heresy  and  Islarnism. 
The  first  means,  therefore,  of  favoring  the  triumph  of  the  Gos 
pel  is  the  education  of  youth.  The  Koran  has  still  its  disci 
ples,  but  only  because  it  proscribes  all  education.  At  present, 
however,  this  prohibition  is  no  longer  regarded  by  the  great, 
whose  contempt  for  the  law  of  Mahomet  is  only  imperfectly 
concealed  under  a  few  exterior  practices."  An  English  Prot 
estant  traveller  confirms  this  account,  when  he  says,  that 

*  Annals,  vol.  i.,  p.  406. 

f  See  Ubicini's  Letters  on  Turkey. 

\  La  Turquie  &  Europe,  par  A.  Boue,  tome  ii.,  ch.  i.,p.  21. 


MISSION'S   IN  THE   LEVANT,   ETC.  25 

the  present  religion  of  the  Turks  "  is  a  kind  of  gross  epicurean 
skepticism."* 

Father  Etienne,  however,  gives  interesting  proofs  of  the 
respect  which  they  begin  to  manifest  for  the  Catholic  religion, 
and  the  remarkable  acquaintance  which  some  of  them  display 
with  its  doctrines  ;  and  he  adds,  that  "  once  permitted  to  fre 
quent  our  schools,  the  Gospel  and  science  will  find  them 
equally  docile  to  their  instructions.  From  the  moment  the  Turks 
are  allowed  to  enjoy  liberty  of  conscience  and  the  blessings  01 
education,  the  Church  will  be  on  the  eve  of  counting  them 
amongst  the  number  of  her  children. "f 

Let  it  be  permitted,  at  this  point,  to  offer,  under  correction, 
a  consideration  suggested  by  the  present  aspect  of  Islamism. 
Perhaps  there  is  nothing  so  marvellous  in  the  annals  of  man 
kind  as  the  history  of  the  Mahometan  religion, — its  triumphant 
progress  through  the  three  continents  of  the  Old  World,  checked 
only  by  the  union  of  the  Catholic  nations  under  the  inspiration 
of  the  Holy  See, — and  its  puissant  dominion  of  a  thousand 
years.  What  providential  scheme  was  this  mystery,  strange 
and  unique  in  the  annals  of  our  race,  designed  to  serve?  The 
present  condition  of  Islamism  seems  to  suggest  the  explanation. 

When  the  East  was  enslaved  by  heresy  and  schism,  then  the 
legions  of  the  false  prophet  came  out  of  Arabia.  For  centuries 
they  have  been  permitted  to  scourge  the  oriental  Christians, 
treading  them  under  foot  as  vermin.  In  human  history  there 
are  no  such  oppressors,  no  such  victims.  "Crushed  and  de 
graded  below  the  level  of  humanity,"  in  the  words  of  Mr. 
Spencer,  "  generation  .after  generation  of  the  unhappy  Christians 
have  passed  away  like  the  leaves  of  the  forest."  Nor  is  this 
the  darkest  feature  in  their  history.  It  was  from  apostate  Greeks 
and  moriophysites  that  the  legions  of  Antichrist  were  perpet 
ually  recruited  by  tens  of  thousands.  "Mahomrnedanisrn,  as 
Von  Ilaxthausen  forcibly  observes,  "represents  the  pure  mon 
otheistic  direction  which  the  Eastern  Church^  especially  in  its 
sects,  had  already  indicated  and  followed,  one-sided  and  dog 
matical."  Even  in  our  own  day  it  continues  to  enlist  the  same 
class  of  fallen  Christians,  helpless  because  severed  from  unity 
—Copts,  Greeks,  and  Abyssinians.  At  Trebizonde,  in  1838, 
we  are  told,  "  the  Greeks  professed  Islamism  abroad,  but  lived 
as  Christians  in  the  interior  of  their  houses."  "Apostasy  is, 
in  fact,  so  obvious  a  sin  in  these  countries,"  says  an  English 
Protestant  minister,  "  that  even  little  children,  as  I  was  in 
formed  by  the  Bishop  of  Smyrna,  will  sometimes,  when  in  a 

*  Two  Years'  Residence  in  a  Levantine  Family,  by  Bayle  St.  John  :  cli.  xxiii.. 
p.  267. 
f  Annals,  vol.  ii.,  p.  71. 


26  CHAPTER  VIII. 

violent  passion,  threaten  their  mothers  that  they  will  turn 
Turk."*  Damascus,  once  wholly  Christian,  became  almost  en 
tirely  Mahometan  ;  and  the  same  fact  occurred  in  most  of  the 
cities  of  the  East.  "  Issuing  from  Arabia,  and  absorbing  in  its 
passage  the  Christianity  of  the  East,  the  Mussulman  torrent 
traversed  the  Bosphorus,  and  carried  forward  the  crescent  to 
the  European  provinces  of  the  Greek  Cresars  ;  for  it  was  no 
longer  with  the  degenerate  Christianity  of  the  East  as  with  that 
which  flowed,  full  of  life  and  strength,  from  the  apostolic 
Koman  fount.  The  latter  had  quickly  absorbed  into  itself  all 
the  conquerors  of  the  empire  ;  the  former  bowed  down  with 
out  resistance  under  the  code  of  the  Caliphs,  and  the  Christian 
populations  of  Asia,  deserting  the  faith  of  Christ,  adopted,  in 
vast  numbers,  that  of  the  false  prophet,  and  recruited  the 
armies  of  his  vicars."f 

Such  is  the  contrast  between  the  Christianity  of  Home  and 
Byzantium  ;  and  such,  for  centuries,  has  been  the  influence  of 
the  Mahometan  over  the  corrupt  and  schismatical  communities 
of  the  East.  But  Islamism  has  done  its  work,  and  may  now 
disappear.  It  came  to  chastise,  by  an  unparalleled  judgment, 
an  unexampled  offence.  And  now,  when  the  oriental  churches 
are  visibly  returning  to  unity,  and  the  voice  of  the  Supreme 
Pastor  is  once  more  heard  amongst  them,  Islamism — as  if  con 
scious  that  it  may*  no  longer  play  the  part  of  the  Avenger — ia 
hastening  to  decay.  We  seem  to  touch  already  that  great  epoch 
of  Catholic  unity, — of  which  the  recent  definition  of  the  Im 
maculate  Conception  of  the  Mother  of  God  is  the  surest  pledge 
and  precursor, — that  consolidation  of  all  believers  into  one 
household  and  family  which  Her  love  will  obtain  for  the  Church 
before  the  world  is  abandoned  to  its  final  judgment,  and  even 
the  Church  shall  plead  for  it  no  more. 

Let  us  return  for  a  moment  to  Father  Etienne,  and  to  the 
account  which  he  gives  of  religion  in  Turkey.  "At  Constan 
tinople,"  he  says,  "  the  clergy  of  our  congregation  are  at  the  head 
of  a  college,  in  which  the  children  of  the  first  families  of  the  city 
are  educated  ;  they  have  also  a  school  which  is  frequented  by  one 
hundred  and  fifty  scholars."  This  refers  to  the  state  of  things 
twenty  years  ago.  "  Three  other  schools  are  directed  by  the 
Sisters  of  Charity.  The  two  hundred  and  thirty  pupils  whom 
they  receive  are  not  all  Catholics  ;  Russians,  Arabs,  Armenian 
and  Greek  schismatics  come  to  the  same  source  to  obtain 
knowledge  and  wisdom."  The  Sisters  had  also  under  their  care 
a  hospital,  towards  the  expenses  of  which  the  Sultan  contributed 

*  Jowett,  p.  23. 

f  Persecution  et  Souffrances,  &c.,  p.  240. 


MISSIONS   IN   THE   LEVANT,    ETC.  27 

one  hundred  pounds.  Even  the  Mussulmen,  he  adds,  filled 
with  admiration  for  the  charity  of  the  Sisters,  "who  neither 
will  nor  can  receive  any  recompense,"  are  accustomed  to  ask, 
"  Whether  they  came  down  thus  from  heaven  f"  "  May  we 
not  presume,"  says  M.  Etienne,  "  that  the  Sisters  of  Charity 
are  destined  by  Providence  to  effect  the  long  wished-for  union 
between  Turks  and  Christians  ?" 

An  English  Protestant  writer,  in  spite  of  customary  prejudice, 
thus  confirms  the  account  of  Father  Etienne  :  "  Short  as  the 
time  has  been  since  these  zealous  Christians  have  entered  upon 
this  new  field  of  labor,  it  must  be  owned  in  all  justice  that  the 
progress  they  have  made,  and  the  beneficial  eifects  of  their 
judicious  efforts,  are  most  surprising.  .  .  .  The  admiration,  as 
well  as  confidence,  with  which  both  they  and  the  Lazarists  have 
inspired  the  Turks  is  unbounded."*  And  this  is  confirmed 
once  more,  in  1859,  by  another  English  Protestant,  who 
considers  "  a  visit  to  the  convent  of  the  Sisters  of  Charity 
interesting  and  instructive,  as  showing  how  human  beings 
possessed  of  education  and  personal  attractions  can  leave 
every  thing  which  makes  life  dear  for  the  sake  of  God.  Here, 
as  everywhere  else,  these  ladies  do  a  great  deal  of  good,  par 
ticularly  in  education  of  the  Arab  children."  Of  their  hospital 
"  for  the  special  use  of  strangers,"  of  all  creeds,  "  who  -may 
chance  to  fall  ill  here" — Bey  rout — he  adds,  that  the  sufferers, 
"  when  tended  by  the  devoted  Sisters,  scarcely  miss  the  absence 
of  their  friends."t 

When  we  have  shown  that  the  missionaries  have  not  degen 
erated  from  their  fathers,  but  still  resemble  a  Cachod,  a  Besnier, 
and  a  Yandermans,  we  may  pass  to  other  scenes.  "  M.  Eiluin," 
says  Father  Etienne,  "  catechizes  the  poor  in  Greek,  and  with 
the  most  consoling  success;  his  instructions  are  frequented 
every  Sunday  by  three  hundred  persons,  children  and  adults. 
M.  Bonnieux,  another  missionary,  whose  indefatigable  zeal  1 
could  not  but  admire,  spends  his  life  in  hearing  the  confessions 
of  the  Catholics,  scattered  throughout  the  city  and  the  environs. 
Every  morning  he  sets  out,  taking  in  his  course  both  sides  of 
the  Bosphorus,  penetrating  into  the  interior  of  families,  dis 
tributing  consolation  and  advice,  and  often  returning  without 
having  tasted  food,  except  the  morsel  of  bread  he  had  taken 
with  him.  Often,  too,  surprised  by  the  night  far  from  his 
home,  he  passes  it  in  some  miserable  hut,  offers  there  the  Holy 
Sacrifice  in  the  morning  before  he  leaves,  and  continuing  his 
route  of  the  previous  day,  returns  at  length  to  his  brethren  full 

*  Wayfaring  Sketches  among  the  Greeks  and  Turks,  cli.  ix.,  p.  184. 
f  Two  Years  in  Syria,  cli.  xxvii.,  p.  285. 


28  CHAPTER   VIII. 

of  joy.  This  laborious  ministry  is  never  interrupted,  either 
by  the  rigor  of  the  season  or  the  ravages  of  the  plague." 

Such  are  "the  comforts  and  pleasant  things"  which  these 
men  choose  for  their  portion.  And  the  results  of  their  patient 
charity  are  such  as  the  following :  M.  Bonnieux  alone,  in  the 
course*  of  a  few  months,  reconciled  to  the  Church  one  hundred 
and  twenty-two  heretics.  The  most  conspicuous  among  his 
converts  was  Mgr.  Artin,  schismatical  Archbishop  of  Van,  in 
Armenia.  An  immense  crowd  of  the  former  disciples  of  the 
converted  prelate  assisted  at  the  ceremony  of  his  abjuration  ; 
and  after  listening1  to  the  fervent  exhortation  which,  from  a 
heart  newly  kindled  witli  Divine  charity,  he  addressed  to  them, 
"  more  than  twelve  hundred  persons  were  found  to  imitate  this 
memorable  conversion."* 

The  impulse  given  to  education  by  the  toils  of  the  same 
workmen,  is  the  only  additional  fact  which  we  need  notice.  "It 
is  very  certain,"  says  Ubicini  in  1858,  "  that  the  number  of  the 
schools  founded  by  the  Lazarists,  with  the  assistance  of  the 
Sisters  of  Charity  and  of  the  Christian  Brothers,  increases  yearly 
in  a  remarkable  degree."  And  then  he  observes,  that  already, 
in  1849,  "  the  latter  had  six  hundred  children  in  their  schools  of 
Pera  and  Galata,"  while  the  former  had,  at  the  same  date, 
eight  hundred  and  sixty  pupils.f  Other  writers  will  inform  us 
that  they  are  diffusing  the  same  benefits  in  the  principal  cities 
of  Asiatic  Turkey. 

We  have  no  space  for  further  details.  For  twenty  years  the 
work  has  progressed,  everywhere  by  the  same  agents,  and 
always  with  the  same  results.  Even  Protestants  attest  its 
power.  "The  Catholic  religion  in  the  East,"  says  Admiral 
JSlade,  in  1854,  appreciating  these  events  from  his  own  point  of 
view,  "  has  ever  offered  a  secure  asylum  for  wavering  minds 
of  the  Greek  and  Armenian  sects."  He  declares,  also,  from 
actual  observation,  "  that  it  has  made  men  live  in  peace  among 
each  other,  and  under  their  government,  whatever  that  gov 
ernment  be."J 

Dr.  Wilson, — who  has,  perhaps,  employed  more  intemperate 
language  than  any  living  writer,  and  has  been  more  abundant 
in  those  vehement  invectives  which  sound  like  imprecations, 
and  remind  one  of  the  text,  "Whoso  hateth  his  brother  is  a 
murderer," — is  constrained  by  a  Power  which  uses  such  men  to 
proclaim  the  very  truths  which  they  abhor,  to  make  the  fol 
lowing  confession.  The  Greeks,  he  says,  when  they  become 

*  Annals,  ii.,  76. 

Letters  on  Turkey,  vol.  ii.,  Letter  iii, 
Records  of  Travels,  cli.  xxvii.,  p.  511. 


MISSIONS   IN   THE   LEVANT,  ETC.  29 

Catholics,  "  are  amongst  the  most  liberal  and  intelligent  native 
Christians  in  the  East."* 

Dr.  Kobinson,  an  American  writer  of  the  same  class, — who 
laments  that  the  movement  of  conversion  among  the  Greeks, 
after  spreading  through  Syria,  "has  now  extended  itself  into 
Egypt," — admits  with  evident  reluctance,  that  "  the  result  is  a 
certain  elevation  of  their  sect."f  Dr.  Durbin  also,  another 
American  Protestant,  declares  without  reserve  of  all  the  orien 
tal  communities,  "It  is  not  to  be  denied  that  their  intercourse 
with  the  Roman  Catholic  Church  tends  to  elevate  them  in  the 
scale  of  civilization."^:  "We  shall  hear  many  similar  testimonies 
when  we  enter  Syria. 


ASIATIC   TURKEY. 

We  may  now  cross  the  Bosphorus,  and  continue  in  Asiatic 
Turkey  the  investigations  which  we  have  hitherto  confined  to 
her  European  provinces.  Let  us  begin  at  Smyrna.  If  we 
would  lind  Protestant  missionaries  in  pagan  or  nioslem  lands, 
much  experience  has  taught  us  to  look  for  them  on  the  coast. 
They  abound  in  Smyrna.  "The  number  of  missionaries  who 
have  been  sent  to  Turkey?  says  an  English  Protestant,  "and 
are  established  at  Smyrna,  is  very  considerable. "§  "They  find 
that  demi-Frank  city  pleasanter,"  we  have  been  told,  "than 
the  interior  of  Turkey  ;"  and,  as  a  matter  of  taste,  they  are 
probably  right.  M.  do  Tchihatcheff,  a  Russian  traveller,  found 
some  of  the  American  missionaries,  in  1856,  occupied  in  me 
teorological  observations ;  a  useful  and  honorable  pursuit,  for 
which  he  seems  to  think  they  had  abundant  leisure.  [  What 
else  they  have  done,  we  may  easily  learn,  either  from  them 
selves  or  their  friends. 

Two  of  the  earliest  missionaries  from  America  were  the 
Rev.  Pliny  Fisk  and  the  Rev.  Levi  Parsons.  Both  have  found 
admiring  biographers.  The  Rev.  Dr.  Bond  informs  us  that  Mr. 
Fisk  was  dispatched  to  Syria  by  "  the  Prudential  Committee  of 
the  American  Board,"  and  also  that  "  his  religious  exercises 
were  marked  for  pungency  of  conviction."  He  tarried  at 
Malta  on  his  way  to  Palestine,  and  "was  for  a  season  occupied 
iii  exploring  the  moral  desolations  which  there  prevailed,"  but 
to  which  it  is  not  suggested  that  Mr.  Fisk  applied  any  remedy. 

*  lidnds  of  the  Bible,  vol.  ii.,  p.  581. 

|  BflMcal  Researches,  vol.  iii.,  sec.  xvii.,  p.  456. 

Observations  iti  the  East,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  xxxiv.,  p.  287. 

Wayfanng  Sketches,  &c.,  ch.  vi.,  p.  118. 

Asie  Mineure,  par  P.  de  Tchihatcheff;  ch.  i.,  p.  5  (1856), 


30  CHAPTER  VIII. 

At  length  lie  reached  Beyrut,  and  there  "his  spirit^  was  much 
refreshed,"  apparently  by  the  society  of  his  countrymen.  That 
he  ever  made  a  convert,  from  any  class  whatever,  his  biogra 
pher  does  not  venture  to  insinuate  ;  but  his  final  retreat  from 
these  regions,  after  a  residence  which  had  been  without  a  soli 
tary  incident  for  the  pen  of  the  historian,  is  thus  described  and 
accounted  for :  "  Having  sounded  from  the  hill  of  Zion  the 
trumpet-note  of  preparation,"  says  Dr.  Bond,  "  to  awaken  the 
Church  to  the  glorious  enterprise  in  which  he  had  led  the  way, 
he  retired,  amid  the  commotion  which  his  own  efforts  had 
excited,  until  the  indignation  was  overpast."*  The  indigna 
tion,  however,  was  so  permanent,  that  Mr.  Fisk  was  never  again 
seen  near  the  hill  of  Zion.f 

The  Rev.  Levi  Parsons,  his  companion,  is  thus  sketched  by 
the  eloquent  ardor  of  the  Rev.  Dr.  Squier.  "  He  was  more 
like  the  good  Samaritan  than  the  Apostle  Paul.  If  you  classed 
him  with  the  eleven  disciples,  it  would  be  with  John  rather 
than  Peter."  The  portrait  is  perhaps  deficient  in  distinctness, 
but  Mr.  Parsons  has  added  some  touches  with  his  own  hand. 
"I  was  often,"  he  says,  "in  Jerusalem,  preaching  with  great 
success,  and  once  I  reasoned  before  the  governor  of  Smyrna, 
as  Paul  did  before  Felix."  Like  Mr.  Fisk,  he  never  converted 
anybody,  Greek,  Jew,  or  Armenian,  and  least  of  all  the  gov 
ernor  of  Smyrna  ;  but  his  biographer  adds,  as  if  he  owed  this 
consolation  to  his  readers,  "  he  was  among  modern  missionaries 
what  Melancthon  was  among  the  Reformers.''^ 

The  "eminent  female  missionary,"  Mrs.  Sarah  Smith,  also 
visited  Syria.  Dr.  Hooker,  who  celebrates  her  rare  merits, 
appears  to  think  that  he  has  sufficiently  indicated  their  charac 
ter,  when  he  adds,  that  "the  Rev.  Eli  Smith,  D.D.,  invited  her 
to  the  relationship  of  a  missionary  wife."  As  this  is  the  only 
fact  in  their  joint  career  which  he  records,  the  rest  of  the  bi 
ography,  consisting  of  scripture  texts  interspersed  with  moral 
reflections,  it  is  to  be  presumed  that  Dr.  Hooker  found  nothing 
else  to  communicate. 

The  Rev.  Daniel  Temple  was  a  more  remarkable  person.  He 
took  a  printing-press,  which  did  a  great  deal  of  work,  and  two 
wives,  the  latter  at  different  dates,  to  the  Holy  Land.  His  life 
lias  been  written  by  the  Rev.  William  Goodell,  himself  a  mis- 


*  Biographical  Sketches  of  Distinguished  American  Missionaries,  p.  188. 

f  The  blunt  and  honest  Dr.  Wolff,  who  often  stumbles  on  truth  when  his 
vanity  does  not  lead  him  astray,  relates,  "without  any  invidious  spirit,"  that 
while  he  travelled  with  Fisk  and  King,  "they  occupied  themselves  chiefly  in 
examining  ruins,  and  in  collecting  antiquities  and  mummies."  Travels  and 
Adventures  of  Dr.  Wolff,  oh.  ix.,  p.  170, 

{  IHograph'ical  Sketches,  &c.,  p.  198. 


31 

sionary.  "Whoever  saw  him,"  observes  Mr.  Goodell,  "  would 
be  likely  to  think  at  once  of  Abraham,  Isaac,  Jacob,  Peter,  or 
Paul."  In  spite  of  this  advantageous  personal  appearance,  Mr. 
Temple  was  as  unsuccessful  as  his  predecessors,  and  the  close 
of  his  history,  which  exactly  coincides  with  theirs,  obliges  us 
to  conclude  that  his  resemblance  to  the  Patriarchs  and  Apos 
tles  was  purely  physical.  Mr.  Goodell,  however,  of  whose  own 
qualities  we  shall  have  a  more  accurate  knowledge  before  we 
complete  this  chapter,  assures  his  readers,  that  "  Jews,  Turks, 
and  infidels,"  upon  whom  Mr.  Temple  produced  only  a  faint 
impression  while  dwelling  among  them,  "  will  some  of  them 
pronounce  his  name  with  something  of  the  same  reverence  with 
which  we  should  ever  pronounce  the  name  of  '  Our  Father  in 
heaven!"1  Mr.  Goodell  seems  to  have  felt  that  he  wronged 
his  friend  in  only  ranking  him  with  "  Abraham,  Peter,  and 
Paul."  Yet  in  spite  of  the  remarkable  similitude  by  which  he 
at  length  did  justice  to  his  merits,  Mr.  Goodell  relates  at  last, 
and  it  is  the  only  historical  fact  in  the  narrative,  that  "  he  left 
the  mission  in  1814 :"  and  lest  the  world  should  misinterpret 
so  unexpected  a  climax,  evidently  unworthy  of  a  being  who 
ranks  above  the  Patriarchs  and  only  a  little  below  their  Creator, 
Mr.  Goodell  adds  disapprovingly,  "  The  Lord  so  remarkably 
hedged  up  his  way  among  the  (j-reeks"* 

The  English,  who  have  had  representatives  at  Smyrna  for  a 
long  course  of  years,  do  not  even  claim  any  success,  either  with 
the  Greeks,  or  with  any  other  race.  A  gentleman  who  is  apt 
to  exaggerate  their  influence  candidly  admits,  in  1854,  that 
"although  Smyrna  has  long  had  the  advantage  of  resident 
missionaries,  and  of  the  faithful  ministry  of  a  devoted  clergy 
man,  in  the  Rev.  W.  B.  Lewis,  the  British  chaplain,  there  are 
few  signs  of  religious  life  among  the  native  population. "f 
There  are,  in  fact,  ample  signs  of  life,  but  not  such  as  this 
writer  could  detect  or  appreciate,  because  they  were  all  exter 
nal  to  his  own  communion.  Within  its  narrow  limits  his  de 
scription  is  apparently  accurate.  "  It  is  in  the  spirit  of  enter 
prise,"  says  Mr.  Jowett,  "  most  especially  that  the  Church  of 
Christ,"  he  means  the  Church  of  England,  "appears  defective.";): 
"  There  is  little  of  a  practical  and  active  missionary  spirit  to 
be  found  among  the  members  of  the  Church  of  England,"  said 
the  late  Mr.  Warburton.  "  When  I  was  in  Syria,  there  was 
not  an  English  missionary  who  had  taken  a  university  degree ; 
nor,  with  one  exception,  was  there  a  Christian-born  minister  of 


*  Pp.  214-218. 

f  Journal  of  a  Deputation  to  the  East,  vol.  ii.,  p.  570. 

\  P.  392. 


32  CHAPTER  VIII. 

our  Church."*  Admiral  Slade  mentions  a  single  Anglican 
clergyman,  whom  he  considers  an  exception  by  character  to 
his  companions,  and  adds,  "  Where  did  his  labors  lie  ? — Among 
the  Greeks,  and  without  effect  !"f 

The  Americans,  as  usual,  have  been,  not  more  successful,  but 
more  ambitious  and  aggressive.  Dr.  Durbin,  their  fellow- 
citizen,  informs  us,  in  1845,  that  they  had  printed  in  Smyrna 
up  to  that  date  thirty-two  million  two  hundred  and  forty-seven 
thousand  seven  hundred  and  sixty  pages.  Dr.  Wilson  records, 
in  his  account,  an  increase  of  some  twenty  millions.  What 
the  inhabitants  of  Asia  Minor  have  done  with  all  this  printed 
paper,  amounting  to  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  thousand 
octavo  volumes,  does  not  appear.  Indeed,  the  only  effect  of 
the  presence  of  the  various  Protestant  sects,  in  Smyrna,  who 
distribute  pensions  which  are  much  esteemed,  and  books  which 
nobody  reads,  has  been  to  afford  amusement  to  these  languid 
Asiatics,  though  only  for  a  brief  space.  The  excitement  lasted 
a  few  months,  and  then  both  Turks  and  Greeks  decided,  as 
Protestant  travellers  assure  us,  that  the  missionaries  had  ceased 
to  be  entertaining.  "  Even  the  Armenians  themselves,"  says 
Dr.  Valentine  Mott,  with  unfeigned  astonishment,  "  though 
professing  Christianity,  joined  with  the  deluded  Turks  in  sup 
pressing  the  Protestant  schools!";):  And  Dr.  Durbin,  also,  an 
American  preacher,  relates  that  his  co-religionists,  of  various 
denominations,  were  too  much  occupied  in  their  accustomed 
pastime  of  fighting  with  one  another,  to  allow  a  combination 
of  {heir  efforts  against  the  oriental  sects.  "  It  is  to  be  re 
gretted,"  he  observes,  "that  they  have  come  into  collision  with 
each  other  in  the  midst  of  these  ancient  churches,  and  in  the 
presence  of  the  Turk.  The  chief  ground  of  collision  is  the  va 
lidity  and  authority  of  their  respective  ministries,"  a  question 
which,  he  seems  to  think,  they  might  have  discussed  more  ad 
vantageously  at  home.§ 

Another  sympathizing  writer,  who  laments  the  trivial  super 
stition  which  makes  "  keeping  the  Sabbath"  the  chief  article  of 
the  missionary  creed,  says,  "  We  draw  down  contempt  on  that 
which  we  seek  to  further,  when  we  make  it  seem  as  though 
our  religion  consisted  in  the  observance  of  the  Sabbath."] 

*  Ch.  viii.,  pp.  117-18. 

f  P.  518. 

±  Travels  in  Europe  and  the  East,  by  Valentine  Mott,  M.D.,  p.  404. 

§  Vol.  ii.,  ch.  xxxv.,  p.  298.  The  incessant  wranglings  of  these  gentlemen 
have  become  so  notorious,  that  when  they  wrote  a  complimentary  letter  to  Earl 
Cowley,  who  foolishly  encouraged  them,  according  to  the  deplorable  traditions 
of  English  diplomacy,  that  ambassador  advised  them  "  to  prevent  further  quar 
rels,"  and  "  to  respect  the  religious  creed  of  others,  as  they  desire  to  have 
their  own  respected."  Mason,  Three  Years  in  Turkey,  p.  241. 

|j  Wayfaring  Sketches,  ch.  viii.,  p.  170. 


MISSIONS  IN  THE   LEVANT,   ETC.  33 

Yet  the  Protestant  missionary  always  begins  and  ends  with 
this  precept. 

Both  the  English  and  Americans  have  been  especially  un 
successful  with  the  Greeks,  the  very  class  to  which  they  have 
mainly  directed  their  attention.  Mr.  Arundell,  a  man  of 
learning  and  intelligence,  who  was  for  some  years  British 
chaplain  at  Smyrna,  expresses  much  dissatisfaction  with  their 
"  ingratitude,"  as  wreli  as  with  the  levities  which  they  practised 
in  their  conduct  towards  himself.  He  sent  a  young  Greek, 
after  due  instruction,  and  an  expenditure  from  which  he  hoped 
better  results,  as  schoolmaster  to  Kirkinge.  Unfortunately  he 
paid  him  in  advance.  "He  went  to  Kirkinge,  looked  at  it, 
said  it  was  an  askemos  topos,  '  a  horrible  place,'  and  settled 
himself  in  Syria,  without  deigning  to  write  me  a  word,"  a 
discourtesy  which  Mr.  Arundell  resented  the  more  keenly, 
because  he  had  "  for  some  time  assisted  in  keeping  him  and 
his  mother  from  starving."* 

But  these  Greeks  are  incorrigible — until  they  are  brought 
within  the  influence  of  the  Church.  Anglicanism  and  Method 
ism  are  too  weak  to  hold  them,  and  only  succeed  in  inspiring 
their  ingenious  malice.  Nothing  less  mighty  than  the  Church 
can  baffle  their  intrigues,  or  rouse  them  from  their  petulant 
indifference.  "  Are  yon  acquainted  with  Ephesus?"  said  the 
Count  D'Estourmel  to  a  Greek,  whom  he  wished  to  employ  as 
a  guide  to  the  antiquities  of  the  apostolic  city.  "  Yes,"  replied 
the  luxurious  Demetrius;  "I  have  eaten  larks  there  with  M. 
de  Stackelberg,  and  drank  Chian  wine  with  Mr.  Dodwell."f 
These  were  his  recollections  of  Ephesus. 

But  there  is  a  power  in  Smyrna  which  can  stir  the  hearts 
even  of  such  men  as  these.  "The  success  which  attended  the 
Romish  missionaries,"  says  Mr.  Jowett,  "evidence  of  which 
exists  in  their  numerous  converts  throughout  every  part  of  this 
region,  should  be  an  encouragement  to  Protestants."^  He  did 
not  consider  that  if  Protestants  would  emulate  that  success, 
they  must  first  become  Catholics.  Thirty  years  later,  another 
English  writer,  though  he  is  unable  to  re-cord  any  Protestant 
progress  during  that  long  interval,  observes,  that  "  the  Roman 
ists  comprise  probably  Jive-sixths  of  the  Frank  population  at 
Smyrna.  §  In  ten  years — from  1830  to  1840 — they  more  than 
doubled  their  numbers,  though  they  have  not  been  able  to 
purchase  a  single  convert,  or 'bestow  a  single  pension,  and  are 


*  Discoveries  in  Asia  Minor,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  xi ,  p.  271. 
f  Journal  d'un  Voyage  en  Orient,  tome  i..  p.  213. 
\  P.  368. 

§  Young,  The  Levant  and  the  Nile,  ch.  iii.,  p.  74. 
VOL.  ii.  4 


34:  CHAPTER   VIII. 

not  only  poor,  bat  have  sworn  before  the  altar  to  remain  pooi* 
to  the  end  of  their  lives. 

"  My  greatest  hope,"  said  the  Archbishop  of  Smyrna  some 
years  ago,  "  is  in  our  schools,  in  which  the  population  of 
Smyrna,  by  the  religious  education  imparted  to  them,  are  com 
pletely  regenerated.""  Already  the  Lazarist  Fathers  had  two 
hundred  and  fifty  pupils  in  their  male  schools,  and  the  priests  of 
the  Missions  Etrangercs  one  hundred  and  twenty  students  in 
their  college.  Twenty  native  priests,  added  to  an  equal  number 
of  European  missionaries,  attested  the  influence  of  the  education 
which  they  had  received.  Noble  institutions  have  since  then 
been  created,  and  Smyrna  now  rejoices  in  possessing  those 
Sisters  of  St.  Yincent  who  teach,  by  their  presence  and 
example,  the  charity  which  only  the  true  faith  can  inspire. 
"  In  seasons  of  sickness,"  says  Mr.  Wortabet, — whose  profession 
of  Protestantism  does  not  prevent  his  admiring  the  Sisters  of 
Charity, — "  whilst  others  flee  to  the  mountains  for  a  better 
atmosphere,  they  have  been  seen  going  from  house  to  house, 
heedless  of  contagion  from  cholera,  fever,  or  holes  steaming 
with  heat  and  stench,  enough  to  make  any  one  sick.  One  by 
one  falls  down  by  the  bedside  of  the  dying  sufferer.  They  die, 
but  their  memory  lives,  and  no  wonder  many  rise  up  to  call 
them  blessed."* 

If  any  further  proof  of  the  influence  of  the  Catholic  religion 
in  Smyrna,  and  of  the  virtues  displayed  by  its  teachers,  be 
required,  it  is  impressively  conveyed  in  the  angry  confession  of 
a  Protestant  missionary,  the  Rev.  I.  Calhoun, — a  confession 
appropriately  recorded  by  the  pen  of  Dr.  Wilson, — that  even 
"  among  the  Protestants  there  are  few  who  are  decidedly  anti- 
Roman  Catholic."f 

"The  Eev.  Messrs.  Wolters,  father  and  son,"  of  Smyrna, 
thus  report  to  the  Church  Missionary  Society,  in  1862  :  ;f  "  The 
number  of  native  Christians  connected  with  our  mission  has  not 
increased."  Their  congregation,  they  say,  "  is  mixed,  consist 
ing  of  native,  English,  and  Dutch  Protestants,  and  Greeks,  the 
latter  sometimes  entering  the  chapel,  but  mostly  standing  at  the 
open  door."  It  was  probably  this  disrespectful  attitude  which 
impelled  the  "father  and  son"  to  observe,  with  suitable 
emphasis,  "the  Greek  Church  is  dead,  dead  in  trespasses 
and  sins.  A  missionary  living  long  among  them  cannot  but 
feel  deeply  for  their  spiritual  welfare."  " Mr.  Wolters,  junior," 
adds,  "in  conversing  with  Mussulmans  it  is  impossible  to  avoid 


*  Syria  and  the  Syrians,  ch.  xv.,  p.  104  (1856). 
f  Lands  of  the  Bible,  vol.  ii.,  p.  577 
j  Report,  p.  61. 


MISSIONS    IN   THE    LEVANT,    ETC.  35 

controversy.  But  I  feel  that  this  is  not  productive^  much 
good."  Yet  these  gentlemen,  who  are  German- Anglican  min 
isters,  still  remain,  and  will  probably  long  remain,  in  the  city 
of  Smyrna,  though  the  native  disciples  "have  not  increased,'7 
the  Greeks  amuse  themselves  at  the  open  door,  and  the  Mus 
sulmans  provoke  a  controversy  in  which  the  victory  appears  to 
be  always  on  their  side. 

In  Jaffa,  Mr.  Gruhler,  another  German  exponent  of  Angli 
canism,  informs  the  same  missionary  society  that  he  has  "  six 
or  seven  boys"  in  his  Protestant  school.  He  does  not  say  how 
these  Syrian  students  were  attracted,  nor  what  progress  they 
have  made  in  abandoning  their  own  religion,  or  in  adopting  his; 
but  he  adds,  "I  think  we  could  have  a  nice  school  there,  if  the 
schoolmaster  was  as  zealous  as  he  is  avaricious."  This  intelli 
gent  schoolmaster  was  apparently  one  of  those  who  had  not 
advanced  beyond  "  the  open  door." 

Bey  rout  is  a  more  important  place,  but  not  more  consoling  to 
the  supporters  of  Protestant  missions.  "  There  are  ten  thousand 
Christians  in  Beyrout,"  says  the  Rev.  Dr.  Durbin,  "  the  great 
majority  of  whom  are  Roman  Catholics."  Yet  a  few  years  ago 
they  were  only  a  handful;  and  moreover,  "Beyrout  is  the  centre 
of  the  American  missions  in  Syria,"  and  kithe  missionaries  have 
several  presses  here," — which  consume  a  good  deal  of  paper,  but 
do  nothing  else.  Mr.  Neale  notices  "  the  superb  nunnery  in 
course  of  erection  here  for  the  Sisters  of  Charity,  whose  advent 
has  given  great  satisfaction  to  the  Catholics  of  Beyrout ;"  as 
well  as  their  "boarding-school  for  young  ladies,  day-school  for 
poor  girls  and  Arabs,  and  hospital  for  sailors."*  Mr.  Cuthbert 
Young  observes,  in  1848,  that  "the  Jesuit  establishment  at 
Beyrout  is  said  to  be  one  of  the  most  efficient,  and  many 
Maronite  and  Greek  children  are  educated  in  their  school." 
Lastly,  the  candid  Mr.  Warburton  says :  "  I  was  much  struck 
by  the  zeal,  talent,  and  tact  exhibited  by  the  monks." 

Sidon  is  no  exception  to  the  usual  rule.  It  contains,  we  learn 
from  a  Protestant  missionary  in  1862,  one  thousand  seven  hun 
dred  and  lifty  Christians,  of  whom  one  thousand  six  hundred  are 
Catholics,  and  one  hundred  and  fifty  separated  Greeks.f  Prot 
estantism  is  wholly  unfruitful. 

Aleppo  is  still  more  worthy  of  our  attention.  Even  Dr.- Wil 
son  tells  us  that  the  Jesuits  here  "  applied  themselves  to  tin 
study  of  the  Eastern  languages  with  a  devotion  seldom  sur 
passed."  And  then  he  adds  :  "  They  brought  a  considerable 
number  of  persons  within  the  pale  of  the  Romish  Church,  and 

*  Syria,  Palestine,  &c.,  vol.  i.,  ch.  xiii.,  p.  241. 

\  The  Land  and  the  Book,  by  W.  M.  Thomson,  D.D.,  ch.  ix.,  p.  108. 


36  CHAPTER   VIII. 

they  paved  the  way  for  the  ultimate  establishment  of  the  papal- 
Greek,  papal-Armenian,  and  papal-Syrian  sects."  But  if  this 
gentleman  finds  nothing  to  say  against  the  earlier  missionaries, 
he  seeks  relief  by  informing  his  readers,  without  the  least  hesi 
tation,  that  as  to  the  present  Jesuits  in  this  region,  "  their 
morality  is  of  the  loosest  kind."*  Probably  he  never  saw  one 
of  them,  and  knows  nothing  whatever  about  them  ;  but  it  was 
a  safe  assertion,  and  was  sure  to  be  welcomed  by  his  readers. 

We  need  not  reply  seriously  to  such  an  assailant ;  but  here  is 
an  example  of  these  modern  Jesuits,  whose  loose  morality  Dr. 
Wilson  deplores.  Father  Riccadonna  wrote  a  few  years  ago  to 
his  superior  in  these  terms,  in  obedience  to  directions  which 
required  an  exact  account  of  his  position  :  "I  will  tell  you  in 
confidence  that  we  are  living  in  destitution,  without  clothes, 
without  shelter,  without  provisions.  What  others  cast  aside 
would  be  precious  to  us.  A  little  thread,  some  buttons,  and  a 
packet  of  needles  would  be  a  most  acceptable  gift.  For  want 
of  these  we  go  for  months  together  with  our  clothes  in  rags. 
Praise  be  to  God !  It  is  necessary  to  have  tasted  these  precious 
sufferings  to  know  their  value  and  their  sweetness.  May  it  be 
my  lot  to  suffer  them  always. "f 

Let  us  return  to  Aleppo.  In  1818,  the  British  Consul-Gen 
eral  reported  that  "Aleppo  is  gradually  drawing,  and  nearly 
drawn  over  to  the  Roman  Catholics.5':}:  In  1854,  a  zealous 
Protestant  relates,  that  of  twenty  thousand  Christians,  seven 
teen  thousand  five  hundred  are  already  Catholics.§ 

Monseigneur  Brunoni,  Archbishop  of  Taron,  and  Apostolic 
Legate  in  Syria,  gave  this  account  of  them  in  October,  1855  : 
"The  Catholic  community  in  Aleppo,  governed  by  pious  and 
zealous  pastors,  appear  docile  to  their  teaching,  and  animated 
with  religious  sentiments  in  a  manner  very  consoling  to  witness. 
I  speak  of  what  I  have  seen,  having  been  invited  to  celebrate 
the  Holy  Sacrifice  in  the  churches  of  the  different  liturgies,  on 
which  occasions  the  evident  devotion  and  fervor  observable  in 
all  was  very  edifying.  The  day  on  which  I  officiated  for  the 
Armenians,  the  pious  and  learned  Paul  Balit  delivered  an  ex 
cellent  discourse  in  reference  to  the  conversions  of  the  previous 
year,  and  on  the  majesty  and  superiority  of  the  Catholic  religion. 
His  words  made  the  truth  so  evident  that  an  inhabitant  of  the 
neighborhood,  who  was  a  schismatic,  and  happened  to  be 
present,  was  convinced  of  his  errors,  and  renounced  them  on 
the  spot."[ 

*  P.  573. 

f  Annales,  tome  vii.,  p.  241. 

t  Asiatic  Journal,  vol.  vi.,  p.  503. 

S  Journal  of  a  Deputation,  vol.  ii.,  p.  822. 

|  Annals,  vol.  xvii.,  p.  137. 


MISSIONS   IN  THE   LEVANT,   ETC.  37 

"  In  Aleppo,"  says  a  Protestant  minister,  the  Rev.  G.  Badger, 
in  1852,  "where  they  once  numbered  several  hundred  families, 
not  more  than  ten  Jacobite  families  now  exist,  the  rest  having 
joined  the  Church  of  Rome."  This  unwilling  witness  adds, 
that "  the  same  secession  has  left  them  only  a  name  at  Damascus. 
The  Jacobite  community  of  Bagdad  has  followed  the  example 
set  them  by  their  brethren  at  Aleppo  and  Damascus."  And 
then  he  performs  the  usual  task  for  which  Protestant  travellers 
seem  to  be  employed  by  Providence  in  all  parts  of  the  world. 
"  If  the  truth  is  to  be  told,  it  must  be  confessed  that,  however 
much  to  be  deplored  this  secession  may  be,  the  Syrian  prose 
lytes  to  Rome  are  decidedly  superior  in  many  respects  to  their 
Jacobite  brethren."*  Yet  this  gentleman  "  deplores"  that  they 
should  cease  to  be  heretics,  sunk  in  corruption  and  ignorance, 
though  they  become  "  decidedly  superior"  as  members  of  the 
Catholic  Church.  He  does  more  ;  he  rails  at  the  Catholic 
missionaries  for  "forming  a  schism,"  and  then  proposes  to  the 
Anglican  Establishment  to  re-convert  these  neophytes  from 
their  "  Romish"  errors  !  It  seems  that  if  we  desire  to  find 
unequalled  examples  of  this  kind,  we  must  now  look  for  them 
in  the  Anglican  clergy  of  the  High  Church  school.  But  we 
shall  hear  of  Mr.  Badger  again. 

The  Turks  appear  to  discriminate  more  exactly  than  Mr. 
Badger  between  heretics  and  Christians.  Bishop  Bonamie 
reports,  that  at  the  Catholic  funerals  in  Aleppo,  "  Janissaries, 
who  are  themselves  Mahometans,  precede  the  Cross,  and  oblige 
all  whom  they  meet  on  the  way,  without  excepting  the  Turks, 
to  behave  with  respect  and  reverence  before  this  sign  of  our 

salvation."! 

Of  the  Protestants  in  Aleppo — for  they  have  there  also  their 
usual  printing  press,  which  works  night  and  day  with  the  usual 
results — an  eager  advocate  tells  us,  "  On  more  than  one  occa 
sion  have  the  ecclesiastical  authorities  ordered  all  Protestant 
books,  all  Bibles  from  Protestant  presses,  &c.,  to  be  burned, 
destroyed,  or  delivered  into  their  hands.";}:  Of  one  school  of 
missionaries  in  that  city,  Mr.  Walpole  says,  "The  Presbyterian 
mission  here  bides  its  time,  and  perhaps  I  may  say  nothing  has 
yet  been  done  by  them."  He  remarks  also  that  the  mission 
aries  do  not  even  "  kneel  at  prayers ;  which,"  he  observes, 
"  seems  a  cold  form  of  adoration. "§  Their  Moslem  neighbors 
are  probably  of  the  same  opinion. 

*  The  Nestor ians  and  their  Rituals,  by  the  Rev.  G.  P.  Badger,  vol.  i., 
pp.  63,  180. 

f  Annales,  tome  viii.,  p.  553. 

j:  Journal  of  a  Deputation,  p.  822. 

§  The  Antayrii,  vol.  i.,  cli.  xiii.,  p.  205. 


38  CHAPTER   VIII. 

Returning  towards  the  south,  let  ns  visit  Damascus.  Here 
also  we  meet  the  usual  facts.  "  The  Christians,"  says  Mr. 
Warburton,  "  for  the  most  part  belong  to  the  Latin  Church." 
Times  are  changed  since,  in  1351,  twenty-two  Catholics  were 
crucified  in  Damascus  on  the  same  day.*  "  I  believe  about 


It  was  in  1832  that  the  Syrian  Bishop  of  Damascus  was  recon 
ciled  to  the  Church,  together  with  his  numerous  household  and 
relatives.§  At  the  present  day,  Dr.  Wilson  informs  us,  the 
Catholics  have  "  the  most  splendid  church  which  Damascus 
contains;"!  and  then  he  adds,  as  if  to  counterbalance  these 
unwelcome  proofs  of  their  progress,  "  In  its  services  it  is  diffi 
cult  to  recognize  the  simplicity  of  Christian  worship." 


The   "  simplicity"   of    his   Presbyterian    co-religionists,    at 
o  and  elsewm 


here,  who  refuse  to  kneel  in  the  presence  of 
that  God  before  whom  the  archangels  hide  their  faces,  and  even 
their  Immaculate  Queen  worships  with  awful  fear,  is  more 
agreeable  to  Dr.  Wilson.  To  insult  the  Most  High,  even  while 
they  imagine  they  are  adoring  Him,  is  commendable  "  simpli 
city,"  though  Daniel  "fainted  away  and  retained  no  strength.'* 
even  before  the  presence  of  an  angel. T  If  Dr.  Wilson  had  seen 
that  other  angel,  "  having,  a  golden  censer,"  to  whom  "  was 
given  much  incense,"  that  he  might  oifer  it  "  before  the  altar 
in  heaven  ;"**  he  would  perhaps  have  suggested  to  St.  John, 
who  did  see  it,  that  it  was  a  very  "  unscriptural"  ceremony,  and 
extremely  deficient  in  simplicity.  If  he  had  entered  that 
temple,  in  which  even  the  "  nails  of  gold,"  and  the  "  wings  of 
the  cherubim,"  and  "  the  curtain  rods"  were  all  prescribed  and 
fashioned  by  Divine  inspiration,  and  where  priests,  arrayed  in 
jewelled  robes  offered  a  mystical  sacrifice  by  Divine  command, 
he  would  perhaps  have  ventured  on  the  same  criticism.  It 
would  have  been  imprudent,  for  the  Hebrews  made  short  work 
of  blasphemers.  Yet  Calvin,  the  author  of  the  Presbyterian 
religion,  pushed  the  claims  of  "  simplicity"  still  further,  and 
marvelled  that  the  Son  of  God  did  not  rebuke  the  "  supersti 
tion"  of  the  woman  in  the  Gospel,  who  was  healed  by  touching 
"  the  hem  of  His  garment !"  It  was  intolerable  that  God  should 


*  Henrion,  tome  i.,  ch.  xviii.,  p.  195. 
f  The  Land  of  the  Morning,  ch.  xv.,  p.  271. 
i  Biblical  Researches  in  Palestine,  p.  462: 
§  Annales,  tome  vi.,  p.  291. 
J_  Lands  of  the  Bible,  p.  581. 
1  Dan.  x.  8. 
**  Apoc.  viii.  3. 


MISSIONS  IN  THE   LEVANT,   ETC.  39 

thus  sanction  the  principle  of  relic  worship,  and  the  Genevan 
bade  his  disciples  take  note  of  the  error.""  Surely  the  Prus 
sian  philosopher  had  reason  to  exclaim.  "  The  Calvinists  treat 
the  Saviour  as  their  inferior,  the  Lutherans  as  their  equal,  and 
Catholics  as  their  God."f 

Let  us  return  to  Damascus.  Another  English  writer,  of  the 
same  school  as  Dr.  Wilson,  notices  in  1854.  that  "  there  are  in 
Damascus  three  Latin  monasteries ;  the  buildings  are  good,  and 
have  libraries  attached  to  them,  containing  good  collections  of 
books  in  the  oriental  and  other  languages ;  there  are  also  large 
day-schools  under  the  direction  of  the  priesthood  :":{:  and  then 
he  scoffs  at  them  as  "  concealed  Jesuits."  The  Jesuits  have 
not  the  habit  of  concealing  themselves,  and  the  objects  of  his 
dislike,  were,  in  fact,  Franciscans  and  Lazarists.  That  their 
schools  are  more  accurately  appreciated  by  the  Damascenes 
than  by  this  Protestant  tourist,  we  learn  from  Dr.  Frankl,  who 
says,  "  It  is  worthy  of  notice  that  the  Jews  and  Mohammedans 
sometimes  send  their  children  to  the  schools  taught  by  the 
French  missionaries  of  the  order 'of  St.  Lazare."  Ubicini  also 
relates,  that  "their  two  schools  were  frequented,  in  1856,  by 
four  hundred  and  fifty  children," — which  perhaps  accounts  for 
the  irritation  of  their  English  visitors, — and  that  at  Beyrout, 
Salonica,  Aleppo,  and  wherever  the  Lazarist  missions  extend, 
"  hundreds  of  children  of  all  creeds  receive  elementary  instruc 
tion  freely  and  gratuitously." 

A  well-known  German  Protestant,  who  visited  the  Francis 
can  schools  at  Damascus,  expresses  surprise  and  admiration  at 
the  patient  charity  of  men  who  had  abandoned  all — they  have 
since  been  massacred  by  Turks — to  labor  in  this  field,  and  ex 
claims,  "The  natural  and  primitive  simplicity  with  which  they 
follow  their  calling  delighted  me  much."§  Yet  an  Anglican 
missionary,  who,  during  a  long  residence  in  Syria,  had  only 
learned  to  defame  the  works  which  he  knew  not  how  to  imi 
tate;  who  spent  his  time  in  sneering  at  Franciscans  and  Lazar 
ists,  and  even  at  those  Sisters  of  Charity  of  whom  the  more 
discerning  Moslem  speaks  with  affection  and  reverence  ;  affects 
to  deplore  the  miserably  defective  education  which  attracted 
scholars  of  every  class  and  creed,  and  of  which  other  Protes 
tants  will  presently  describe  to  us  the  real  character. ||  It  is 

*  "  Scimus  quam  proterve  ludat  superstitio.  .  .  .  Quod  a  veste  hcesit  potius, 
forte  zelo  inconsiderate  paululum  a  via  deflexit."  Comment,  in  Nov.  Test., 
tome  i.,  p.  220  ;  ed.  Tholuck. 

f  Dictionnaire  des  Apologistes  Involontaires,  introd.,  p.  31 ;  Migne. 

J  Journal  of  a  Deputation  to  the  East,  vol.  ii.,  p.  488. 

§  Countess  Halm-Halm,  Letters,  &c.,  vol.  ii.,  Letter  xxi.,  p.  55. 

I  Five  Years  in  Damascus,  by  tlie  Rev.  J.  L.  Porter,  M.A. ;  vol.  i.,  ch.  ML, 
p.  145. 


4:0  CHAPTER   VIII. 

creditable   to   English  arid  American   travellers,  that  almost 

the  only  individuals  of  either  nation  Avho  use  such  laniruajre 

• 
are  the  missionaries  themselves. 

We  should  perhaps  not  err* in  attributing  the  exasperation 
which  betrays  itself  in  such  expressions  to  the  mortification  of 
personal  failure.  After  many  years  of  lavish  expenditure, 
they  had  so  utterly  wasted  their  time  and  money,  that  Mr. 
Wortabet  unwillingly  confesses,  in  1856,  that  the  five  Protes 
tant  missionaries  in  Damascus  had  only  secured  sixteen  pre 
carious  pensioners,  who  were  probably  all  their  servants  and 
dependents  ;*  and  Dr.  Frankl  pleasantly  adds,  "  The  mission 
ary  society  has  as  yet  thrown  out  its  golden  net  at  Damascus 
in  vain.'7^ 

On  the  other  hand,  English  and  American  travellers  attest 
in  chorus  the  contrast  to  which  they  could  not  close  their  eyes, 
and  the  continual  triumphs  of  the  Catholic  faith,  throughout 
all  Syria,  in  spite  of  the  poverty  of  its  apostles.  "  At  Diarbe- 
kir,  some  years  ago,"  says  Mr.  Badger,  "  the  whole  Greek  com 
munity  in  the  town  became  Romanists.":}:  The  Nestorians  in 
the  neighborhood  quickly  followed  their  example.  "  At  Ain- 
tab,  an  American  missionary,*'  who  had  been  distributing  Bibles, 
"  was  driven  out  of  the  town  by  the  Armenians,"  says  Mr. 
Walpole  ;  "  not,  I  believe,  without  insults  and  some  violence."§ 
4nd  so  uniform  are  these  facts,  as  we  shall  see  more  fully 
hereafter,  that  a  Protestant  witness  observes,  that  even  in, 
places  "  whereafew  years  ago  there  were  no  Roman  Catholics, 
we  now  find  a  fair  share  of  the  population  belonging  to  that 
faith."|  Mr.  Jowett  had  reason  to  say,  "  All  Syria  is  com 
paratively  occupied  by  the  Roman  Catholics." 

Before  we  quit  Syria  to  enter  Palestine,  it  seems  impossible 
to  omit  one  or  two  reflections  upon  what  we  have  already 
heard.  It  is  proved,  by  Protestant  testimony,  that  throughout 
these  regions  the  Church  is  constantly  attracting  to  herself 
great  numbers  from  the  various  dissident  communities.  "  Men 
of  virtue  and  piety,"  says  a  learned  English  writer,  familiar 
with  many  of  the  forms  of  oriental  society,  "  are  often  found 
to  pass  from  the  Eastern  to  the  Roman  Catholic  communion, 
while  no'instance,  perhaps,  or  scarcely  an  instance,  can  be  ad 
duced  even  of  an  individual  of  acknowledged  piety  and  learn 
ing  passing  over  to  the  Eastern  Church."Tf 

*  Syria  and  the  Syrians,  ch.  vii..  p.  203. 
f  The  Jews  in  the  East,  vol.  i.,  ch.  viii.,  pp.  292,  7,  9. 
J  Badger,  vol.  i.,  p.  3. 
£  Walpole,  ch.  xvi.,  p.  255. 
Wortabet,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  xiv.,  p.  86. 
Palmer,  Dissertations  on  the  Orthodox  Communion,  p.  13. 


MISSIONS   IN   THE   LEVANT,   ETC.  41 

Some  Protestant  writers  are  still  more  emphatic,  and  we  must 
not  conclude  this  portion  of  our  subject  without  noticing  their 
remarkable  language.  "Not  one  of  the  ancient  Churches," 
says  the  Rev.  George  Williams,  formerly  a  chaplain  at  Jerusalem, 
"  but  was  visited  by  missionaries  of  the  Propaganda,  or  the 
enterprising  members  of  the  Society  of  Jesus.  .  .  .  When  we 
consider  the  zeal,  ability,  and  persevering  practice  of  the  best 
instructed  and  most  devoted  missionaries  that  the  world  has 
seen  since  primitive  times,  it  is  no  matter  of  surprise  that  their 
self-denying  labors  were  crowned  with  abundant  success."* 

"  It  is  difficult,"  says  another  English  Protestant,  familiar  by 
long  experience  and  observation  with  the  East  and  its  various 
races,  "to  meet  and  converse  with  the  zealous  and  talented 
missionaries  of  the  Propaganda  in  the  East,  and  not  feel  warmly 
for  their  situation.  They  are  exposed  to  no  ordinary  trial  of 
patience.  Educated  at  Rome,  accustomed  to  Italian  refinement 
and  conversation,  then  sent  to  some  remote  spot — remote  from 
causes  of  association  rather  than  from  distance — destined  to  pass 
their  lives  with  a  people  as  far  beneath  them  in  mental  culture 
as  separated  by  habits,  they  may  be  truly  said  to  be  banished 
men  in  the  sharpest  sense  of  the  term.  Still  we  might  at  times 
rather  envy  than  pity  them.  Commiseration  is  lost  sight  of  in 
our  admiration  at  the  disinterestedness  and  perseverance  which 
they  ever  display  in  the  performance  of  their  duties — a  good 
conscience  their  reward,  heaven  their  guide.  No  shadow  of 
preferment  looms  in  the  distance,  no  hope  of  distinction  cheers 
them  on,  not  one  of  the  ordinary  inducements  to  exertion 
prompts  them.  Courteous  with  the  gentleman,  confiding  with 
the  peasant,  caressing  with  the  distressed,  they  are,  as  St.  Paul 
expressed  himself  to  be,  '  All  things  to  all  men.'  Multiply  the 
generations  since  the  Osmanleys  conquered  the  country,  and  it 
will  appear  that  millions  of  souls  have  been  saved  by  these 
advanced  sentinels  of  Christianity,  ever  at  their  post  to  reclaim 
the  wavering  and  confirm  the  steadfast."f 

Dr.  Durbin,  an  American  Protestant  minister,  who  visited 
the  same  lands,  contents  himself  with  admitting  the  facts,  "  It 
is  not  possible,"  he  says,  "to  estimate  the  success  of  the  Romish 
missions  to  the  Oriental  Churches,  but  the  general  fact  is  clear, 
that  they  have  divided  them  all ;  so  that  there  is  in  Asia  a 
Papal-Greek  Church,  a  Papal-Armenian  Church,  a  Papal 
Church  among  the  JSTestorians,  a  Papal  Church  among  the 
Syrians,  and  also  many  of  the  Copts  in  Egypt. "J 


*  The  Holy  City,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  vi.,  p.  570. 

f  Slade,  Turkey,  Greece,  and  Malta,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  xx.,  p.  425. 

|  Vol.  ii.,  p.  287. 


42  CHAPTER  VIII. 

Other  Protestant  writers,  deeply  impressed,  in  spite  of 
incurable  and  fatal  prejudices,  with  the  grave  lessons  which 
they  have  brought  away  from  the  East, — and  especially  with  the 
demoralizing  influence  of  Protestant  missions, — do  not  hesitate 
to  avow  their  condemnation  of  efforts  which  lead  only  to  evil. 

"I  frankly  avow  my  opinion,"  says  the  Rev.  Mr.  Spencer, 
who  seems  to  be  a  Scotch  Episcopalian  minister,  "  that  missions 
from  the  various  religious  bodies  who  contribute  to  the  support 
of  the  gentlemen  laboring  in  Syria  can  never  l>e  productive  of 
permanent  results.  I  was  astonished  to  learn  how  little  had, 
after  all,  been  done."  And  again:  "It  deserves  to  be  well 
weighed  by  Protestants  at  home,  that  no  mission  of  theirs  to  the 
Oriental  Christians  has  succeeded  to  any  extent  commensurate 
with  the  means,  the  men,  the  time  devoted  to  their  conversion : 
may  it  not  properly  be  asked,  Are  we  ever  likely  to  succeed  any 
letter?"* 

Dr.  Wolff  says,  "I  cannot  help  thinking  that  the  Church 
Missionary  Society,  though  they  might  send  their  Lutheran 
missionaries  to  the  heathen,  ought  never  to  send  them  to  the 
Eastern  Churches.  It  is  a  gross  insult  to  them,"f — and  ap 
parently  a  very  unprofitable  one.  lie  adds,  with  characteristic 
frankness,  that  he  "is  sorry  to  make  the  declaration,  that  the 
worst  people  among  the  Eastern  natives  are  those  who  know 
English,  and  have  been  converted  to  Protestantism!1'^: 

Mr.  Williams  also  observes,  though  probably  without  much 
hope  of  obtaining  a  hearing,  "There  is  surely  an  ample  field  in 
the  East  for  the  European  and  American  missionaries,  without 
encroaching  on  other  Churches."  Jews,  Druses,  Mahometans, 
Arabs,  and  others,  are  the  avowed  enemies  of  Christianity,  as 
lie  remarks,  yet  the  luxurious  emissaries  of  Protestantism 
hardly  even  attempt  to  make  any  impression  on  them,  and 
invariably  fail  when  they  do.  "  They  are  merely  playing  at 
mission*"  adds  Mr.  Williams — and  with  this  frank  confession 
we  may  conclude — "while  they  limit  themselves  to  a  task  in 
volving  no  risk,  and  requiring  no  sacritices."§ 

It  is  impossible  not  to  be  struck  by  such  unexpected  language 
as  has  now  been  quoted,  from  Protestant  writers  of  various  and 
conflicting  schools,  in  illustration  of  the  eternal  contrast  which 
even  they  discern  between  Catholic  and  Protestant  missionaries 
and  the  fruits  of  their  labor.  But  there  is  yet  another 
emotion,  more  painful  than  surprise,  which  such  testimonies 

*  Travels  in  the  Holy  Land,  by  the  Rev.  J.  A.  Spencer,  M.A.,  Letter  xxii., 
pp.  483-4  (1850). 
f  P.  232. 

±  Travels  and  Adventures,  cli.  xv.,  p.  269  (1861). 
§  The  Holy  City,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  vi.,  p.  597. 


MISSIONS   IN   THE   LEVANT,    ETC.  43 

awaken.  The  witnesses  record  their  evidence,  in  spite  of 
natural  prejudice,  and  careless  of  the  resentment  of  their  less 
candid  co-religionists ;  and  this  courage  none  will  refuse  to 
applaud.  But  we  may  be  permitted  to  deplore  that  such  men, 
so  truthful  and  generous,  should  have  been  equally  successful 
in  banishing  another  kind  of  fear,  more  noble  and  legitimate 
— the  fear  of  Him  who  has  said,  "Out  of  thine  own  mouth  will 
I  judge  thee" 


JERUSALEM. 

And  now  let  us  go  to  Jerusalem.  The  project  of  the  King 
of  Prussia,  the  chief  of  the  Lutheran  communities,  was  eagerly 
adopted  by  a  Church  always  striving  to  make  alliance  with 
other  heretical  bodies,  and  always  unsuccessfully.  At  last  she 
has  succeeded.  The  Church  of  England — in  spite  of  the  un 
meaning  protests  of  a  class  who  seem  to  think,  like  Pilate,  that 
it  suffices  to  wash  their  hands  in  order  to  secure  immunity  for 
acts  which  they  invariably  make  their  own  by  acquiescence — 
consented  to  exercise,  alternately  with  a  Lutheran,  the  right  of 
nominating  a  Protestant  bishop  at  Jerusalem.  The  present 
holder  of  the  office  is  Dr.  Gobat,  of  whom  we  heard  in  Abys 
sinia.  An  English  biographer,  of  similar  religious  opinions, 
tells  us,  that  "  Gobat,  far  from  recognizing  the  Church  of 
England  as  the  sole,  or  even  the  most  Scriptural  Church  upon 
earth,  long  declined  receiving  her  ordination."*  This  writer 
plainly  intimates  that  he  would  never  have  received  it  at  all, 
but  it  was  the  turn  of  the  Establishment  to  nominate,  and  he 
was  obliged  to  submit.  The  accounts  of  the  Protestant  mission 
at  Jerusalem,  and  of  its  results,  are  so  absolutely  uniform,  with 
the  exception  of  one  or  two  writers  who  shall  be  noticed,  that 
we  may  call  our  witnesses  at  random.  The  more  serious  class 
of  Anglicans  are  ashamed  of  the  whole  proceeding,  and  would 
be  glad  to  bury  it  in  oblivion ;  we,  however,  have  no  motive 
for  declining  to  discuss  it. 

Dr.  Gobat's  biographer,  who  is  almost  indiscreet  in  his  frank 
ness,  reveals  the  secret  aim  of  his  party,  when  he  says,  "  The 
Jerusalem  episcopate  ought  to  be  a  Protestant  patriarchate." 
Let  us  inquire  how  far  this  project  has  been  realized. 

If  we  take  the  evidence  in  chronological  order,  it  will  run  as 
follows.  In  1841,  an  English  visitor  to  Jerusalem  says,  "We 
went  to  church  at  the  Consul's,  and  our  congregation  amount 
ed  to  only  ten,  including  an  American  missionary,"  and  the 

*  Evangelical  Christendom,  vol.  i.,  p.  79. 


44  CHAPTER   VIII. 

traveller's  own  party.  "As  to  the  advance  of  proselytism," 
adds  the  writer,  "Mr.  Nicholaison  does  not  consider  more  than 
five  converts  have  been  made  during  the  last  period  of  his 
residence,  nine  years."45' 

In  1842,  an  Anglican  clergyman  still  reports  the  congrega 
tion  to  consist  of  "  the  architect,  the  bishop's  family,  with  a 
portion  of  his  household,  and  two  missionaries."  But,  on  the 
other  hand,  this  gentleman  found  about  eight  hundred  Catholics 
at  Nazareth,  "  particularly  \vell  conducted  and  habited  for  the 
country ;  indeed,  the  children  who  attend  the  school  of  the 
monastery  were  quite  cleanly,  and  spoke  Italian  with  fluency."! 
And  one  of  the  most  distinguished  of  the  Anglican  clergy  re 
marks  of  the  same  mission,  where  he  heard  Arab  converts  sing 
the  chants  of  the  Latin  Church,  "  There  is  no  church  in  Pales 
tine  where  the  religious  services  seem  so  worthy  of  the  sacred- 
ness  of  the  place  ;"J  while  another  observes  that  the  Catholic 
women  of  Bethlehem  are  "  as  noted  for  their  independence  and 
moral  character  as  for  their  beauty.  "§ 

In  the  same  year,  an  American  traveller,  who  omits  even  to 
allude  to  the  "  Protestant  patriarchate,"  as  if  he  had  failed  to 
discover  it,  writes  as  follows:  "Every  traveller  who  has  visited 
Jerusalem  must  have  been  struck  with  the  contrast  between  the 
intelligence,  wit,  and  learning  of  the  friars  of  the  Latin  con 
vent,  and  the  besotted  and  gross  ignorance  of  the  Greek  monks, 
whose  superstitious  fanaticism  is  but  little  removed  above  that 
of  the  Mussulmen."||  And  this  is  confirmed,  with  characteristic 
felicity  of  language,  by  the  author  of  Eothen^  when  he  says  of 
the  "  Padre  Superiore,"  and  the  "  Padre  Mission ario"  of  the 
Jerusalem  monastery,  "  By  the  natives  of  the  country,  as  well 
as  by  the  rest  of  the  brethren,  they  are  looked  upon  as  superior 
beings;  and  rightly  too,  for  nature  seems  to  have  crowned  them 
in  her  own  true  way.  The  chief  of  the  Jerusalem  convent  was 
a  noble  creature ;  his  worldly  and  spiritual  authority  seemed  to 
have  surrounded  him,  as  it  were,  with  a  kind  of  '  Court,'  and 
the  manly  gracefulness  of  his  bearing  did  honor  to  the  throne 

which  he  filled If  he  went  out,  the  Catholics  of  the  place 

that  hovered  about  the  convent  would  crowd  around  him  with 


*  Mrs.  Dawson  Darner,  vol.  i.,  p.  309  ;  vol.  ii.,  p.  33. 

f  Egypt  and  the  Holy  Lund,  by  W.  Drew  Stent,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  ii.,  p.  44 ;  ch.  vi., 
p.  148. 

i  Sinai  and  Palestine,  by  Artlitir  Penrhyn  Stanley,  M.A.,  p.  437. 

§  The  Pilgrim  in  the  Holy  Land,  by  the  Rev.  Henry  B.  Osborn,  M.A.,  ch. 
xvi.,  p.  200. 

|  Tour  through  Turkey,  Greece,  &c.,  by  E.  Joy  Morris,  vol.  i.,  ch.  vi.,  p.  116. 
•  Dr.  Thomson  also  contra  sts  the  "  decorum  and  solemnity  of  deportment  of  the 
Latin  monks"  with  the  grossness  of  "  the  Greeks  and  Armenians."  The  Land 
and  the  Book,  ch.  xlii.,  p.  650. 


MISSIONS  IN  THE  LEVANT,  ETC.  45 

devout  affection,  and  almost  scramble  for  the  blessing  which 
his  touch  could  give."* 

In  1843,  Mr.  Millard  arrives  at  the  gloomy  conviction,  "that 
Jerusalem  is  of  almost  all  other  places  the  least  accessible  by 
Protestant  missionary  labors. "f 

In  1844,  a  witness  of  a  different  class  appears.  The  reader 
may  possibly  remember  the  Rev.  I.Tomlin,  an  Anglican  minis 
ter,  who  visited  China  and  so  many  other  places,  always  in 
submission  to  "  calls"  which  he  had  not  courage  to  disobey. 
Mr.  Tomlin  says,  "The  labors  of  the  Protestant  Bishop  of 
Jerusalem  have  been  remarkably  blessed  of  the  Lord."  He 
says  it  quite  seriously,  and  evidently  without  forecasting  what 
later  witnesses  might  possibly  record  on  the  same  subject.  Mr. 
Tomlin  adds,  "The  Roman  legions  are  gone  forth,  and  are 
fast  preoccupying  the  ground ;"  and  then  he  exclaims,  as  if 
resenting  a  personal  wrong,  "  They  covertly  creep  in  by  the 
way  which  Protestant  Britain  has  opened  !":£  The  observation 
betrays  some  defect  of  historical  accuracy.  There  was  once  a 
Christian  "  kingdom  of  Jerusalem,"  as  Mr.  Tomlin  might  have 
remembered,  which  lasted  nearly  two  hundred  years ;  and  as 
Catholic  missionaries  have  now  been  there  for  a  good  many 
centuries,  we  may  perhaps  say,  without  too  much  severity,  that 
the  notion  of  their  recent  and  covert  arrival  under  British  pro 
tection  is  altogether  worthy  of  Mr.  Tomlin.  Protestant  Britain 
has  not  often  been  very  generous  to  "  the  Roman  legions,"  and 
has  certainly  not  hitherto  afforded  them  much  assistance  at 
Jerusalem. 

In  1847,  Dr.  Rae  Wilson,  who  had  perhaps  not  read  Mr. 
Tomlin,  and  was  evidently  unconscious  of  being  "  remarkably 
blessed"  in  his  solitude,  says,  "At  this  time  I  was  the  only 
Protestant  in  Jerusalem. "§ 

In  the  same  year,  Tischendorff  gives  this  account  of  the 
operations  of  the  "  patriarchate"  which  Dr.  Rae  Wilson  and 
Mr.  Joy  Morris  failed  to  discern :  "  With  respect  to  the 
baptism  of  converts  in  Jerusalem,  it  is,  as  far  as  I  know, 
framed  to  an  accommodation  with  the  most  modern  Judaism. 
Six  thousand  piastres  (about  tit'ty  pounds)  are  offered  to  the 
convert  as  a  premium;  other  advantages  are  said  likewise  to 
be  considerable."! 

In  spite  of  these  attractions,  the  results  could  hardly  be 
deemed  satisfactory ;  for  in  the  same  year  Lord  Castlereagh 

*  Ch.  x. 

f  Journal  of  Travels  in  Egypt,  by  D.  Millard,  ch.  xvl,  p.  262. 

|  Missionary  Journals,  &c.,  introd.,  pp.  13,  15. 

§  Travels  in  the  Holy  Land,  &c.,  ch.  xviii.,  p.  385. 

f  Travels  in  the  East,  by  Constantine  Tischendorff,  p.  159. 


46  CHAPTER  VIII. 

expressed  this  opinion,  founded  on  personal  examination : 
"The  progress  of  conversion,  and  the  interests  of  Christianity, 
do  not  at  present  seem  to  require  or  warrant  so  large  a  church 
establishment  as  is  here  maintained.  I  inquired  in  vain  for 
any  number  of  converts  that  could  be  properly  authenticated." 
And  then  he  describes  once  more  the  scanty  official  audience 
with  which  we  are  already  familiar,  "  The  bishop  has  scarcely 
a  congregation,  besides  his  chaplains,  his  doctor,  and  their 
families."* 

Dr.  Gobat,  however,  did  sometimes  make  a  convert,  as  we 
saw  in  Abyssinia,  in  the  case  of  the  "  noble  Abyssinian" 
Girgis,  who  abandoned  the  Anglican  tenets  for  Mahometanism. 
Here  is  one  more  specimen  of  Dr.  Gobat's  success.  A  certain 
"  Joseph"  was  "  acknowledged  by  the  missionaries  Gobat  and 
Mueller  as  a  sincere  convert."f  Indeed  Admiral  Slade  says, 
and  it  is  perfectly  true,  that  he  "figured  more  than  once  in  the 
reports  of  the  Bible  Society,  and  has  been  cited  as  an  instance 
of  the  success  attending  the  missionaries'  labor."  He  was 
even  "strongly  recommended  as  one  admirably  qualified  to 
preach  the  Gospel  among  the  Arabs."  The  qualifications  of 
this  favorite  of  the  Bible  Society  were  these.  Dr.  Wolff,  to 
whom  he  gave  lessons  in  Arabic,  says  that  he  was  "  the  most 
infamous  hypocrite  and  impostor  I  ever  met  with  ;"  and  he  had 

food  reason  to  say  it,  for  this  "admirably  qualified"  missionary 
roke  open  Dr.  Wolffs  trunk,  stole  all  he  possessed,  and  then 
ran  away.:):     Dr.  Gobat  is  evidently  not  happy  in  his  converts, 
nor  the  Bible  Society  in  its  heroes. 

In  1848,  we  have  an  official  account  by  Dr.  Gobat  himself. 
"Our  little  congregation,"  he  says,  "goes  its  quiet  way.  I 
regret  that  we  have  not  more  spiritual  life.  ...  I  believe  there 
is  growth  in  grace  with  some,  and  there  is  less  division" $ 
Yet  Miss  Brerner,  an  intimate  friend  of  all  the  parties,  laments 
several  years  later  the  "  bitter  schism  between  Christians  who 
attend  the  same  church,"  which  was  a  jest  among  the  English 
in  Jerusalem,  and  particularly  that  Mrs.  Gobat  and  Mrs.  Finn, 
the  Consul's  wife,  "do  not  speak  to  each  other,  because  their 
husbands  have  become  enemies!"] 

In  1852,  an  English  clergyman,  who  describes  the  singular 
use  made  of  "  the  Bibles  and  tracts  so  profusely  spread  among 
the  Eastern  nations,"  gives  this  grave  account  of  the  converts 
who  had  been  obtained  up  to  that  date:  "Their  belief  is  a 

*  A  Journey  to  Damascus,  &c..  vol.  ii.,  ch.  xix.,  p.  3. 

f  Wolff,  p.  285. 

J  Slade,  p.  521. 

^  Margoliouth,  vol.  ii.,  p.  295. 

|  Travels  in  the  Holy  Land,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  xi.,  p.  104. 


I 


MISSIONS  IN  THE  LEVANT,   ETC,  47 

blank,  and  their  principles  distinctly  Antinomian.  I  maintain, 
from  observation,  that  to  one  class  or  other  of  these  all  the 
proselytes  made  to  Protestantism  in  the  East  belong.  They 
are  either  worthless  persons,  or  skeptics  and  infidels.  The 
reports  of  the  missionary  societies  themselves  exhibit  the  truth 

of  these  allegations The  work  of  the  Protestant  missions 

is  simply  destructive  /  they  first  make  a  tabula  rasa  of  minds, 
on  which  they  never  afterwards  succeed  in  inscribing  the  laws 
of  a  sincere  faith  or  consistent  practice."* 

Two  years  later,  in  1854,  the  representative  of  an  English 
missionary  society  still  confesses  of  these  ambiguous  "  converts," 
that  "  they  have  not  unfrequently  some  hidden  motive  of 
worldly  advantage."f  We  shall  hear  them  presently  discuss 
ing  the  real  motive  among  themselves. 

Admiral  Slade,  in  the  same  year,  prepares  us  for  future 
revelations  by  this  statement :  "  I  will  not  say  that  any  of 
them  are  gained  by  actual  bribery,  but  they  certainly  are  by 
promises  of  employment  in  the  missionary  line,  promises  often 
not  fulfilled,  in  consequence  of  which  the  converts  are  reduced 
to  distress."^  The  Rev.  Moses  Margoliouth,  now  an  Anglican 
clergyman,  incidentally  confirms  this  unfavorable  statement. 
This  gentleman,  an  associate  of  Dr.  Gobat,  while  he  deplores 
the  exceeding  frailty  of  Hebrew  Protestants,  does  not  on  that 
account  permit  himself  to  be  discouraged.  He  even  derives 
consolation  from  an  unexpected  source.  "  I  do  not  affirm," 
he  says,  "  that  baptized  Jews  do  not  afford  instances  of 
consummate  rascality.  So  do  the  clergy  of  our  beloved 
Church."§ 

In  1855,  Mr.  Bayard  Taylor,  an  intelligent  American,  relates 
that  as  they  could  not  make  converts  at  Jerusalem,  Protestant 
Jews  "  were  brought  hither  at  the  expense  of  English  missionary 
societies,  for  the  purpose  of  forming  a  Protestant  community." 
The  process  was  costly,  for  he  adds,  that  "it  is  estimated  that 
each  member  of  the  community  has  cost  the  mission  about  four 
thousand  five  hundred  pounds ;  a  sum  which  would  have 
christianized  tenfold  the  number  of  English  heathen.  The 
mission,  however,  is  kept  up  by  its  patrons  as  a  sort  of  religious 
luxury/'  On  the  other  hand,  this  gentleman  observes,  "  Many 
others  besides  ourselves  have  had  reason  to  be  thankful  for  the 
good  offices  of  the  Latin  monks  in  Palestine.  I  have  never 
met  with  a  class  more  kind,  cordial,  and  genial. "[ 

*  Patterson,  Journal  of  a  Tour  in  Egypt,  p.  455. 

f  Journal  of  a  Deputation,  vol.  ii..  p.  351. 

J  P.  519.     ' 

§  A  Pilgrimage  to  the  Land  of  my  Fathers,  vol.  ii.,  p.  334 

f  The  Lands  of  the  Saracen,  ch.  v.,  p.  78 ;  cli.  vi.,  p.  100. 


48  CHAPTER  VIII. 

% 

"The  Latins,''  says  a  German  Protestant — for  all  the  inde- 


hospitality  of  the  Catholic  monks,  if  they  could,  for  they  see 
with  displeasure  their  co-religionists  dwelling  as  guests  within 
the  Latin  monasteries ;  but "  a  Protestant  establishment  is  quite 
out  of  the  question,"  for  the  following  reason  :  "The  several 
parties  would  not  easily  agree  to  whom  it  should  belong, 
whether  to  the  Calvinists  or  to  the  Lutherans,  to  the  Presby 
terians  or  to  the  Anglican  Church."*  A  little  later,  however, 
they  escaped  from  their  embarrassment ;  they  could  not  unite 
in  erecting  a  monastery  or  a  church,  but  they  combined  their 
resources  and  built  an  hotel. 

In  1857,  Mr.  Gibson  repeats  a  tale  which  has  now  become 
somewhat  monotonous.  "  As  yet,  few  Hebrews  have  been 
induced  here  to  profess  Christianity.  Some  even  of  these  have 
gone  lacJc  to  Judaism. "f 

The  failure,  after  twenty  years  of  prodigious  expenditure,  had 
now  become  so  evident,  and  people  at  home  were  beginning  to 
talk  of  it  so  loudly,  that  the  missionaries  seem  to  have  resolved 
that  they  must  make  a  diversion  amongst  the  Christian  sects 
rather  than  continue  to  do  nothing.  But  there  was  this  difficulty, 
that  they  were  pledged  not  to  attempt  to  proselyte  the  oriental 
sectaries.  Relief  came  to  Dr.  Gobat  in  this  perplexity  from  an 
unexpected  quarter.  The  narrator  of  the  incident  is  the  Rev. 
Dr.  Stewart,  who  tells  us,  that  "  Lord  Palmerston  has  authori 
tatively  stated  that  the  bishop  has  a  right  to  receive  those  from 
other  communions  who  apply  to  him  for  instructions."  This 
pontifical  decision  of  the  eminent  statesman  removed,  as  might 
be  expected,  all  difficulty — except  that  of  procuring  the  appli 
cants  for  instructions.  In  this  Lord  Palmerston  could  not  offer 
them  any  assistance.  They  were  left,  therefore,  to  their  usual 
methods;  and  Dr.  Stewart  sufficiently  indicates  what  they  were, 
when  he  expresses  his  regret  that  "there  is  no  way  of  making 
trial  of  a  convert's  sincerity  before  his  admission  into  the  insti 
tution  ;"  and  then  frankly  allows,  that  "the  principle  of  giving 
support  to  every  convert  I  deern  faulty.":): 

VVe  have  perhaps  heard  enough  of  the  Jerusalem  Protestant 
mission  and  its  results,  but  we  must  not  quit  the  subject  without 
a  brief  notice  of  five  important  witnesses — Dr.  Frankl,  Dr. 
"Wolff,  Dr.  Robinson,  Mr.  Williams,  and  Dr.  Thomson, — a  Jew,  a 

*  Countess  Halm-Halm,  Letter  xxix. 

+  Recollections  of  other  Lands,  by  William  Gibson,  B.A.,  ch.  xxxviii.,  p.  404. 
;  A  Journey   to  Syria  and  Palestine,  by  Robert  Walter  Stewart,    D.D. 
(Leghorn),  ch.  viii.,  pp.  294,  iI03. 


MISSIONS   IN  THE   LEVANT,  ETC.  49 

proselyte,  and  three  Protestants,  who  have  all  dwelt  in  Jerusalem, 
and  who  confirm  each  other's  testimony  in  an  unexpected  way. 

The  first  of  these  writers,  whose  work  has  been  introduced 
to  English  readers  by  Mr.  Beaton,  gives  this  account:  "  The 
Protestants  give  earnest-money,  and  demoralize  families.  When 
a  father  sternly  rebukes  his  children,  it  is  not  unusual  for  them 
to  reply  with  the  insolent  threat,  'I  will  go  to  the  mission.'" 
He  mentions  an  example  of  a  Jew  who  had  got  into  difficulties 
by  stealing  two  thousand  five  hundred  piastres,  and  who,  when 
his  co-religionists  "  refused  to  intercede  for  him,  out  of  revenge 
went  to  the  mission ;"  but  as  the  thief  still  had  some  religious 
prepossessions,  he  implored  Dr.  Frankl  to  lend  him  the  sum 
abstracted,  "  to  save  him,  his  wife,  and  six  children  from  being 
baptized  !"  Dr.  Frankl  adds,  that  this  case  "  may  serve  as  an 
example  of  the  morals  and  principles  of  those  who  are  con 
verted  ;"  and  that  so  little  importance  is  attached  to  the  mo 
mentary  profession  of  Protestantism  by  a  Jew,  that  his  family 
content  themselves  with  observing,  "  He  will  soon  come  back 
after  he  has  helped  himself."  Indeed,  we  are  told  by  a  friend 
and  countryman  of  Dr.  Gobat,  that  the  Hebrew  proselyte,  when 
he  has  exhausted  Protestant  benevolence  at  Jerusalem,  "  has 
become  more  than  ever  a  Jew  by  the  time  he  has  reached  Jaffa, 
Hebron,  or  Tiberias."* 

Dr.  Frankl  relates  also  the  curious  fact  that  "  converts"  from 
the  Jews  "  receive  baptism  in  different  cities  before  they  reach 
Jerusalem,"  where  they  are  finally  re-baptized,  with  a  fresh 
payment  for  the  operation  ;  an  account  which  is  confirmed  by 
the  amusing  authoress  of  Travels  in  Barbary,  who  is  much  de 
famed  by  Mr.  Margoliouth  for  presuming  to  say  of  one  of  his 
Jewish  converts,  "  This  is  at  least  the  twentieth  time  he  has 
been  baptized."  And  even  this  was  so  far  from  a  solitary  case, 
that  a  Polish  Jew  remarked  to  some  of  his  friends,  "  Baptism 
was  the  only  good  business  we  had,  and  who  has  spoiled  it? 
The  Jews  themselves,  by  underselling  one  another"^ 

Dr.  Wolff,  who  is  a  still  better  witness  than  Dr.  Frankl, 
gives  a  sorrowful  account  of  the  London  Society  for  the  Con 
version  of  the  Jews.  In  fifty-two  years,  he  says,  not  without 
reproaching  himself  for  his  own  pleasantry,  "they  had  spent 
eight  hundred  thousand  pounds,  and  only  converted  two  Jews 

*  Mislin.  Les  Lieux  Saints,  tome  iii.,  ch.  xxviii.,  p.  65. 

f  The  Jews  in  the  East,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  ii.,  pp.  53,  54.  Yet  the  Protestant  mis 
sionaries,  knowing  what  their  employers  expect  from  them,  are  never  weary 
of  supplying  the  materials  for  perpetuating  the  delusion  of  the  home  subscri 
bers.  Thus  one  of  their  number  gravely  assures  his  readers,  on  the  authority 
of  a  Jew,  that  "in  six  years  all  the  Jews  would  become  Christians  !"  Mason, 
Three  Years  in  Turkey,  p.  137. 

VOL.  ii.  5 


50  CHAPTER   VIII. 

and  a  half  I"*  Nearly  half  a  century  ago,  the  Rev.  Lewis 
Way,  ai  Anglican  minister,  generously  discharged  all  their 
liabilities,  "  took  sixteen  Jews  into  his  own  house,  and  baptized 
several  of  them ;  but,  soon  after  their  baptism,  they  stolehis  silver 
spoons,  and  one  of  them  was  transported  to  Australia,  having 
forged  Mr.  Way's  signature." 

The  history  which  began  so  inauspiciously  never  varied. 
A  little  later,  "  a  young  man  of  extraordinary  talents,  Nehe- 
miah  Solomon,  was  ordained  by  Bishop  Burgess,  ....  and 
seemed  to  be  going  on  well,  when  he  suddenly  ran  away,  after 
having  drawn  three  hundred  pounds  from  the  society,  and  was 
never  heard  of  afterwards."  Other  examples  of  the  same  kind 
so  deeply  affected  Mr.  Way,  that  "  at  last  the  dear  man  died 
at  Leamington,  broken-hearted." 

Dr.  Wollf  himself  was  hardly  less  impressed  by  a  similar 
series  of  disasters.  "The  Jews'  Society  for  Promoting  Chris 
tianity,"  he  wrote  to  his  friend,  Mr.  Henry  Drumrnond,  "has 
been  disappointed  by  every  Jew  they  took  up.  One  became  a 
Muhammedan,  another  a  thief,  a  third  a  pickpocket,"  &c.  At 
Cairo,  "  a  Jew  of  high  talent"  visited  Dr.  Wolff,  and  confessed 
"  that  he  had  three  times  professed  himself  a  Muhainmedan,  in 
order  to  make  his  fortune,  and  had  divorced  a  dozen  wives," 
&c.  Upon  which  he  adds,  "  Wolff  preached  to  him  the  Gospel 
of  Christ,  and  exhorted  him  to  repentance."  It  does  not  appear 
that  the  exhortation  was  effectual. 

At  Damascus,  Aleppo,  Jerusalem,  wherever  lie  went,  He 
brew  "  converts"  were  uniformly  of  the  same  type,  so  that  his 
abundant  experience  constrained  him  to  observe,  "  Jews  who 
are  converted  by  societies  are  like  Eastern  fruits  cultivated  in 
green-houses  in  Europe,  and  have  not  the  flavor  of  those  which 
are  naturally  grown."  Yet  he  never  seems  to  have  suspected 
the  true  cause  of  so  many  failures,  though  he  confesses  that 
many  Jews  who  had  become  Catholics  have  been  Christians 
indeed.  "  Emanuel  Yeit,  in  Yienna,"  he  says;  "the  two 
Yeits,  step-sons  to  Friederich  Schlegel ;  Monsieur  Ratisbon,  of 
Strasbourg ;  are  all  true  lights  in  the  Church  of  Christ."  lie 
admits  too,  with  his  usual  candor,  that  Ratisbon  was  converted 
like  St.  Paul,  "  suddenly,  by  miracle," — an  apparition  of  the 
Mother  of  God  ;  and  he  adds,  "  Only  those  Jews  who  are  con 
verted  in  such  an  extraordinary  way  are  worth  any  thing.rf 

Dr.  Robinson,  the  author  of  a  well-known  work  on  the  to 
pography  of  Jerusalem,  confirms  all  the  other  witnesses.  a  The 
efforts  of  the  English  mission"  he  seems  to  think  unworthy  of 

*  Travels  and  Adventures  of  Dr.  Wolff,  ch.  xxiv.,  p.  417  (1861). 
f  Ch.  v.,  pp.  80,  85 ;  ch.  vi.,  p.  181. 


MISSIONS   IN  THE   LEVANT,    ETC.  51 

serious  notice ;  while  of  his  own  countrymen,  the  Americans, 

he  gives  the  following  account :  "  The  house  of ,"  one  of  the 

missionaries,  "was  large,  with  marble  floors,  and  had  on  one 
side  an  extensive  and  pleasant  garden,  with  orange  and  other 
fruit  trees  and  many  flowers.  It  furnished  indeed  one  of  the 
most  desirable  and  beautiful  residences  in  the  city."  We  have 
been  told  by  the  wife  of  another  American  missionary,  that 
"many  are  the  comforts  and  pleasant  things  about  this  life  in 
the  East,"  and  her  countrymen  evidently  agree  with  her.  Sur 
rounded  by  so  many  enjoyments,  to  which  they  would  probably 
have  aspired  in  vain  in  Boston  or  Philadelphia,  we  are  not 
surprised  to  learn  from  Dr.  Robinson,  that "  the  plague  and  other 
circumstances"  soon  scattered  these  opulent  missionaries,  and 
even  "  conspired  to  suspend  wholly,  for  a  time,  the  labors  of 
the  American  mission  in  Jerusalem." 

There  is  another  class  of  missionaries  whom  the  plague  some 
times  kills,  but  never  puts  to  flight.  The  Protestant  agents, — • 
who  would  undertake  at  any  moment  to  teach  a  St.  Francis,  a 
Bonnieux,  or  a  Riccadonna,  a  more  "scriptural"  and  enlight 
ened  piety, — prefer  to  run  away  when  danger  knocks  at  their 
doors;  and  so  Dr.  Robinson  relates,  as  if  the  precaution  of  his 
missionary  friends  was  too  natural  to  require  any  comment, 
that  though  on  this  occasion  the  plague  only  acted  "  mildly," 
"  the  missionaries  broke  off  their  sittings,  and  those  from  abroad 
hastened  to  depart  with  their  families  !"* 

It  was  almost  at  this  moment  that  the  author  of  a  celebrated 
English  book  published  the  following  narrative:  "It  was 
about  three  months  after  the  time  of  my  leaving  Jerusalem 
that  the  plague  set  his  spotted  foqt  on  the  Holy  City.  The 
monks  felt  great  alarm ;  they  did  not  shrink  from  their  duty. 
...  A  single  monk  was  chosen,  either  by  lot,  or  by  some  other 
fair  appeal  to  destiny ;  being  thus  singled  out,  he  was  to  go 
forth  into  the  plague-stricken  city,  and  to  perform  with  exact 
ness  his  priestly  duties.  .  .  .  He  was  provided  with  a  bell,  and 
at  a  certain  hour  in  the  morning  he  was  ordered  to  ring  it,  if 
h#  could  ;  but  if  no  sound  was  heard  at  the  appointed  time, 
then  his  brethren  knew  that  he  wras  either  delirious  or  dead, 
and  another  martyr  was  sent  forth  to  take  his  place.  In  this 
way  tioenty-one  of  the  monks  were  carried  off"^ 

Dr.  Robinson,  who  does  not  love  Catholics,  is  fain  to  confess 
that  they  do  not  much  resemble  his  own  friends.  Of  their 
inflexible  constancy,  although  surrounded  by  every  evil  ex 
ample,  he  gives  this  instance :  "  The  Christians  of  the  Latin 
rite  (native  Arabs)  are  said  to  be  descended  from  Catholic  con- 

*  Pages  327,  368. 
f  Eothen,  ch.  x. 


52  CHAPTER  VIII. 

verts  in  the  times  of  the  Crusades."  Centuries  have  left  them  un 
changed.  The  Catholic  college  in  Kesrawan,  in  which  they 
teach  Arahic,  Syriac,  Latin,  and  Italian,  "  takes  a  higher  stand," 
he  says,  "  than  any  other  similar  establishment  in  Syria." 
"What  he  relates  of  the  Maronites  we  shall  learn  hereafter. 
The  Protestants,  he  superfluously  observes,  u  do  not  exist  in 
Syria  as  a  native  sect." 

Lastly,  Mr.  Williams,  a  highly  respectable  Anglican  clergy 
man,  and  once  a  chaplain  in  Jerusalem, — who,  like  most  of  his 
order,  remains  wholly  unimpressed  even  by  the  lamentable  facts 
which  he  discloses, — gives  us  the  following  information  :  "  It 
was  an  unfortunate  circumstance  for  our  Church  that  it  was 
first  introduced  to  the  Christians  of  Jerusalem,  in  later  times, 
by  a  Danish  Lutheran  minister."  The  Church  of  Mr.  Williams 
has  usually  been  introduced  by  persons  of  the  same  class.  This 
one,  he  says,  wTas  admitted  u  to  orders  in  the  English  Church, 
on  grounds  of  convenience  rather  than  of  conviction."  But  the 
Church  of  England,  if  she  cannot  produce  missionaries  of  her 
own,  is  wealthy  enough  to  pay  for  the  services  of  others.  "  A 
church  capable  of  accommodating  four  or  five  hundred  persons 
was  commenced,"  Mr.  Williams  remarks,  "  while  as  yet  there 
were  but  eight  or  ten  individuals  for  whom  it  would  be  avail 
able,  and  even  they  were  there  simply  with  a  view  to  its  con 
struction  !"  They  were,  he  adds,  "  the  clergyman,  the  architect, 
and  his  clerk,  the  foreman  of  the  works,  the  carpenter,  an  apoth 
ecary,  and  one  other."*  For  this  professional  congregation  a 
church  was  commenced,  which,  Dr.  Durbin  says,  "  will  cost 
about  one  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  dollars." 

Mr.  Williams  next  describes  the  operations  of  the  gentlemen 
who  minister  in  this  church  :  "  The  missionary  operations  of  the 
society's  agents  have  not  been  such  as  to  exhibit  to  the  natives 
an  example  of  earnest  zeal  for  the  conversion  of  the  Jews,  nor 
the  treatment  of  the  converts  such  as  to  impress  them  with  a 
favorable  idea  of  their  discretion."  He  laments  the  "  serious 
errors  and  defects  in  the  faith,  scandalous  irregularities  and 
excesses  in  the  practice,  of  the  ill-instructed  members  of  this 
small  congregation."  Finally,  he  observes,  that  "self-sacrifices 
and  simple  trust  were  not  taught  either  by  precept  or  example 
by  the  missionaries  at  Jerusalem. "f  Yet  Mr.  Williams  has 
probably  no  doubt  whatever  that  the  system  will  continue,  at 

*  The  Ildij  City,  pp.  579,  587. 

f  P.  593.  "Mr.  Salt  complained  that  the  London  Society  for  promoting 
Christianity  among  the  Jews  had  sent  a  most  unfit  missionary  to  Jerusalem. . . 
who  was  evidently  a  mere  speculator.  He  sold  medicine  to  the  ladies,  in  order 
that  they  might  be  blessed  with  children,  and  pretended  to  know  witchcraft." 
I>r.  Wolff,  Travels  and  Adventures,  ch.  vi.,  p.  107. 


MISSIONS  IN  THE  LEVANT,   ETC.  53 

the  same  enormous  cost,  under  the  direction  of  the  same  class 
of  men,  and  with  precisely  the  same  results. 

This  amiable  wrfter,  who  records  facts  but  seems  never  to 
draw  conclusions,  describes  also  "  the  very  unsatisfactory  native 
Protestants"  made  by  the  Americans, — during  the  intervals  of 
"  the  plague  and  other  circumstances," — and  gives  examples  of 
the  class  generally.  One,  an  unfortunate  Greek  apostate,  "  the 
most  favorable  specimen  by  far,"  after  being  first  an  Inde 
pendent,  then  an  Anglican,  "  had  fallen  into  a  state  of  listless 
indifference  and  unconcern  which  it  was  most  grievous  to  wit 
ness."  A  second,  a  Greek  monk,  "offered  himself  to  Bishop 
Gobat  as  a  Protestant  convert."  His  sole  motive  was,  "  that 
the  Patriarch  had  imposed  upon  him  some  discipline  to  which 
he  did  not  choose  to  submit."  Another,  "  a  monk  from  Mount 
Lebanon,  told  me  he  wished  to  become  a  Protestant.  'Why?' 
4 1  want  to  marry.'  c  No  other  reason  ?'  '  None.'  "* 

Lastly,  in  1862,  Dr.  Thomson  thus  records  his  candid  im 
pressions,  after  an  experience  of  twenty-five  years  as  a  mission 
ary  in  Syria  and  Palestine  :  "  Our  missionary  experience  in 
this  matter  is  most  painful,  and  I  hope  somewhat  peculiar.  It 
would  not  be  charitable — possibly  not  just — to  say  to  every 
applicant,  You  seek  us,  not  because  you  have  examined  our 
doctrines  and  believe  them,  but  for  the  loaves  and  fishes  of 
some  worldly  advantage  which  you  hope  to  obtain  ;  and  yet  it  is 
difficult  for  me  at  this  moment  to  recall  a  single  instance  in 
which  this  was  not  the  first  moving  motive."  Then  relating  an 
anecdote  of  a  pretended  disciple  of  Dr.  Chalmers,  who  "  almost 
kicked  the  mercenary  wretch  out  of  his  house"  when  he  found 
that  he  wanted  to  borrow  money  of  him,  he  adds,  that  if 
Chalmers  "had  adopted  the  same  summary  mode  in  Palestine, 
he  might  just  as  well  have  remained  at  home  in  his  mother's 
nursery  for  all  the  good  he  would  have  effected  here."f 

Such,  by  the  testimony  of  her  own  clergy,  as  well  as  of 
strangers,  is  the  history  of 'the  Church  of  England  in  Jerusalem. 
It  resembles  her  history  everywhere  else.,  but  in  the  Holy  City 
wicli  facts  seem  to  acquire  additional  gravity.  Nor  is  this  all. 
Not  only  do  Protestants  fail,  in  Jerusalem  as  elsewhere,  to 
propagate  their  own  religious  opinions,  they  appear  even  to 
lose  in  no  small  number  of  cases,  whatever  sentiment  of  re 
ligion  they  originally  possessed.  None  but  a  Catholic  can 
safely  visit  holy  places,  much  less  the  scenes  where  th,e  Spn  of 
God  passed  the  years  of  His  human  life.  ^  It  is  useless  to 
deny,"  says  Mr.  Stanley,  "  that  there  is  a  sliock  to  the  religious 

*  Pages  578,  595. 

f  The  Land  an$  the  Book,  ch.  xxvii.,  p.  408. 


54:  CHAPTER  Vlir. 

sentiment  in  finding  ourselves  on  the  actual  ground  of  events 
which  we  have  been  accustomed  to  regard  as  transacted  in 
heaven  rather  than  on  earth."*  In  other  words,  only  the  be 
liever,  whose  religion  \9>  faith  and  not  sentiment,  and  who  is 
able  to  penetrate  with  unerring  glance  all  symbolical  and  sacra 
mental  veils,  and  quick  to  recognize  the  footsteps  which  the 
instinct  of  love  alone  can  detect,  may  venture  to  put  himself 
in  contact  with  Hebron,  Gethsemane,  and  Calvary.  They,  are 
death  to  others.  So  like  do  they  look  to  other  places,  so  little 
do  they  reveal  to  the  natural  eye  their  stupendous  secrets,  that 
many  who  come  to  gaze  cease  even  to  believe.  "  The  com 
mander  of  an  English  man-of-war  told  me,"  says  a  writer  of 
our  own  country,  "  that  he  once  accompanied  a  party  of  twenty 
from  his  own  ship  to  Jerusalem,  and  that,  out  of  that  number, 
seven  returned  unbelievers,  not  merely  in  the  authenticity  of 
localities,  but  in  Christianity  itself?'f  Such  is  the  value  of 
"  religious  sentiment." 

And  even  when  the  results  of  their  visit  are  less  fatal  than 
this,  they  are  in  a  vast  number  of  cases  sufficiently  serious.  It 
is  hardly  possible  to  find  a  Protestant  writer  of  any  country 
who  does  not  apply  to  the  Holy  Places  precisely  the  same  tone 
of  criticism  in  which  he  would  discuss  the  ruins  of  Pompeii  or 
the  fossils  of  Maine  and  New  Jersey.  Indeed  he  displays,  not 
unfrequently,  a  far  deeper  interest  in  relics  of  the  latter  class 
than  of  the  former,  as  well  as  a  more  intelligent  submission  to 
the  testimonies  of  history  and  science.  In  Jerusalem  he  is 
"scandalized"  at  every  step.  "The  American,"  says  a  mis 
sionary  of  that  nation,  "  who  has  been  pointed  to  (sic)  Plymouth 
Rock,  Bunker  Hill,  or  Mount  Yernon,  and  yielded  to  the  hal 
lowed  impressions  of  certainty,  must  beware  how  he  carries 
the  same  reverential  feelings  into  the  East.":):  What,  he  seems 
to  say,  are  the  true  sites  of  the  Scourging  or  the  Anointing, 
compared  with  Bunker  Hill  and  Plymouth  Rock  ? 

But  Mr.  Perkins  is  rivalled  by  English  and  German  writers. 
"  The  one  spot,"  says  Mr.  Dawson  Borrer,  "  which  arrested 
more  especially  my  attention,"  in  that  city  which  was  to  him 
only  "  a  horrid  atmosphere  of  mockery,"  was  not  Calvary,  nor 
the  Ccenaculum,  nor  the  Hall  of  Judgment ;  but  a  certain 
"  spot,"  on  which  it  was  "probable  that  a  bridge  of  Jewish  con 
struction  once  existed  !"§ 

"  I  went  without  the  slightest  faith,"  says  Miss  Brerner,  in  a 
book  which  is  nevertheless  full  of  false  sentiment  and  artificial 

*  Stanley,  Sinai  and  Palestine,  p.  426. 

f  Mrs.  Duwson  Darner,  ch.  iv.,  p.  92. 

|  Residence  in  Persia,  &c.,  by  Rev.  Justin  Perkins,  p.  275. 

§  Journey  from  Naples  to  Jerusalem,  by  Dawson  Borrer,  Esq.,  ch.  xxiv.,  p.  404. 


55 

patlios,  "  to  the  sepulchre  of  Christ — the  Church  of  the  Holy 
Sepulchre."  She  confesses,  indeed,  that  she  was  somewhat 
moved  by  "  the  evidently  deep  devotion  of  the  pilgrims," 
though  she  considered  the  whole  scene  "  a  childish  spectacle," 
and  "thinks  that  "  our  rational  Protestant  Church"  may  be 
excused  for  protesting  against,  "custom  and  superstition,  by 
standing  rigid  and  stiff,  where  the  Catholic  and  Greek  Churches 
bend  their  knees  and  apply  their  ardent  adoring  lips."* 

Another  English  traveller  of  great  repute,  the  learned  Dr. 
Clarke,  tells  his  readers  that  St.  Helena  was  "  the  old  lady  to 
whose  charitable  donations  these  repositories  of  superstition 
were  principally  indebted  ;"  while  of  one  tradition,  referring  to 
the  dwelling-place  of  the  Holy  Family,  a  subject  which  only 
excited  his  merriment,  he  briefly  remarks,  "  A  disbelief  of  the 
whole  mummery  seems  best  suited  to  the  feelings  of  Prot 
estants.'^  Perhaps  he  was  right. 

It  is  certain,  at  least,  that  most  of  his  co-religionists  agree 
with  him.  "  To  Protestant  Christians,"  says  an  Anglican 
bishop,  as  if  resolved  to  show  that  men  of  his  order  could  sur 
pass  all  others  in  fanatical  impiety,  "  it  almost  seems  as  if  there 
were  more  need  for  a  crusade  to  deliver  the  sacred  scenes  of 
Palestine  from  Christian  idolaters,  than  there  ever  was  to 
rescue  it  from  the  followers  of  the  False  Prophet."^:  A  Mus 
sulman,  in  this  gentleman's  opinion,  is  far  less  obnoxious  than 
a  Catholic.  Another  highly  respectable  Anglican  minister 
considers  the  Turkish  occupation  quite  a  providential  fact, 
expressly  designed  to  check  the  growth  of  "  idolatry,"  and 
quotes,  apparently  with  approval,  the  saying  of  Mahomet  in 
the  Koran,  "The  Christians  have  forgotten  what  they  re 
ceived  from  God."§ 

And  while  some  are  content  to  revile  the  Christians,  others 
avow  their  misgivings  about  Christianity  itself.  "  As  I  toiled 
up  the  Mount  of  Olives,"  says  a  Protestant  writer  in  1855, 
"in  the  very  footsteps  of  Christ,  I  found  it  utterly  impossible 
to  conceive  that  the  Deity,  in  human  form,  had  walked  there 


*  Travels  in  the  Holy  Land,  by  Fredricka  Bremer,  vol.  i.,  ch.  iv.,  pp.  112-16. 
This  writer,  who  is  too  much  absorbed  in  self- worship  to  be  able  to  worship 
any  thing  else,  denies  the  site  of  Calvary  altogether,  doubts  "  the  miracle  of 
the  re-awakening  of  Lazarus  to  life,"  and  a  good  many  other  things  "  related 
in  the  Bible  ;"  but  on  the  other  hand  she  admires  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Gobat,  though 
she  regrets  that  not  many  of  their  converts  "  have  been  considered  as  remark 
ably  good  Christians." 

f  Travels  in  Various  Countries,  by  E.  D.  Clarke,  LL.D.,  vol.  iv.,  ch.  iv.,  p.  174. 

\.  Palestine,  or  the  Holy  Land,  by  the  llight  liev.  M.  Russell,  of  St.  John's 
College,  Oxford,  ch.  ix.,  p.  380  (I860). 

§  Scripture  Lands  in  connection  with  their  History,  by  G.  S.  Drew,  M.A., 
Incumbent  of  St.  Barnabas,  South  Kennington,  ch.  x.,  p.  357  (1862). 


56 


CHAPTER   VIII. 


before  me."  And  so,  he  adds,  "  I  preferred  doubting  the  tra 
dition."* 

Yet  there  is  perhaps  nothing  in  which  all  races  of  men,  save 
only  Protestants,  are  so  absolutely  of  one  mind,  as  in  the  tra 
ditions  which  relate  to  the  holy  sites.  "  Even  the  Mussulmans 
themselves,"  as  a  learned  archaeologist  observes,  "  have  always 
been  of  one  mind  with  the  Christians  as  to  the  authenticity  of 
our  sanctuaries. "f  "  The  voice  of  tradition  at  Jerusalem,"  says 
the  author  of  Eothen,  "is  quite  unanimous,  and  Romans, 
Greeks,  Armenians,  and  Jews,  all  hating  each  other  sincerely, 
concur  in  assigning  the  same  localities  to  the  events  told  in 
the  Gospel."  "The  Biblical  traditions,"  adds  M.  de  Saulcy, 
"  are  imperishable.  Here  nothing  alters  connected  with  the 
Bible ;  nothing  is  changed,  not  even  a  name  ;  the  memory  of 
human  transactions  alone  has  been  lost." 

But  there  is  no  admonition  in  these  facts  for  men  who  would 
trace  with  a  puerile  enthusiasm  the  path  of  some  favorite  hero 
or  national  idol,  and  even  strew  it  with  costly  monuments ;  but 
who,  when  it  is  a  question  of  One  who  is  to  them  little  more 
than  an  historical  phantom,  or  at  best  an  object  of  "religious 
sentiment,"  prefer  "doubting  the  tradition."  "Many  Prot 
estants,"  says  a  well-known  writer  already  quoted,  "  look 
upon  all  the  traditions  by  which  it  is  attempted  to  ascertain 
the  Holy  Places  of  Palestine  as  utterly  fabulous.";):  The  house 
of  Shakespeare,  the  birthplace  of  Newton,  or  the  coat  of 
Nelson,  are  relics  which  they  defend  against  all  comers,  for 
in  these  they  avow  a  personal  interest ;  but  the  house  of  Joseph, 
the  birthplace  of  Mary,  or  the  robe  of  Jesus, — these  are  only 
the  theme  of  a  jest,  or  scouted  as  "  utterly  fabulous."  It  is 
worthy  of  men  and  philosophers  to  guard  in  sumptuous  shrines 
the  mementoes  of  fellow-men,  who  no  longer  afford  nourish 
ment  even  to  worms  ;  but  it  is  only  a  feeble  superstition  which 
is  careful  about  the  despised  relics  which  the  God-Man,  or  His 
Immaculate  Mother,  have  left  on  earth.  Protestants  prefer 
"  doubting  the  tradition"  which  relates  only  to  such  memorials. § 
This  method  of  obliterating  importunate  traditions  which 

*  Bayard  Taylor,  cli.  v.,  pp.  74,  84. 

f  La  Terre  Sainte,  par  M.  1'Abbe  BourassiS,  ch.  iv.,  p.  65. 

J  Eothen,  ch.  ix. 

§  A  learned  English  traveller  observes,  without  so  much  as  the  thought  of 
criticism  in  this  case,  that  the  "  well  authenticated  relic"  of  Mahomet's  beard 
"constitutes  the  sanctity  which  Moslems  attach  to  the  city  of  Cairwaan."  Davis' 
Ruined  Cities,  &c.,  p.  273.  Of  the  supposed  Tomb  of  Hiram,  near  Tyre,  for  which 
there  is  not  a  single  authority  "  except  native  tradition,"  a  Protestant  missionary 
says,  "  As  there  is  nothing  in  the  monument  itself  inconsistent  with  the  idea,  1 
am  inclined  to  allow  the  claim  to  pass  unquestioned."  Thomson,  The  Land  and 
the  Book,  ch.  xiv.,  p.  19U.  It  is  only  the  Christian  traditions  which  are  denied, 


MISSIONS  IN  THE   LEVANT,  ETC.  57 

they  desire  only  to  discredit,  "  meets  with  much  approbation," 
we  are  told,  "  in  speculative  Germany ;"  where,  however, 
they  venerate  Luther's  inkstand,  and  other  relics  of  the  same 
value.  "I  have  undertaken,"  says  a  German  writer,  "to 
convey  to  the  American  missionaries  at  Jerusalem  the  pamph 
let  of  a  Protestant  clergyman,  who  disputes  the  locality  of  the 
Holy  Sepulchre,  without  ever  having  been  at  the  place!"*  If 
he  had  been  there,  he  would  perhaps  have  disputed  the  Cruci 
fixion. 

Indeed,  these  gentlemen  are  prepared  to  dispute  any  thing. 
"Even  the  Via  Dolorosa"  Dr.  Robinson  gayly  remarks,  "seems 
to  have  been  first  got  up  during  or  after  the  times  of  the 
crusades;"  although,  as  Tischendorft'  observes,  "the  real  road 
along  which  Christ  walked  must  have  taken  this  direction." 
Dr.  Robinson  appears  in  this  case  to  have  been  guilty  at  least 
of  an  anachronism.  Half  a  century  ago,  people  used  to  accept 
language  of  this  kind  in  place  of  wit,  and  many  reputations 
were  cheaply  gained  by  such  means.  The  world  has  grown 
more  exacting,  and  no  longer  regards  a  bad  jest  as  a  substitute 
for  modesty,  wisdom,  and  learning,  f 

"Alas !  for  the  pilgrim,"  said  the  lamented  Mr.  "Warburton, — 
to  whose  soul  may  God  grant  rest — "  who  can  scoff  within  the 
walls  of  Jerusalem !"  But  there  are  men  who  can  do  worse 
than  scoff,  not  only  in  Jerusalem,  but  within  the  precincts  of 
the  Holy  Sepulchre.  In  that  spot  where  Angels  tread  with 
fear  and  awe,  but  where  schismatics  jest  and  harangue,  the 
writer  was  lately  informed  by  a  relative,  an  Anglican  clergy 
man,  that  "the  only  visitors  who  were  not  prostrate  on  their 
faces  were  Turks  and  English  Protestants,  but  that  the  former 
were  much  the  more  reverent  of  the  two."  And  this  very  rev 
erence  at  the  tomb  of  Christ,  before  which  the  holy  women  once 
watched  with  heavy  hearts,  only  moves  the  disdain  of  the  dis 
ciples  of  Luther  and  Calvin  and  Cranmer.  "I  have  never  seen 

and  this  very  writer  scoffs  at  the  Holy  Sepulchre,  finds  the  tomb  of  Lazarus 
"every  way  unsatisfactory,  and  almost  disgusting,"  and  "came  out  of  the 
Church  of  the  Ascension  with  feelings  of  utter  disgust."  Ch.  xliv.,  pp.  675,  697. 
Yet  he  is  one  of  the  most  temperate  of  his  class. 

*  Countess  Hahn-Hahn,  Letter  xxvii. 

f  How  different  is  the  temper  of  Christian  faith !  "  The  faithful  have  a 
special  light,  over  and  above  tradition,"  says  one  who  appears  to  have  been 
taught  by  the  Holy  Ghost,  "to  keep  them  right  about  the  sites  of  the  Holy 
Places."  The  same  writer  observes,  "that  devotion  to  the  Holy  Land  is  a 
hidden  support  to  Catholic  kingdoms, — that  our  Lady  prayed  that  Catholics 
might  always  have  the  sanctuary  of  Bethlehem  in  their  hands, — that  heathen 
and  misbelievers  gain  temporal  blessings  from  living  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
Holy  Places," — and  finally,  "that  the  sins  of  men  have  forfeited  the  peculiar 
custody  of  the  Holy  Places  which  our  Lady  established."  Maria  Agreda, 
quoted  by  F.  Faber,  Bethlehem,  ch.  vii.,  p.  382. 


58  CHAPTER  VIII. 

any  thing  so  abject"  says  one  of  them,  "as  the  conduct  of  the 
pilgrims  before  the  altar  in  the  Calvary  chapel.  You  can 
scarcely  recognize  them  as  men."*  To  lie  prostrate,  and  to 
weep,  at  the  tomb  of  the  Saviour,  this  gentleman  deems  abject 
degradation.  "  I  plead  guilty,"  says  a  distinguished  British 
officer,  "  to  having  neither  wept,  pulled  off  my  boots,  nor  per 
formed  any  other  antics"  in  the  Holy  Sepulchre ;  such  is  his 
rebuke  to  "pilgrims  of  another  order,  who  advanced  with  bare 
feet  and  many  tears. "f  And  this  exactly  agrees  with  the 
equally  cynical  remarks  of  an  Anglican  missionary  in  Ceylon, 
who  once  witnessed  certain  ceremonies  in  a  Catholic  church 
which  provoked  a  similar  comment:  "The  great  events  of  onr 
Lord's  conception,  birth,  and  life ;  His  last  agony,  trial,  death, 
&c.;  are  all  acted  as  upon  a  theatre.  The  poor  enthusiasts  are 
pleased  and  affected  at  these  scenes.":):  He  seems  to  marvel 
that  they  did  not  share  his  own  indifference. 

One  effect  of  the  temper  displayed,  with  rare  exceptions,  by 
Anglican  and  American  missionaries  in  the  East,  is  to  be  traced 
in  the  intense  scorn  and  indignation  which  they  have  excited 
amongst  the  oriental  races.  Thus  the  Maronites,  we  are  told, 
"now  confound  under  the  common  name  of  biblicals  all  who 
belong  to  the  British  nation,  and  the  English  tourist  can  hardly 
traverse  the  Libanus  without  peril."§ 

Mr.  Farley,  however,  while  he  patriotically  declares  that, 
without  compromising  his  personal  opinions,  he  enjoyed,  in 
every  part  of  Syria,  the  most  courteous  and  cordial  reception 
both  from  priests  and  people,  and  that  it  is  the  fault  of  every 
English  traveller  if  he  does  not  experience  the  same  hospitality, 
allows  that  the  Americans,  whom  it  was  not  his  business  to 
defend,  are  universally  detested.  "This,  I  think,  is  to  be  attrib 
uted  to  the  manner  in  which  they  speak  of  every  thing.  Sterne 
says,  'I  hate  the  man  who  can  travel'  from  Dan  to  Beersheba, 
and  say,  "Tis  all  barren;'  but  such  is  the  usual  mode  of  ex 
pression  with  American  travellers.  The  traditions  of  ages  are 
overturned,  and  the  local  prejudices  of  the  people  are  shocked 
by  the  bold  and  free  manner  in  which  they  express  their 
thoughts.  Kefr  Kenna  is  not  the  Cana  of  Galilee;  the  Grotto 
of  the  Annunciation  is  not  the  veritable  grotto ;  Mount  Tabor 
is  not  the  Mount  of  Transfiguration  ;  the  Workshop  of  Joseph 
is  a  myth ;  and  so  on.  They  would  even  deny  that  the  Fountain 
of  the  Virgin  is  the  true  fountain ;  but,  unfortunately,  there  is 

*  The  Wanderer  in  Syria,  by  G.  W.  Curtis,  ch.  xi.,  p.  211. 
•j-  Colonel  Napier,  Reminiscences,  &c.,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  ix.,  p.  137. 
t  Rev.  Mr.  Clough,  quoted  in  Asiatic  Journal,  vol.  i.,  p.  582. 
|  Gorrespondance  d' Orient,  par  M.  Michaud  de  1' Academic  Fransaise,  et  M. 
Poujoulat,  tome  viii.,  p.  89. 


MISSIONS   IN   THE   LEVANT,    ETC.  59 

not  another  fountain  in  the  place.  What  a  pity  there  is  not  a 
fountain  at  the  other  end  of  the  town,  so  as  to  afford  some 
reason  for  doubt  !"* 

It  is  creditable  to  the  more  enlightened  class  of  Protestants, 
that  the  excesses  of  the  missionaries  are  generally  corrected  by 
the  spontaneous  testimony,  sometimes  by  the  indignant  rebukes, 
of  lay  travellers.  The  readers  of  Mr.  Farley's  work  on  Syria 
will  remember  the  case  of  "  the  Eev.  John  Baillie,  minister  of 
the  Free  Church  of  Scotland,"  whose  "vulgar  and  brutal 
bigotry"  in  the  monastery  of  Mount  Carmel  was  repudiated, 
with  such  eloquent  disgust,  by  a  multitude  of  English  and 
Scotch  tourists.  But  to  return  to  Jerusalem. 

It  is  true  that  the  Holy  City  is  the  scene  of  almost  daily 
scandals,  which  dishonor  Christianity  in  the  sight  of  the 
unbeliever;  but  this  is  only  another  of  the  bitter  fruits  of 
schism.  "II  s'y  passait  des  choses  bien  plus  convenables  a 
des  salles  de  spectacles  et  a  des  bacchantes  qu'a  des  temples  et 
a  des  coeurs  contrits."f  Yet  even  these  horrors  are  as  nothing 
to  those  which  were  enacted  on  the  same  spot  eighteen  centu 
ries  ago,  before  the  same  two  classes  of  spectators ;  of  whom, 
then  as  now,  the  one  "  wagged  their  tongues  and  shook  their 
heads,"  the  other  "smote  their  breasts,"  and  went  home  to 
weep  and  pray. 

It  is  no  doubt  with  regret  that  France,  Austria,  and  Spain, 
once  the  guardians  of  the  Sepulchre  of  Jesus,  look  on  in  silence, 
and  suffer  the  Russian  to  pollute  that  holy  place.  "  The  Greek 
Easter,"  says  Mr.  Stanley,  and  here  we  may  agree  with  him, 
"  is  the  greatest  moral  argument  against  the  identity  of  the  spot 
which  it  professes  to  honor;  considering  the  place,  the  time, 
and  the  intention  of  the  professed  miracle,  it  is  probably  the 
most  offensive  imposture  to  be  found  in  the  world. "^  Yet  it  is 
patronized  by  Russia,  and  adopted  by  the  whole  Greek  com 
munion,  although,  as  Dr.  Wilson  forcibly  observes,  "compared 
with  the  annual  miracle  of  the  Greek  Church  in  the  crypt  of 
the  Holy  Sepulchre,  the  great  festival  of  the  Aztecs,'1 — the 

*  Tnco  Years  in  Syria,  ch.  xxxiv.  It  is  impossible  to  omit  here  the  impres 
sive  admonition  suggested  in  a  recent  work  of  the  learned  De  Saul«;y,  whose 
cautious  proceedings  may  serve  as  a  lesson  to  jaunty  tourists  and  supercilious 
"  missionaries."  When  the  "  Arcade  of  the  Ecce  Homo"  was  first  pointed  out 
to  this  sagacious  observer,  its  character  and  general  appearance  induced  him 
to  "reject  the  Christian  tradition."  Some  time  after,  a  tempest,  which  over 
threw  nearly  forty  houses  in  Jerusalem,  disengaged  the  modern  coating  which 
had  previously  masked  the  House  of  Pilate,  and  revealed  the  circular  arched 
gate  behind  it.  "  From  that  moment,"  adds  M.  de  Saulcy,  "  I  ceased  to  enter 
tain  the  slightest  doubt."  Narrative  of  a  Journey  round  the  Dead  Sea,  ch. 
vii.,  p.  290,  English  edition. 

f  Palestine,  &c.,  par  S.  Hunk,  p.  646. 

J  P.  404. 


60  CHAPTER  VIII. 

"  rekindling  of  the  holy  fire," — "  was  replete  with  significance 
and  solemn  grandeur,  though  stained  with  the  blood  of  their 
hideous  sacrifices."*  But  the  nations  are  no  longer  one,  and 
with  division  has  come  scandal,  reproach,  and  dishonor.  Hence 
the  presence  of  the  Muscovite,  the  Anglican,  and  the  Calvinist 
in  the  Holy  City — hence  the  scorn  of  the  Moslem.  "  It  is 
much  to  be  deplored,"  says  Mr.  Curzon,  "  that  the  Emperor  of 
Russia,  by  his  want  of  principle,  has  brought  the  Christian 
religion  into  disrepute."  But  he  is  only  fulfilling  his  mission 
as  the  head  and  pontiff  of  a  "  national"  Church ;  nor  does  it 
concern  him  to  purify  this  defiled  temple.  His  spiritual  sub 
jects  are  only  political  agents,  and  both  he  and  they  know  it. 
He  knows,  too,  that  the  rrotestants  are  his  sure  allies ;  that 
they,  like  him,  would  rather  see  the  Turk  ruling  in  Jerusalem 
than  the  Frank ;  and  that  even  the  "  abomination  of  desola 
tion"  is  less  offensive  in  their  sight  than  the  Cross  w^ould  be, 
if  it  were  planted  again  on  Mount  Sion. 

We  have  alluded  to  the  influence  of  Russia  in  the  East,  and 
the  selfishness  of  its  aims.  It  will  not  be  out  of  place  to  notice 
briefly  her  pretensions  as  a  missionary  church. 


RUSSIAN    MISSIONS    AND    SLAVONIC    UNITY. 

A  certain  school  of  English  religionists,  now  more  inveter- 
ately  Protestant,  in  spite  of  their  frequent  use  of  Catholic  words 
and  names,  than  any  other  section  of  their  community,  profess 
a  reverence  for  the  Russian  Church  which  the  latter  is  far 
from  reciprocating.  The  motive  of  this  unrequited  homage  is 
transparent.  The  Divine  unity  of  the  Church,  which  is  the 
glory  of  her  children  and  the  despair  of  her  enemies,  which  no 
assault  can  weaken  and  no  art  counterfeit,  but  which  the  school 
in  question  have  long  ceased  to  contemplate  either  with  admira 
tion  or  desire,  now  only  provokes  them  to  anger.  Unable  to 
derive  comfort  from  the  dreary  spectacle  of  their  own  confusion 
and  disorder,  and  unwilling  to  receive  the  admonition  which  it 
suggests,  their  instincts  impel  them  to  seek  in  other  communi 
ties  the  consolation  which  their  own  refuses  to  supply.  Hence 
the  affected  admiration  which  the  organs  of  this  party  now 
display  for  what  they  take  pleasure  in  calling  "  Slavonic  Unity." 

Again:  the  fertility  of  the  missions  of  the  Catholic  Church, 
the  noble  army  of  her  martyrs,  and  the  ever-increasing  multi 
tude  of  her  neophytes,  contrasted  with  the  sterility  of  the  Sects, 

*  Prehistoric  Man,  vol.  i.,  ch.  v.,  p.  126. 


MISSIONS   IN   THE   LEVANT,   ETC.  61 

and  the  incurable  earthliness  of  their  salaried  agents,  inspires 
in  the  same  men  no  higher  feeling  than  fretful  jealousy  or 
impatient  malice.  Virtues  which  even  the  savage  has  con 
fessed  to  be  Divine  leave  them  cold  and  indifferent ;  and  sacri 
fices  which  have  converted  nations  on  earth,  and  have  been 
greeted  with  hosannas  in  heaven,  only  kindle  in  their  hearts 
new  resentment  and  redoubled  hate.  They  have  fought  so  long 
against  the  Church,  that  even  her  most  beneficent  triumphs 
have  become  odious  to  them,  and  they  have  resisted  with  such 
fatal  success  the  invitations  of  her  Founder,  that  they  have 
lost  at  last  the  power  to  recognize  either  His  work  or  His  pres 
ence.  Hence  the  querulous  zeal  which  they  have  lately  man 
ifested  in  exalting  what  they  delight  to  call  the  efficacy  of 
"  Russian  Missions." 

Let  us  inquire,  then,  and  chiefly  from  Protestant  sources, 
what  is  the  nature  of  Slavonic  unity,  and  what  are  the  preten 
sions  of  the  Russian  Church  to  be  the  mother  of  apostles. 

In  many  countries,  and  notably  in  our  own,  political  does 
not  imply  religious  unity.  In  Russia,  where  so  many  races 
exist  side  by  side,  and  over  whose  illimitable  steppes  Tartar, 
Slavonic,  Mongol,  and  Hindoo  tribes  are  scattered  without 
being  amalgamated,  the  one  is  only  valued  as  an  instrument  to 
obtain  the  other.  "  We  must  gather  around  Russia,"  said 
Peter  the  Great,  who  was  as  incapable  of  a  religious  motive  as 
of  a  political  mistake,  "  all  the  Greeks  scattered  by  discords, 
who  are  spread  in  Hungary,  in  Turkey,  and  in  the  south  of 
Poland,  make  ourselves  their  centre,  their  support,  and  thus 
found  by  anticipation,  and  ~by  a  sort  of  sacerdotal  supremacy,  a 
universal  hegemony."*  Consistently  with  this  first  principle 
of  Muscovite  policy,  thus  crudely  announced  by  the  astute  bar 
barian,  the  Church  and  the  priesthood,  as  well  as  every  secular 
influence,  are  employed  with  a  tenacity  of  purpose  which 
success  does  not  relax  and  failure  does  not  discourage,  "  simply 
to  aid  and  cover  the  ever  active  ambition  of  the  house  of 
Romanoff,  "f  Yet  in  spite  of  the  efforts  of  a  ruler  as  nearly 
omnipotent  as  a  human  agent  can  be,  and  of  measures  as  nearly 
unscrupulous  as  human  conscience  will  permit,  both  the  polit 
ical  and  religious  unity  of  the  Slavonic  races  have  still  no  ex 
istence,  save  in  the  mortified  hopes  of  the  Russian  Czar. 

As  respects  the  latter,  in  spite  of  ceaseless  efforts  to  obtain 
even  an  apparent  uniformity,  there  were  already,  thirty  years 
ago,  "  sixteen  millions,  or  about  one-fourth  of  the  entire  popula- 

*  Leonard  Choderko,  quoted  by  Colonel  Chesney,  The  Russo-  Turkish  Cam 
paigns,  app.,  p.  462. 

f  The  Baltic,  the  Black  Sea,  and  the  Crimea,  by  Charles  Henry  Scott ;  ch. 
xv.,  p.  245,  2d  edition. 


62  CHAPTER   VIII. 

tion,  who  did  not  profess  the  Greek  faith  ;"*  and  as  to  those  who 
do,  while  the  educated  orders,  with  hardly  an  exception,  neither 
care  nor  affect  to  care  for  the  state  religion, — so  that  "  with 
many  of  the  mercantile  classes,  with  most  of  the  employes,  and 
with  the  greater  part  of  the  landed  aristocracy,  all  faith  and 
confidence  in  their  creed  has  long  departed, "f  the  peasants  are 
divided  into  about  fifty  sects,  and  "  the  hatred  and  contempt  of 
these  sects  for  one  another,  and  the  enmity  between  all  of  them 
and  the  orthodox  church,  are  excessive.";):  And  the  evil  as 
sumes  every  year  wider  dimensions.  Since  1840,  as  Golowine 
reports,  the  number  of  Raskolniks,  or  seceders,  has  swelled 
"from  nine  to  thirteen  millions"  being  an  increase  of  four 
million  dissenters  from  the  national  church  in  twenty  years, 
or  two  hundred  thousand  per  annum  !  §  "It  is  by  religious  di 
visions,"  observes  a  well-known  writer,  "  that  the  Russian  em 
pire  will  perish."] 

"  There  is  not  at  this  day,"  says  Schouvaloff,  "  a  single  indi 
vidual,  priest  or  layman,  who  believes  in  the  unity  of  his  church." 
It  is  not  possible  that  any  Russian,  conversant  with  its  actual 
condition,  should  do  so.  "  There  are,"  as  Mr.  Kohl  observes, 
"jive  independent  heads  of  the  Greek  Church  in  Europe"  alone  ;*|[ 
viz.,  the  Archbishop  of  Karlowitz  in  Hungary,  now  an  inde 
pendent  Patriarch,  with  eleven  suffragan  bishops ;  the  Greek 
Synod ;  the  Bishop  of  Montenegro,  an  "  hereditary  metropoli 
tan  ;"**  the  Patriarch  of  Constantinople  ;  and  the  Emperor  of 
Russia.  And  within  the  empire,  where  no  two  of  the  Russian 
bishops  have  any  spiritual  dependence  upon  or  connection  with 
each  other,  but  are  simply  the  paid  officials  of  a  common  master, 
who  appoints,  degrades,  or  discards  them  at  his  pleasure,  the  fic 
titious  harmony  of  the  ecclesiastical  fabric,  in  which  such  for 
midable  breaches  have  already  been  made,  is  sustained  by 
exactly  the  same  machinery  which  controls  its  civil  and  mili 
tary  institutions.  So  utterly  unknown  in  Russia  is  that  re 
ligious  unity  which  binds  by  a  closer  tie  than  that  of  blood  or 
lineage  Catholics  of  every  tongue  and  race — "  a  oneness  not  to 
be  brought  about  by  human  powers,  oneness  in  believing, 
thought,  and  will."ft 

Many  delusions  have  prevailed  in  England,  and  the  supposed 

*  The  Russian  Shores  of  the  Black  Sea,  by  Laurence  Oliphant,  ch.  xxvii., 
p.  373  (1853). 

'  Revelations  of  Russia,  ch.  xi.,  p.  334  (1844). 
Russia,  by  J.  GK  Kohl,  p.  272  (1842). 

Quoted  by  Dollinger,  The  ChurcJi  and  the  Churches,  p.  141,  ed.  MacCabe. 
La  Russie  en  1839,  par  le  Marquis  de  Custine,  Lettre  xxii.,  p.  134. 
Montenegro  and  the  Slavonians  of  Turkey,  by  Count  Valerian  Krasinski, 
p.  10  (1853). 

**  Austria,  by  J.  G.  Kohl,  p.  259  (1843). 
\\  Moehler. 


MISSIONS   IN   THE   LEVANT,  ETC.  C3 

concord  of  the  Russian,  Greek,  and  Oriental  Churches,  is  not  the 
least  notable  among  them.  There  is,  in  fact,  no  longer  any  such 
institution  as  the  "  Greek  Church,"  or  the  "  Oriental  Church," 
in  the  sense  in  which  those  terms  are  employed  by  certain 
Anglican  writers.  "When  De  Maistre  remarked  that  "  the  words 
Oriental  Church,  or  Greek  Church,  have  no  kind  of  meaning 
whatever,"*  he  stated  a  fact  which  no  Greek  or  tiussian  would 
think  of  disputing.  Indeed,  a  Russian  writer  of  our  own  day, 
in  proposing  to  the  world  what  he  considers  the  only  defence 
which  candor  can  offer  or  reason  accept  of  his  own  ecclesias 
tical  position,  begins  by  affirming,  with  great  energy,  that  the 
Russian  Church  has  never  had  any  part  or  lot  with  the  so-called 
Greek  Church,  "  in  whose  frightful  aridity,"  he  adds,  "  no  one 
can  fail  to  recognize  the  terrible  effects  of  Divine  justice."f 
"We  shall  presently  apply  the  same  test  to  his  own  communion. 

Long  ago,  Dr.  Wolff  expressed  surprise  and  sorrow  on  discov 
ering  that  the  "  Greek  Church,"  like  that  of  Russia,  "  is  no 
longer  under  the  Patriarch  of  Constantinople."  It  was  Russia 
which  suggested,  from  political  motives,  the  final  separation. 
u  The  new  kingdom  of  Greece,"  we  are  told,  "  in  imitation  and  by 
the  counsels  of  Russia,  has  withdrawn  itself  from  obedience  to 
the  Patriarch  of  Constantinople;"  and  this  ^secession  "was 
accomplished  in  Greece  without  a  shock,  and  even  without  a 
rumor  !'':(:  So  utterly  extinct  is  the  conception,  or  even  the 
desire  of  ecclesiastical  unity  in  all  the  Photian  communities. 

And  Greece  is  not  the  only  country  which  Russia  has  suc 
ceeded  in  detaching  from  the  pretended  chief  of  the  Oriental 
Church,  after  abandoning  him  herself.  "  The  clergy  of  Georgia" 
observes  General  Monteith,  long  ago  negotiated  with  the  Archi 
mandrite  of  Moscow,  expressly  "  to  separate  them  from  the 
Patriarch  of  Constantinople,  under  whom  they  had  previously 
been."§  Bulgaria,  now  inclining  towards  Catholic  unity,  is 
nearly  lost  to  the  same  chief;  and  the  movement  of  repulsion 
is  so  general  in  the  Danubian  Principalities,  that  already  there 
is  a  project  of  a  national  and  perfectly  independent  "  Moldavo- 
Wallachian  Synod."  Roumelia  and  the  Herzegovina  are  said 
to  be  both  ripe  for  a  similar  movement,  which  has  actually  been 
accomplished  in  the  Churches  of  Cyprus  and  Montenegro. | 

The  dethroned  prelate  of  Byzantium,  who  would  no  more 
dare  to  make  his  voice  heard  in  Greece  or  Russia  than  in  France 


*  Lettre  d  une  Dame  Eusse  sur  le  Schisme  et  sur  I'  Unite  Catholique. 
\  La  Mussie,  Est-Elle  Schismatiqae?  par  uri  Russe  Ortliodoxe,  p.  21  (Paris, 
1859). 

\  Persecutions  et  Souffrances  de  VEylise  Catholique  en  Russie,  p.  386. 
§  Kars  and  Erzeroum,  by  General  Monteith,  cli.  i.,  p.  17. 
J  DSllinger,  p.  123. 


64  CHAPTER  VIII. 

or  Spain,  and  who  borrows  from  his  dependants,  or  from  Greek 
and  Armenian  merchants,  the  price  of  the  See  for  which  he  is 
obliged  to  outbid  his  rivals,  and  which  lie  is  to  repay  by  the 
spoliation  of  his  own  flock,  has  become  at  length  a  jest  and  a 
puppet.  "  His  whole  administration,"  as  the  learned  Dollinger 
observes,  "  has  now  been  for  hundreds  of  years  connected  with 
an  unexampled  system  of  extortion,  corruption,  and  simony. 
Every  patriarch  attains  by  these  means  to  his  dignity,"  and  "is 
usually  changed  every  two  or  three  years,  being  deposed  by 
the  Synod  for  bad  administration,  or  compelled  to  resign.  The 
cases  in  which  a  patriarch  dies  in  possession  of  his  dignity  are 
extremely  rare,  for  those  who  make  a  profit  by  bargains  for  the 
patriarchate  take  care  that  they  shall  be  transacted  as  often  as 
possible."*  "  The  patriarchate  at  Constantinople,"  says  Leo 
pold  Kanke,  "  forms  a  commercial  institution  or  bank,  in  which 
capitalists  are  well  disposed  to  invest  their  money.''f  Such  is 
the  last  end  of  the  so-called  Greek  Church. 

And  not  only  have  both  Greece  and  Russia,  after  falling 
away  from  the  Chair  of  Peter,  abandoned  at  length  the  fallen 
usurper  who  has  converted  the  sanctuary  of  St.  Chrysostom  into 
a  deri  of  thieves,  and  the  throne  of  St.  Gregory  into  a  charnel- 
house  of  simony,  but  the  solution  at  ecclesiastical  affinity  has 
become  universal  in  Asia  and  Africa,  as  well  as  in  Europe. 
There  is  now  no  other  connection  or  bond  of  union  between 
Athens  and  Constantinople,  between  Antioch  and  Jerusalem,  or 
between  Moscow  and  any  of  them,  than  the  wages  which  they  re 
ceive  in  common  from  the  Czar,  when  it  suits  his  purpose  to  em 
ploy  their  bishops  and  clergy  as  subaltern  agents  of  his  polic}7. 
"  The  most  insignificant  priest,"  we  are  told,  not  only  in  the 
great  centres  of  Kussian  propagandist!!,  but  "  in  Albania,  Corfu, 
Zante,  and  Cephalonia,  receives  a  little  yearly  income  from  the 
ecclesiastical  treasury  at  Nischnei-Novgorod."^:  And  the 
nominal  rulers  of  these  clerical  stipendaries  accept  without  re 
pugnance  a  similar  lot.  The  three  patriarchates  which  are 
supposed  to  share  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Byzantine  prelate,  and 
of  which  the  holders  do  not  even  reside  in  their  shrunken 
dioceses,  are  now  "scarcely  more  than  titular  dignitaries,  for 
the  patriarchate  of  Alexandria  has  but  five  thousand,  that  of 
Antioch  fifty  thousand,  and  that  of  Jerusalem  twenty-five  thou 
sand  souls,"§ — the  entire  population  of  the  once  famous  "  Oriental 

*  Ibid. 

f  History  of  Servia,  by  Leopold  Von  Ranke,  ch.  ii.,  p.  30  (ed.  Kerr).  They 
are  all  alike.  "  The  simoniacal  manner  in  which  every  preferment  is  obtained 
in  the  Bulgarian  Church"  is  described  by  Krasinski :  Montenegro,  &c.,  p.  143. 

\  Dollinger,  p.  138- 

§  Ibid.,  p.  126. 


MISSIONS  IN  THE  LEVANT,   ETC.  65 

Church"  being  less  than  the  number  of  Catholics  in  either  of 
the  modern  dioceses  of  Westminster,  Salford,  Liverpool,  or 
Glasgow ! 

And  even  this  significant  fact  does  not  fairly  represent  the 
almost  incredible  humiliation  of  these  Eastern  patriarchs.  In 
1848,  when  Pins  IX.  reproached  them  with  their  "  want  of 
religious  unity,"  and  the  shameful  dissolution  of  ecclesiastical 
authority,  these  successors  of  St.  James,  St.  Mark,  and  St.  John 
replied  that,  "in  disputed  or  difficult  questions"  they  took 
counsel  with  each  other,  and  "  when  they  could  not  agree,  re 
ferred  the  matter  for  decision  to  the  head  of  the  Turkish 
government!"  And  this  singular  pontiff  of  a  Christian  Church 
did  not  refuse  the  appeal.  When  some  of  the  Armenian  clergy 
had  a  quarrel  not  long  ago  with  the  Greek  priests  about  the 
custom  of  mixing  water  with  the  sacramental  wine,  "  the  dis 
pute  was  finally  brought  before  the  Turkish  Reis-Effendi,  who 
accordingly  gave  his  decision.  '  Wine  is  an  impure  drink,'  he 
said,  'condemned  by  the  Koran;  pure  water  only,  therefore, 
should  be  made  use  of.'  ''* 

The  ecclesiastical  unity  of  the  Russian,  Greek,  and  Oriental 
Churches,  which  the  Czar  has  so  effectually  destroyed,  is  hardly 
more  fictitious  than  the  pretended  political  unity  of  the  Slavonic 
races,  which  he  has  vainly  attempted  to  promote.  Like  other 
"  scourges  of  God,"  he  has  found  it  easier  to  pull  down  than  to 
build  up.  Indeed,  the  whole  scheme  of  Panslavism  is  only  a 
transparent  artifice,  subtly  adopted  for  the  consolidation  of  the 
heterogeneous  elements  of  the  Russian  empire.  At  a  very  re 
cent  period,  as  Krasinski,  an  ardent  Protestant  advocate  of 
Panslavism,  clearly  shows,  it  proposed  "  only  a  literary  con 
nection  between  all  the  Slavonic  nations,"  and  had  no  political 
element.f  The  Russians  themselves,  who  wish  to  profit  by  it, 
have  very  little  title  to  be  considered  a  Slavonic  nation. 
"  Much  has  been  written,"  says  a  competent  authority,  "  about 
the  Slavonism  of  the  Russians.  In  blood,  however,  it  is  only  a 
few  that  are  purely  Slavonic.":):  And  if  we  examine  the  for 
tunes  of  the  Panslavist  movement,  a  multitude  of  facts  will 
convince  us  how  little  progress  it  has  made.  Even  nations 
long  incorporated  with  the  Russian  empire  are  more  than  ever 
bitterly  hostile  to  it.  Poland,  peopled  by  a  Slavonic  race, 
sinks  on  her  knees,  faint  and  exhausted  by  an  unequal  struggle, 
but  still  calls  in  her  agony  upon  Europe  for  the  recovery  of  her 
lost  liberty,  and  upon  the  Holy  See  for  the  blessing  of  which 

*  Ibid. 

f  Panslavism  and  Germanism,  ch.  ii.,  p.  111. 

JThe  Nationalities  of  Europe,  by  R.  G.  Latham,  M.A.,  M.D.,  F.R.S.,  &c., 
.  i.,  ch.  xxxvi.,  p.  363. 

VOL.   II.  6 


C6  CHAPTER  VIII. 

she  was  never  more  worthy.  Finland  was  united  to  Russia  in 
1808,  yet  an  English  writer  tells  us,  in  1854,  "We  had  some 
conversation  with  educated  Fins,  and  never  did  we  listen  to 
more  stirring  words  of  burning  hatred  towards  the  oppressors 
of  their  country."*  The  Slavonic  movement  in  Turkey,  we  are 
informed,  "is  anti-Russian  in  its  tendency,"  though  of  the 
Turkish  population  more  than  seven  millions  are  Slavonians. f 
"  The  struggle  of  the  Montenegrins"  again,  though  nominally 
of  the  same  religion,  "  was  beheld  with  indifference  by  their 
kindred  race  the  Servians. ."J  Far  from  converging  to  unity, 
religious  or  political,  the  populations  whom  Russia  desires  to 
amalgamate  for  her  own  purposes,  and  of  whom  she  wishes  to 
become  the  common  centre,  appear  only  to  regard  each  other 
with  increasing  aversion.  It  is  thus  that  Providence  confounds 
a  policy  the  success  of  which  would  be  fatal  to  religion,  and 
perhaps  to  civilization.  "The  Slavonic  nations,"  we  are  told, 
"  entertain  as  great  a  dislike  to  the  Greeks  as  the  Turks  do."§ 
The  celebrated  Servian  chief  Kara  George  rejected  a  Russian 
agent  at  Belgrade,  says  Ranke,  "because  he  was  a  Greek,  and 
the  Greeks  had  ever  been  suspected,  nay  even  hated,  by  the 
Servians,  who  were  at  that  very  time  on  bad  terms  with  the 
metropolitan,  also  a  Greek. "||  The  Moravians,  again,  though 
partly  of  Slavonic  origin,  have  no  more  sympathy  with  Russia 
than  with  Brazil,^  The  Armenians  also,  who  hate  the  Rus 
sians  even  while  accepting  their  pensions,  u  are  closely  allied 
with,  and  much  attached  to,  their  Turkish  masters."**  In  the 
Damibian  Principalities  generally,  as  well  as  in  Georgia,  while 
the  Greeks  are  detested,  connection  with  Russia  has  only  gen 
erated  a  more  profound  aversion,  except  in  the  case  of  ecclesi 
astical  and  other  agents,  paid  to  extend  Russian  influence. 
"  The  Christians  both  of  Wallachia  and  Georgia  have  been 
converted,  by  their  contact  with  the  Muscovites,  from  warm 
friends  into  sullen  and  suspicious  foes."ff  Lastly,  of  the 
Greeks  themselves  we  are  told,  on  the  one  hand,  the  singular 
fact  that  "  the  greater  part  of  the  Christians  of  European 
Turkey  have  no  affinity  with,  and  no  sympathy  for,  the 
Greeks,"  though  nominally  of  the  same  religion  ;^  and,  on  the 

*  Scott,  ch.  i.,  p.  12. 

f  The  Frontier  Lands  of  the  Christian  and  the  Turk,  by  a  British  Resident 
of  Twenty  Years  in  the  East,  vol.  i.,  ch.  iii.,  p.  Go  (2d  edition,  1853). 
|  Anadol,  by  the  same  author,  ch.  xxviii.,  p.  356. 
§  Frontier  Lands,  vol.  i.,  ch.  v.,  p.  100. 
I  JIhtory  of  Scrna,  ch.  x.,  p.  127. 
*[  See  Spencer,  Travels  in  the  Western  Caucasus. 
**  Chesney,  ubi  supra. 

\\  Revelations  of  Itussia,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  xii.,  p.  340. 
ft  A  Year  itith  the  Turks,  by  Warrington  Smith,  ch.  xii.,  p.  275. 


MISSIONS   IN"   THE   LEVANT,    ETC.  67 

other,  that  "  if  the  Greeks  were  once  more  in  a  tenable  position 
as  a  free  nation,  they  would  undoubtedly  become  the  most 
violent  and  active  of  Russia's  enemies."  So  that  this  experi 
enced  observer  might  well  resume  the  facts  at  which  we  have 
now  glanced  in  this  emphatic  summary,  "  Russian  Panslavism 
was  outweighed  in  all  the  scales."* 

It  would  be  idle  to  offer  any  further  evidence  of  an  incon 
testable  truth,  disputed  only  by  a  few  English  writers  of  a  par 
ticular  school,  who  seem  to  think  that  they  can  dispense  with 
unity  in  their  own  Church,  by  affecting  to  find  it  in  another 
where  it  is  quite  as  little  known,  and  that  the  admitted  disorder 
of  one  sect  can  be  happily  repaired  by  the  suppositions  har 
mony  of  another.  It  is  no  longer  possible  to  deny  in  good  faith 
that  while,  in  the  words  of  Dr.  Dollinger,  "  the  Greek  patriarch 
ate  is  in  the  most  shameful  and  perishing  condition  to  which 
an  ancient  and  venerable  Church  has  ever  yet  been  reduced," 
the  Greek,  Russian,  and  Oriental  communities  have  long  since 
been  dissolved  into  a  number  of  perfectly  independent  Church 
es,  often  deeply  hostile  to  one  another,  constantly  engaged  in 
conflicting  aims  and  intrigues,  and  not  even  cemented  together 
by  the  precarious  tie  of  a  common  hostility  to  the  Holy  See. 
The  next  point  to  be  noticed,  and  it  is  one  which  belongs  more 
immediately  to  the  general  subject  of  these  volumes,  is  the 
character  of  the  Russian  Church  as  a  missionary  power. 

We  have  seen  that  a  Russian  advocate,  while  he  denies  that 
his  own  has  any  thing  in  common  with  the  Greek  and  Oriental 
communities,  appeals  to  the  "frightful  aridity"  of  the  latter,  as 
affording  sufficient  evidence  of  "the  terrible  effects  of  Divine 
justice."  He  admits,  therefore,  the  efficacy  of  the  test  which 
we  are  about  to  apply  to  the  Russian  Church,  after  employing 
it  to  determine  the  character  of  the  Protestant  Sects. 

"  It  is  quite^ impossible,"  observes  a  spiritual  writer  of  our 
own  land,  "  for  true  love  to  coexist  with  an  umnissionary 
spirit."f  ^  Yet  Russia,  as  Schouvaloff  remarks,  "  has  never  pro 
duced,  since  her  schism,  either  a  single  missionary,  or  one 
Sister  of  Charity  who  deserves  the  name."$  "In  the  Greek- 
Russian  Church,"  says  Mr.  Kohl,  "no  such  useful  auxiliaries 
have  ever  been  formed."§  And  not  only  does  she  neither 
possess,  nor  affect  to  possess,  any  missionary  organization,  so 
supremely  indifferent  is  she  to  all  which  does  not  concern  her 
political  interests  ;  but  even  within  her  own  territories,  if  the 


*  Anadol,  ch.  xxviii.,  p.  358. 
f  Dr.  Faber,  The  Creator  and  the  Creature,  p.  242. 
|  Schouvaloff,  Ma  Conversion  et  ma  Vocation,  p.  361. 
§  Austria,  p.  476. 


68  CHAPTER  VIII. 

consolidation  of  national  power  can  be  more  effectually  pro 
moted  by  the  agency  of  pagan  tribes,  she  condemns  them  to 
perpetual  heathenism,  and  peremptorily  forbids  all  attempts  to 
convert  them,  even  to  the  official  religion.  During  a  long 
series  of  years,  this  detestable  policy  has  been  adopted  towards 
the  captives  from  the  Caucasus.  "  If  these  young  mountain 
eers,"  we  are  told, "were  converted  to  Christianity,  they  would 
be  all  the  worse  received  by  parents,  who,  once  half  Christian, 
Lave  learned,  thanks  to  Russian  aggression,  to  view  that  faith 
with  detestation."* 

"  Not  only  do  the  Russian  government,  and  its  slave  the 
Synod,"  says  a  higher  authority,  "  remain  perfectly  indifferent 
to  the  sad  destiny  of  so  many  souls  perishing  in  ignorance;  the 
former  even  opposes  itself  systematically  and  by  policy  to 
their  conversion  to  Christianity.  The  emperor  has  formed  and 
taken  into  his  pay  several  squadrons  of  cavalry,  drawn  from  the 
populations  of  the  Caucasus.  All  these  men  are  Mahometans  ; 
they  live  in  the  midst  of  a  Christian  capital,  where  they  have 
mosques  constructed  and  ornamented  at  the  expense  of  the 
treasury.  Many  children  also  from  the  countries  of  the 
Caucasus  are  brought  to  St.  Petersburg,  and  there  receive  a 
gratuitous  education.  But  it  is  most  rigorously  forbidden  to 
admit  them  to  Christian  instruction  with  their  companions, 
or  to  attendance  at  their  church."  In  vain  they  sometimes 
"  weep  and  lament"  at  this  forced  separation.  The  motive  is 
imperious.  "  These  children  are  destined  to  return  one  day  to 
their  native  country,  where  their  office  will  be  to  preach  to 
their  compatriots  the  advantages  which  they  may  derive  from 
absolute  and  irrevocable  submission  to  Russia."  This  they 
will  do  more  effectually  if  they  profess  the  religion  of  their 
parents,  and  therefore  an  infernal  policy  forbids  their  conver 
sion.  "And  the  '  most  Holy  and  most  Orthodox  Synod'  has 
no  remonstrance  to  offer  against  measures  so  barbarous !  Dom- 
inus  horum  mndex  est"\ 

it  is  difficult  to  conceive  the  profound  degradation  to  which 
the  national  Russian  Church  must  have  fallen,  when  such  crimes 
fail  to  elicit  a  solitary  protest  from  one  end  of  the  empire  to  the 
other.  But  when  we  have  read  the  testimonies  of  men  of  all 
sects  and  orders,  to  the  actual  condition  of  the  Russian  clergy, 
there  is  no  longer  room  for  surprise.  "  Nothing,"  says  De  Hell, 
an  authority  recognized  even  by  the  late  emperor,  "can  be 
compared  to  the  demoralization  of  the  Russian  clergy,  whose 
ignorance  is  only  equalled  by  their  vice.  The  greater  part  of 

*  Revelations  of  Russia,  pref,  p.  xxvi. 
f  Persecutions  et  Souffrances,  &c.,  p.  519. 


69 

the  monks  and  priests  spent  their  lives  in  shameful  inebriety, 
which  renders  them  incapable  of  fulfilling  decently  their  reli 
gious  duties."  They  have  lost  all  idea,  he  adds,  of  a  "  sacred 
mission," — he  is  speaking,  riot  of  rare  and  exceptional  instances, 
but  of  the  whole  body  of  the  rural  clergy, — and  "  the  very  aspect 
of  the  popes,  or  parish  priests,  excites  equal  disgust  and  astonish 
ment.  To  see  these  men,  whose  uncombed  beards,  wine-bloated 
faces,  and  filthy  dress,  reveal  a  total  absence  of  human  respect, 
one  cannot  conceive  that  they  are  apostles  of  Divine  truth."* 
"  Not  possessed  of  even  the  slightest  shadow  of  influence  or 
power  in  the  empire,"  says  an  English  writer,  who  is  neverthe 
less  a  warm  advocate  of  the  Czar,  "  in  ignorance,  vulgarity,  I  may 
almost  say  degradation,  they  are  perfectly  without  parallel  in  any 
religion  throughout  the  world,  not  even  excepting  Greece,  the 
natives  of  which  country  themselves  admit  the  minor  orders  of 
their  clergy  to  be  the  most  abandoned  miscreants  in  the  world. "f 
"In  all  street  ballads  and  popular  ribaldry,"  says  a  Russian 
author  in  1850,  "  the  priest,  the  deacon,  and  their  wives,  are  al 
ways  brought  in  as  examples  of  the  absurd  and  the  despicable. ":f 
In  "four  years,  from  1836  to  1830,— as  the  so-called  "Holy 
Synod"  reported  to  its  president,  a  cavalry  officer,  and  aid-de 
camp  of  the  emperor, — thirteen  thousand  four  hundred  and 
forty-three  ecclesiastics,  or  one-sixth  of  the  whole  Russian 
clergy,  were  under  sentence  of  the  public  tribunals,  and  that, 
as  the  Supreme  Procurator  informed  his  master,  "  for  infamous 
crimes."§  The  "  Synod"  itself,  which  is  supposed  by  a  verbal 
fiction  to  rule  over  this  clergy,  is  so  avowedly  a  mere  depart 
ment  of  the  state  police,  that,  as  Dr.  Dollinger  notices,  "  it  can 
not  even  appoint  its  own  secretary  and  subordinate  officials, 
who  are  all  nominated  and  displaced  by  the  Czar." 

It  is  impossible  to  quote,  without  repugnance,  such  descrip 
tions  of  a  national  clergy,  who  are,  nevertheless,  the  spiritual 
teachers  of  some  fifty  millions  of  souls.  But  we  are  going  to 
speak  of  the  missionary  operations  of  these  very  men,  and  we 
shall  find  them  to  be  worthy,  in  every  case,  of  ecclesiastics 
whom  even  Russians  treat  with  scorn  and  outrage,  and  of  whom 
they  speak  in  exactly  the  same  terms  as  the  German,  French, 
or  English  writers.  Haxthausen,  though  a  Russian  advocate, 
confesses  that  they  have  no  qualification  "for  the  duties  of  a 
missionary,"  and  even  admits  that  the  "  sterility"  of  which  we 

*  Les  Steppes  de  la  Mer  Caspienne,  &c.,  par  Xavier  Hommaire  de  Hell, 
Chevalier  de  1'Ordre  de  S.  Wladimir  de  Russie,  tome  i.,  cli.  viii.,  p.  120  (1843;. 

f  Personal  Adventures  in  Georgia,  Circassia,  and  Russia,  by  Lieut.-colonel 
Poulett  Cameron,  C.B.,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  v.,  p.  205  (1845). 

%  Quoted  by  Dollinger,  p.  137. 

§  Theiner,  L'Eglise  Schismatique  Russe,  cli.  vi.,  p  138. 


70  CHAPTER  VIII. 

are  about  to  furnish  conclusive  evidence,  "is  undoubtedly  at 
tributable  to  their  separation  from  Rome."*  Tourgeneif,  who 
describes  their  fallen  condition,  and  the  "  haughty  disdain"f 
with  which  they  are  treated  by  all  above  the  class  of  peasants, 
is  confirmed  by  De  Hell,  who  relates  that  the  upper  classes 
often  strike  them,  and  that  they  "  bow  their  heads  humbly  to  re 
ceive  the  correction."  If  a  wealthy  proprietor,  we  are  told  by 
M.  Golovine,  himself  a  Russian  priest,  "  ask  an  archbishop  to 
make  a  sacristan  a  priest,  a  priest  he  will  be,  even  though  he 
know  not  how  to  write.":):  And  this  is  the  case  also  in  the 
churches  subject  to  the  Patriarch  of  Constantinople.  "  It  might 
happen  to  any  one,"  says  a  Greek  writer,  in  letters  addressed 
in  1856  to  the  Archbishop  of  Cephalonia,  "  to  dismiss  a  servant 
one  day  for  misconduct,  and  meet  him  on  the  morrow  as  a  priest ; 
people  whom  you  have  known  as  petty  chandlers,  day-laborers, 
or  boatmen,  you  may  see  in  a  few  days  appear  at  the  altar  or 
in  the  pulpit."§  What  marvel,  if  under  such  teachers  "  the 
Russians,"  as  M.  de  Bonald  observes,  "have  a  religion  entirely 
composed  of  words,  ceremonies,  legends,  and  abstinences,  which 
is  to  genuine  Christianity  nearly  what  the  Judaism  of  the  Rabbis, 
followed  by  modern  Jews,  is  to  the  Mosaic  worship  ?"  [  What 
marvel  if  a  Church  of  which  such  men  are  the  ministers,  should 
be  described  by  Schnitzler  as  "stationary,  withered  by  the  spirit 
of  formalism,  and  deprived  of  every  principle  of  liberty  ?"T 

It  would  be  endless  to  multiply  such  testimonies.  They 
abound  in  the  writings  of  men  of  every  nation  and  every  creed. 
And  the  higher  classes  of  the  laity,  exercising  an  influence  which 
the  fallen  prelates  of  Russia  dare  not  dispute,  are  said  to  be 
themselves  perfectly  indifferent  to  the  religion  which  has  so  little 
title  to  their  respect,  and  in  whose  ministers  they  recognize  only 
an  inferior  order  of  police.  "  Noblesse  legere,"  says  a  French 
writer  in  1860,  "  superficielle,  egoiste,  corruptrice,  et  corrom- 
pue."**  "  They  show  a  strong  tendency,"  says  one  who  has 
lived  among  them,  "to  add  infidelity  to  their  immorality  ,"ff 
though  they  still  affect  the  outward  observance  of  religion, 
because,  as  Madame  d'Istria  observes,  "la  religion  est  une 
partie  de  la  consigne  militaire"  and  under  the  rule  of  the  Czar 
even  unbelief  submits  to  discipline.  Yet,  as  Golovine  remarks, 


*  Haxthausen,  Etudes  sur  la  JRussie,  tome  i.,  cli.  xiv.,  p.  441. 

f  La  Russie  et  les  Masses,  par  M.  A.  Tourgeneff,  tome  iii.,  p.  103. 

i  Memoircs  d'un  Pretre  Russe,  par  M.  Ivan  Golovine,  ch.  x.,  p.  202. 

|  Dollinger,  p.  125. 

\  Legislation  Primitive,  par  M.  de  Bonald,  tome  iv.,  p.  176. 

Tf  Histoire  Intime  de  la  llassie,  par  M.  J.  H.  Schnitzler ;  Notes,  p.  472. 

**  La  Russie,  son  Peuple  et  son  Armee,  par  M.  Leon  Deluzy,  p.  45  (1860) 

ft  Dissertations  on  the  Orthodox  Church,  by  W.  Palmer,  p.  293. 


MISSIONS  IN  THE   LEVANT,   ETC.  71 

«  every  one  knows  that  the  number  of  unbelievers  in  Russia 
continually  increases."  M.  de  Gerebtzoff  also  admits  "the 
general  tendency — entrainement — to  religious  incredulity,  and 
the  unbridled  gratification  of  brutal  passions,"*  which  began  to 
manifest  itself  in  Russia  during  the  last  century,  and  of  which 
every  capital  in  Europe  records  proverbial  examples  in  the 
present.  The  Russian  Church  has  killed  religion,  by  making  it 
impossible  to  respect  it.  And  yet,  while  corruption  spreads  like 
a  gangrene  through  all  ranks,  and  only  a  thin  varnish  of  decency 
covers  the  universal  license, — while  even  "  in  the  public  educa 
tional  establishments,"  as  the  most  competent  witnesses  report, 
"ignorance  and  immorality"  prevail  to  such  an  extent,  that,  in 
the  words  of  one  of  them,  "  respect  for  my  readers  prevents  me 
from  giving  any  detailed  account  of  them,"f  because  a  true 
account  of  Russian  society  would  be  a  picture  upon  which  no 
one  could  look  ;  the  worst  crimes  of  all  are  still  committed  in  the 
name  of  religion,  and  the  titles  of  "  Holy,  Orthodox  Russia,"  are 
invoked  with  solemn  hypocrisy  by  men  who  have  ceased  even  to 
believe  in  holiness,  and  who  might  boast  more  truly  than  the 
worst  class  of  French  sophists,  "J^ous  sommes  les  enfants  de 
Yoltaire." 

It  is  true  that  some  believe,  in  spite  of  the  facts  which  have 
now  been  noticed,  that  Russia,  convinced  at  last  that  her  schism 
has  only  defeated,  instead  of  promoting,  the  political  objects 
dearest  to  her  ambition,  will  again  be  reconciled  to  the  Holy 
See.  There  are  even  writers,  still  members  of  her  national 
church,  who  avow,  with  such  freedom  of  speech  as  a  Russian 
may  venture  to  use,  that  to  this  end  all  their  hopes  are  directed. 
They  know  that  Russia,  once  Catholic,  was  torn  from  unity 
mainly  by  the  influence  of  princes  who  made  themselves  pontiffs 
in  order  to  reign  as  kings,  and  whose  ecclesiastical  supremacy, 
sacred  in  the  eyes  of  their  subjects,  is  only  an  instrument  of 
policy  in  their  own.  "  I  recognize,"  said  Peter  the  Great,  with 
a  kind  of  savage  candor,  when  solicited  to  restore  the  Russian 
Patriarchate,  "no  other  legitimate  patriarch  but  the  Bishop  of 
Rome.  Since  you  will  not  obey  him,  you  shall  obey  me  alone. 
Behold  your  Patriarch  /"f 

Perhaps  also  the  hope  to  which  we  have  referred  is  partly 
founded  on  the  growth  of  a  new  sentiment  in  the  highest  class 
of  Russian  minds,  created  by  increasing  intercourse  with  the 
Latin  world,  and  sometimes  expressed  in  such  language  as  the 

*  Histoire  de  la,  Civilisation  en  Russie,  par  Nicolas  de  Gerebtzoff,  tome  ii., 
ch.  xii.,  p.  519. 

f  Recollections  of  Russia  during  Thirty-three  Years'  Residence,  by  a  German 
Nobleman,  ch.  ix.,  p.  321 ;  ed.  Wraxall. 

J  Theiner,  p.  46. 


CHAPTER   VIII. 

following.  "The  Russian  Church,"  says  one  of  her  latest 
apologists,  "is  not,  and  never  has  been,  schismatical  of  her  own 
free  will — de  son  gre — like  the  Oriental  Church."  "  Catholic," 
he  adds,  "from  her  first  entrance  into  the  Christian  family," 
she  is  still  Catholic,  "  without  knowing  it — a  son  insu"  Her 
clergy,  and  all  but  a  few  of  her  bishops,  are  what  they  are,  he 
says,  solely  through  ignorance.  And  then  this  Russian  advocate 
— after  remarking  that  "  the  Greeks,"  with  whom  he  disclaims 
the  remotest  sympathy,  "  were  fourteen  times  reconciled  to  the 
Latins  since  the  time  of  Photius,"  and  always  upon  conditions 
prescribed  by  the  latter — continues  thus:  "But  what  must 
sensibly  afflict  the  friends  of  truth  is  to  see  that  the  Russian 
clergy  are  ignorant,  or  appear  to  be  ignorant,  that  the  liturgical 
books  of  the  Russian  Church  contain  the  pure  Catholic,  one 
may  indeed  say  Ultramontane  doctrine,  on  the  primacy  of  the 
Pope,  and  the  authority  of  the  See  of  St.  Peter."  This  doctrine, 
he  observes,  which  Russia  received  from  her  first  apostles,  is 
retained  even  in  the  liturgical  books  as  reformed  by  Nikon, 
and  as  they  still  exist  in  every  parish  church  in  Russia,  though 
the  clergy  are  too  ignorant  or  too  careless  to  reflect  upon  the 
fact.  Nay  more,  even  the  doctrine  of  the  Immaculate  Concep 
tion,  regarded  by  Anglicans  as  peculiar  to  the  Roman  obedience, 
has  always  been  held  by  the  Russian  Church,  and  is  still 
proclaimed  at  this  day  in  her  public  offices.  On  the  feast  of 
the  Nativity  of  our  Lady,  the  Church  of  Russia,  living  only  to 
bear  witness  against  herself,  sings  this  canticle :  "We  pro 
claim  and  celebrate  your  Nativity,  and  we  honor  your  Imma 
culate  Conception."  Finally,  this  writer — deploring  as  a 
mournful  calamity  what  Anglicans  affect  to  consider  a  privilege, 
repudiating  as  worthy  only  of  the  fallen  "  Greek  Church"  the 
pleas  which  they  urge  in  behalf  of  their  own,  and  seeing  only 
grounds  for  self-accusation  where  they  find  motives  of  com 
placency —  appeals  earnestly  ad  misericordiam,  and  only 
ventures  to  suggest  that  Russia,  since  she  confesses  Catholic 
truth  in  her  liturgical  books,  should  be  absolved  from  schism 
on  the  ground  of  "  invincible  ignorance."* 

But  it  is  time  to  approach,  without  further  introduction,  the 
subject  of  Russian  missions,  and  to  examine,  as  usual  by  the 
aid  of  Protestant  witnesses,  the  actual  condition  of  the  various 
provinces  of  the  Russian  empire  which  have  so  long  solicited 
missionary  zeal,  but  which  the  national  clergy  have  abandoned 
to  heathenism,  or  only  converted  after  the  same  fashion  in  which 
Anglican  missionaries  have  converted  the  pagans  of  China, 
India,  and  Ceylon. 

*  L'Efflise  Russe,  Est  Ette  Schismatiquef  pp.  21-46. 


73 

"  It  is  to  the  Russian  Church,"  says  Theiner,  ".  that  we  must 
attribute  the  disgrace  which  attaches  to  Christian  Europe,  in 
seeing  still  in  the  nineteenth  century  so  many  pagans  within 
her  bosom.  Whole  provinces,  united  during  many  ages  to  the 
linssian  empire,  are  still  filled  with  gentiles."  This  is  the  fact 
which  we  are  going  to  illustrate. 

One  observation  is  necessary  by  way  of  preface.  It  will  be 
understood  that  neither  the  Church  nor  the  government  of 
Russia  have  any  objection  that  pagan  tribes  should  embrace 
the  state  religion,  except  when  political  interests  may  be  better 
promoted  by  their  continuance  in  heathenism.  To  the  purely 
religious  side  of  the  question  both  are  perfectly  indifferent.  In 
Russia  a  man  may  be  a  Mahometan,  a  worshipper  of  the  Grand 
Lama,  a  Lutheran,  a  pagan,  every  thing  but  a  Catholic,  without 
giving  umbrage  to  the  civil  or  religious  authorities.  "  The 
Greek  Church  has  shown  toleration,"  we  are  told,  "  because 
indifferent  to  the  conversion  of  those  of  other  creeds  ;"  and 
reserves  the  lash  and  the  dungeon  chiefly  for  "  those  within  the 
pale  of  its  own  fold  who  seem  disposed  to  wander  from  the 
flock."  "Two-thirds  of  the  cabinet  ministers,"  says  the  same 
writer,  "  a  large  proportion  of  the  generals  of  the  Russian 
army,  and  of  the  immediate  courtiers  of  the  emperor,  pro 
fess  the  Lutheran  religion."*  But  these  are  all  devoted  to 
Russian  policy,  and  therefore  their  religious  belief  is  a  matter 
of  indifference.  "Religious  toleration/'  as  Krasinski  observes, 
"  had  been  a  principle  of  Russian  policy  since  Peter  the 
Great,"  and  was  first  renounced  by  the  Emperor  Nicholas,  who 
strove  to  attain  by  violence  the  unity  which  his  predecessors 
had  failed  to.  establish.  Two  exceptions  were  made  in  his  reign 
to  the  universal  toleration,  and  'both  from  the  same  political 
motive.  "  Many  hundreds  of  venerable  men,"  says  an  English 
writer  in  1844,  "lor  years  beloved  and  respected  in  their  parishes, 
are  now  with  irons  on  their  legs,  half-shaven  heads,  and  in 
coarse  party-colored  garments,  chained  two  and  two,  pursuing 
their  weary  journey  to  Siberia,  some  everyday  expiring  on  the 
road."f  These  were  Catholic  priests,  as  the  Protestant  Krasinski 
notices,^;  "  whom  an  imperial  ukase  had  united  to  the  Russian 
Church,"  and  who  were  torn  from  their  flocks,  lest  the  latter 
should  imitate  their  example  in  refusing  to  deny  their  faith. 

The  ^  other  exception  to  Russian  tolerance  consists  in  the 
prohibition  of  conversion  to  any  community  but  the  National 
Church,  and  the  punishment  of  all  who  attempt  to  do  the  work 

*  Revelations  of  Russia,  cli.  xi.,  p.  301. 

f  Ibid,  p.  308. 

\  Panslamsm  and  Germanism,  p.  90. 


74  CHAPTER   VIII. 

which  the  Russian  clergy  leave  undone.  "  Proselytism  in 
Russia,"  says  an  Anglican  writer  in  1855,  "  whether  from 
Mohammedanism  or  Lamaism,  is  not  allowed,  unless  it  be  in 
favor  of  the  Russo-Greek  Church. r*  And  now  let  us  hear 
the  witnesses  who  will  tell  us,  from  actual  observation,  what 
are  the  claims  of  that  Church  to  the  apostolic  character,  and 
what  it  has  attempted  towards  the  conversion  of  the  heathen 
nations  within  the  bounds  of  the  empire. 

From  every  province  of  the  vast  dominions  of  the  Czar, — 
from  Courland  and  Livonia,  and  all  the  eastern  shores  of  the 
Baltic  Sea ;  from  Finland  and  Laponia  ;  from  both  banks  of  the 
Volga,  throughout  its  whole  course,  to  where  it  flows  into  the 
Caspian  Sea;  from  the  sources  of  the  Don  to  the  plains  which 
border  the  Sea  of  Azov  ;  from  Tobolsk  to  the  Gulf  of  Obi ;  from 
Perm,  Orenburg,  and  Astrakhan;  from  the  White  Sea  to  the 
banks  of  the  Amur,  and  from  the  Ural  to  the  Aleutian  Isles; 
from  Georgia  and  Circassia,  and  all  the  distant  valleys  of  the 
Caucasus  ;  from  Archangel  to  Odessa,  and  from  Kamshatka  to 
the  Tauric  Chersonese,  we  have  exactly  the  same  reports.  From 
the  Kalmuks  and  Tchouwasses  of  the  Yolga,  and  the  Lapes 
of  the  White  Sea ;  from  Ostiaks  and  Samoieds ;  from  the 
Tschuktschi  of  the  north,  and  the  Ossets  of  the  south ;  from 
the  Tatars  of  Kazan,  and  those  of  Simferopol ;  from  Georgians 
and  Irneritians,  and  all  the  tribes  of  the  Caucasus ;  the  same 
cry  is  heard,  proclaiming  in  a  hundred  dialects,  that  no  sect  of 
earth,  though  it  wield  the  power  of  an  empire  and  lavish  the 
wealth  of  a  continent,  may  hope  to  snatch  a  single  soul  from 
the  powers  of  evil,  nor  do  aught  but  reveal  its  own  incurable 
impotence.  To  the  emissaries  of  the  all-powerful  autocrat  and 
his  imperial  Church,  the  barbarians  of  a  hundred  tribes,  who 
bow  their  heads  before  the  humblest  messenger  of  the  Vicar  of 
God,  reply  with  one  voice,  as  they  do  to  the  baffled  agents  of 
English,  German,  and  American  sects,  "  Jesus  I  know,  and 
Paul  1  know,  but  who  are  you  ?" 

Let  us  begin  with  the  provinces  of  the  Baltic.  The  Lcttes, 
who  inhabit  Courland  and  the  southern  half  of  Livonia,  though 
long  nominally  Christian,  and  surrounded  by  Lutherans  and 
Russo-G  reeks,  "  sacrifice  to  household  spirits,"  we  learn  from 
Mr.  Kohl,  "  by  setting  out  food  for  them  in  their  gardens  or 
houses,  or  under  old  oak-trees. "f 

Of  the  Esthoniana  the  same  Protestant  writer  says,  after 
dwelling  among  them,  u  The  old  practices  and  ceremonies  of 

*  The  Crimea,  its  Ancient  and  Modern  History,  by  the  Rev.  Thomas  Milner, 
M.A.,  F.K.A.S.,  ch.  viii.,  p.  281. 
f  Russia,  p.  374. 


MISSIONS  IN  THE  LEVANT,  ETC.  75 

heathenism  have  been  preserved  more  completely  among  them 
than  among  any  other  Lutheran  people.  .  .  .  There  are  many 
spots  where  the  peasants  yet  offer  up  sacrifices."*  Schnitzler 
adds  of  the  Lithuanians  generally,  who  are  nominally  Luther 
ans,  "  Us  sont  ignorans,  superstitieux,  routiniers,  et  ivrognes  ;"f 
and  Dr.  Latham  informs  us  that  "so  low  is  the  present  Con 
dition  of  the  small  peasantry  which  now  represents  the  Lithu 
ania  name  and  language,"  that  no  trace  remains  of  their  ancient 
character,  and  that  "no  small  amount  of  heathendom  underlies 
the  imperfect  Christianity  of  the  Lithuanians,"  so  that  "  with 
the  single  exception  of  the  Esthonians,  the  Lithuanians  are  the 
most  pagan  of  all  the  nations  of  civilized  Europe.''^  Such  has 
been  the  religious  influence  of  the  Russian  national  creed  in 
the  three  Baltic  provinces. 

If  now  we  cross  the  Gulf  of  Finland,  continuing  our  journey 
through  the  northwestern  provinces  of  the  empire,  we  come  to 
the  home  of  the  Fins,  numbering  about  two  millions,  and 
already  subject  for  more  than  half  a  century  to  the  dominion  of 
the  Czar.  "The  Russians,"  says  the  great  English  ethnologist, 
"claim  the  credit  of  having  converted  them  A.  D.  1227.  They 
may  have  done  this,  and  yet  have  done  it  ineffectually;  for  the 
special  charge  that  lay  against  the  Fins  was,  that  there  was 
nothing  real  in  their  numerous  conversions."  It  is  a  significant 
fact  that  at  the  present  day,  in  spite  of  the  threats  or  cajoleries 
of  Russia,  very  few  Fins  profess  the  national  religion,  the  great 
majority  being  nominally  Lutherans,  owing  to  their  former 
connection  with  Sweden,  "with  a  vast  mass  of  the  original 
paganism  underlying  their  present  Christianity ."§ 

Passing  out  of  Finland  into  Laponia,  we  have  this  account 
of  the  Russian  Laps,  who,  unlike  those  of  Sweden  and  Norway, 
profess  the  Greek  religion.  "They  are  indifferent  to  the 
Christianity  which  they  have  within  a  few  years  affected  to 
embrace.  .  .  .  Instructed  by  a  few  drunken  priests,  and  yield 
ing  from  fear  and  complaisance,  they  mingle  and  confound  tho 
superstitions  of  the  Russian  Church  with  tho  old  incantations 
of  witchcraft."| 

The  White  Sea  separates  the  province  of  Laponia  from  the 
government  of  Archangel,  through  which  we  enter  those  of 
Perm,  Viatka,  and  Orenburg.  In  all  we  meet  the  same  facts. 
The  Permians,  the  Zirianians  of  Vologda,  who  "retain  much 
of  their  original  paganism,"  and  in  the  south,  where  they  have 

*  Russia,  p.  388. 

f  La  Rmsie,  la  Pologne,  et  la  Finlande,  lib.  ii.,  ch.  i.,  p.  546. 

^  The  Nationalities  of  Europe,  vol.  i.,  ch.  iii.,  p.  23. 

^  Latham,  vol.  i.,  ch.  xviii.,  p.  209. 

\  Revelations  of  Russia,  vol.  i.,  ch.  xii.,  p.  350. 


76  CHAPTER   VIII. 

come  in  contact  with  the  Bashkirs,  have  even  in  some  instances 
become  Mahometans  ;*  the  Yotiaks  of  Yiatka,  who  are  hardly 
distinguishable  from  pagans,  the  Tsherimis,  Tshuvash,  and 
other  tribes,  who  are  Christians  in  name  and  pagans  in  belief, 
all  bear  witness  to  the  indifference  or  incapacity  of  the  Russian 
Church.  The  Tsherimis,  who  number  nearly  one  hundred  and 
seventy  thousand,  and  abound  chiefly  in  the  governments  of 
Kazan  and  Yiatka,  are  thus  described :  "  Some  of  them  are 
pure  pagans,  the  majority  being  but  imperfect  and  approximate 
Christians,  retaining,  under  the  surface  of  their  later  creed, 
most  of  the  essentials  of  their  original  heathendom. "f  The 
Tshuvash,  numbering  about  four  hundred  and  thirty  thousand, 
are  devil-worshippers,  in  spite  of  their  outward  profession  of 
the  Greek  religion.  "Their  Christianity  is  nominal,  and  dashed 
not  only  with  pagan  but  with  Mahometan  elements. "f  The 
Bisermans  of  Yiatka  are  avowedly  Mahometans,  and  Dr. 
Latham  thinks  they  are  "neither  more  nor  less  than  Yotiak 
converts  of  some  standing."§  Yet  the  Yotiaks  themselves  are 
supposed  to  be  disciples  of  the  Kussian  Church ! 

But  there  is  nothing  in  this  fact  to  surprise  us.  The  Russians 
themselves,  as  many  examples  will  convince  us,  often  adopt  the 
worst  pagan  superstitions,  and  practise  them  with  a  zeal  pro 
portioned  to  their  religious  earnestness.  M.  Pietrowski  relates, 
and  it  is  only  one  instance  out  of  many,  that  during  a  voyage 
on  the  Dwina,"  which  flows  through  the  governments  of  Vologda 
and  Archangel,  his  companions  being  all  religious  pilgrims  of 
the  National  Church,  visiting  sacred  places,  "every  soul  on 
board,  from  the  master  to  the  poorest  of  the  lohomolets,  threw 
a  piece  of  copper  money  into  the  stream,  to  render  the  Dwina 
propitious  to  their  course  along  its  breast."] 

Let  us  now  accompany  Mr.  Laurence  Oliphant  on  his  journey 
to  Kazan,  and  thence  down  the  Yolga  to  the  Caspian  Sea, 
Everywhere  his  experience  is  uniform.  The  Kalmuks  whom 
he  encountered  were  all  still  Buddhists.  "The  Tartar  popula 
tion,"  he  £ays,  "  is  precisely  the  same  as  it  ever  was."  Near 
the  mouth  of  the  Yolga  he  visits  "a  large  and  populous  village 
in  a  state  of  utter  heathenism,  and  apparently  destined  to  remain 
so,"  because  the  Russian  Church  neither  knows  how  to  convert 
them  herself,  nor  will  suffer  others  to  make  the  attempt.  At 
Sarepta,  near  Astrakhan,  where,  out  of  a  population  of  eleven 
hundred,  eight  hundred  are  Lutherans  or  Moravians,  a  new  fact 

*  Latham,  vol.  i.,  cli.  xix.,  p.  216. 
f  P.  218. 
\  P.  221. 
"  P  225 
Story  of  a  Siberian  Exile,  by  M.  Rufin  Pietrowski,  ch.  viii.,  p.  160  (1863). 


MISSIONS  IN  THE  LEVANT,   ETC.  77 

comes  under  his  observation.  The  Moravians  had  begun  to 
convert,  after  their  mode,  some  of  the  neighboring  heathen, 
for  whom  the  National  Church  had  no  care.  "  The  Greek  clergy 
interposed,  and  insisted  that  the  converts  should  be  admitted 
into  tlieir  Church."  An  appeal  was  made  to  the  government, 
which  supported  the  priests,  and  the  Moravians  gave  up  the 
contest.  "  No  effort  is  made,"  observes  Mr.  Oliphant,  "  to 
atone  for  this  wanton  bigotry,  by  the  establishment  of  missions 
by  the  Greek  Church  among  these  wandering  tribes.''* 

Mr.  Scott  traversed  in  part  the  same  ground,  and  thus  con 
firms  in  1854:  what  Mr.  Oliphant  had  reported  in  1853.  Of 
one  tribe  he  says,  "  Pagans  in  religion,  they  make  a  pretended 
adhesion  to  the  Russian  Greek  Church ;"  of  another,  "  They 
are  followers  of  the  Grand  Lama  ;"  of  a  third,  "  They  are  all 
Mahometans."  The  latter  give  no  trouble  to  the  State,  and 
therefore  nothing  would  be  gained,  according  to  Russian  ideas 
of  gain,  by  making  them  Christians.  At  Sarepta,  Mr.  Scott 
paid  a  visit  to  Mr.  Louser,  the  Moravian  minister.  "The 
emperor  stopped  at  once,"  he  writes  after  the  interview, 
"  those  noble  efforts  to  rescue  a  people  from  the  withering 
blast  of  paganism. "f 

It  is,  of  course,  impossible  to  defend  either  the  emperor  or  hia 
ecclesiastical  agents,  who  were  bound  at  least  to  attempt  the 
work  which  they  would  not  permit  others  to  undertake ;  but  it 
is  some  satisfaction  to  know  that  in  prohibiting  Protestant 
missions  to  the  Tatars,  they  inflicted  no  injury  on  the  latter.  It 
appears  that  the  Protestant  missionaries  in  Russia,  like  so  many 
of  their  brethren  in  other  lands,  are  simply  traders.  Henderson, 
who  confesses  that  "the  Sarepta  mission  was  the  most  unpro 
ductive  of  any  they  have  established,"  discovered  that  at  Karas 
also  "  little  real  progress  has  been  made  by  the  mission,"  and 
was  shocked  to  n'nd  that  its  members  were  chiefly  busy  u  iu 
the  temporal  concerns  of  the  colony."^  Tlieir  later  history  is 
instructive.  "  It  is  to  be  feared,"  said  Julius  Yon  Ivlapruth, 
who  also  visited  them,  "  that  it  will  soon  be  nothing  but  a  linen 
manufactory,  for  it  is  known  that  all  the  establishments  of  tho 
Moravian  Brothers  in  Russia  have  n.Q  other  motive  than  tho 
love  of  gain."§  Finally,  the  last  phase  of  their  career  is  de 
scribed  by  Hommaire  de  E[eU,  who, found  that  "  at  the  present 

*  Russian  Shores  of  the  Blade  Sea,  ch.  iii.,  p.  52  ;  ch.  v.,  p.  70 ;  cli.  viii.,  p. 
119  ;  ch.  xx.,  p.  272.  '  Of.'  Oriental  and  Western  Siberia,  by  T.  W.  Atkinson, 
ch.  xxii.,  p.  383. 

t  The  Baltic,^.,  ch.  viii.,  p.  114  ;  ch.  x.,  p.  158  ;  ch.  xii.,  p,  194. 

t  BiblicaJ,  Researches  in  Itussia,  by  E.  Henderson,  ch.  xvii.,  p.  413  ;  ch.  xx., 
p.  447. 

§  Voyage  au  Mont  Caucase  et  en  Georgie,  par  M.  Jules  Kkproth,  ch,  x.>  p. 


78  CHAPTER   VIII. 

day  the  original  object  of  the  establishment  is  liardly  remem- 
"bered;"  and  that  "the  colon}7,  at  Karas,  essentially  agricul 
tural,  no  longer  thinks  of  any  thing  but  enriching  itself  at  the 
expense  of  the  strangers  whom  the  mineral  waters  attract  to 
the  Caucasus  !"*  If  the  Russians  have  not  even  a  conception 
of  the  character  of  an  apostle  missionary,  their  Protestant  rivals 
can  hardly  reproach  them  with  the  fact. 

It  is  true  that  in  the  neighborhood  of  Astrakhan  Protestant 
ism  tried  once  more  to  do  what  Panslavism  had  failed  to  effect, 
but  with  no  other  result  than  to  show  that  one  form  of  human 
religion  is  as  impotent  as  another.  "  The  reception  the  Scotch 
missionaries  met  with  from  the  Tatars,"  says  Henderson,  "  was 
far  from  encouraging.  .  .  .  Sometimes  they  treated  their  mes 
sage  with  mockery  and  scorn,  hooted  them  with  the  utmost 
rudeness,  and  ordered  them  away."f  It  is  also  a  curious  ex 
ample  of  the  pretended  religious  unity  of  Russia,  that  in  1835 
Astrakhan  already  contained,  besides  Russo-Greek  churches, 
fifteen  mosques,  two  Armenian  churches,  a  Catholic  church 
and  convent,  a  Protestant  temple,  and  a  Hindoo  pagoda.;}: 

We  have  now  reached  the  mouth  of  the  Yolga,  but  must  re 
turn  for  a  moment  to  Kazan,  once  the  capital  of  a  powerful 
nation,  before  we  continue  our  journey  towards  the  East.  Kazan, 
as  Dr.  Latham  observes,  is  "  the  great  seminary  for  missionaries 
and  for  agitators  in  behalf  of  religious  and  political  designs  of 
Russia  in  the  direction  of  the  East."  Yet  in  this  government, 
and  throughout  the  whole  course  of  the  Yolga,  Russian  mis 
sionary  projects  have  been  at  least  as  fruitless  as  in  every  other 
region  of  the  empire.  Mr.  Turnerelli  confirms  the  statements 
of  Latham,  Scott,  and  Oliphant  as  to  the  paganism  of  the 
Tsherimis,  Tshuvash,  and  other  nominal  converts,§  and  adds 
that  the  great  majority  of  these  tribes  do  not  even  affect  to 
profess  the  religion  of  their  masters,  in  spite  of  the  powerful 
inducements  proposed  to  them.  In  the  city  of  Kazan  itself 
there  are  nearly  twenty  thousand  Mahometans,  and  the  immense 
Tartar  population  of  the  entire  region,  ranging  as  far  as 
Astrakhan,  remains  either  wholly  uninfluenced  by  Russian 
teaching,  or  has  adopted,  as  in  the  case  of  the  Tshulim  Tartars, 
to  the  number  of  fifteen  thousand,  and  a  few  of  the  Nogays,  a 
horrible  compound  of  Christianity,  Islamisrn,  and  Shamanism. [ 
But  the  vast  majority,  as  all  the  witnesses  agree,  are  just  what 

*  JheQ  Steppes  fie  Iq,  Mer  Caspienne,  tome  ii.,  cli.  vii.,  p.  206. 
f  Biblical  Researches,  cli.  xviii.,  p.  431. 
\  Schi)it/ler,  Lq,  Ru^ie,  &c.,  lib.  ii.,  ch.  Hi.,  p.  699. 

§  Kazan,  the  Ancient  Capital  of  the  Tartar  Khans,  by  G.  T.  Turnerelli,  vol. 
ii.,  cli.  iv.,  p.  155. 

J  Latham,  cli.  xxiii.,  p.  258, 


MISSIONS  IN  THE   LEVANT,   ETC.  79 

their  forefathers  were  before  the  Khanat  of  Kazan  was  annexed 
to  the  Muscovite  empire. 

If  we  now  advance  eastwards,  and  cross  the  range  which 
separates  European  from  Asiatic  Russia,  we  shall  still  encounter 
invariably  the  same  facts.  The  Voguls,  numbering  about  six 
thousand,  in  the  two  governments  of  Perm  and  Tobolsk,  inhabit 
the  district  along  the  ridge  of  the  Uralian  chain.  They  invoke 
in  all  their  expeditions  the  carved  images  of  wild  beasts.*  The 
Ostiaks,  who  number  nearly  twenty  thousand,  and  are  found 
chiefly  on  the  Obi  and  the  gulf  into  which  it  flows,  are  thus 
described,  in  1852,  by  Colonel  Szyrma,  whose  work  was 
published  under  the  supervision  of  the  Russian  censorship: 
"  Up  to  the  present  day,  although  a  considerable  number  of  the 
Ostiaks  have  been  converted  to  Christianity,  the  neophytes  have 
not  discontinued  the  worship  of  ancient  larch-trees,  remnant  of 
a  sacred  grove,  which  prevailed  among  their  forefathers."  On 
one  occasion,  the  traveller  whose  notes  he  edited  surprised  a 
number  of  Ostiaks  in  a  forest,  who,  "  having  accepted,  or  rather 
been  compelled  to  accept  Christianity,  were  performing  the 
rites  of  their  idolatrous  worship  in  secret. "f 

The  Samoyeds,  the  next  great  tribe  of  this  part  of  eastern 
Siberia,  are  in  much  the  same  condition.  No  attempt  was  even 
nrade  to  convert  them  before  1830.  "They  are  to  this  day," 
says  Szyrma,  and  Latham  gives  the  same  account  of  them, 
"  idolaters,  following  the  tenets  of  their  ancient  Shamanic 
religion."  "The  Russians  themselves,5'  he  adds,  notwith 
standing  their  profession  of  Christianity,  "do  not  refuse  belief 
in  the  prognostications  of  the  Shamans ;''  and  "  Russians  of  all 
religious  sects  frequently  consult  them  about  what  is  to  happen 
to  them  in  the  most  important  proceedings  of  life,  and  never 
doubt  the  truth  of  the  revelations  made  to  them."  In  this  case, 
instead  of  pagans  becoming  Christians,  we  see  Christians  con 
verted  into  pagans.  Perhaps  the  Russian  censor  thought  this 
too  insignificant  a  fact  to  require  suppression. 

The  same  writer  speaks  of  a  couple  of  Ostiaks  who  came  to 
the  Greek  church  at  Berezov  on  the  river  of  Obi  to  be  married, 
upon  whom  the  ceremony  of  baptism  had  made  so  little  im 
pression,  that  "  they  had  actually  forgotten  their  Christian 
names."  All  these  tribes,  he  observes,  after  their  nominal 
conversion,  display  a  brass  cross  on  their  breasts,  to  indicate 
their  adhesion  to  Panslavism,  "  and  carry  the  Shaitan  in  their 
pockets."  And  the  Russian  Church,  which  is  only  the  instru- 

*  Id,  p.  231. 

f  Revelations  of  Siberia,  edited  by  Colonel  Lacli  Szyrma,  vol.  i.,  ch.  ix., 
P.  147 ;  cli.  xvii.,  p.  2u2 ;  ch.  xviii.,  p.  283;  vol.  ii.,  ch.  ii.,  pp.  20-27. 


80  CHAPTER  VIII. 

raent  of  the  policy  of  its  lay  pontiff,  is  satisfied  with  converts 
of  this  class,  because  they  satisfy  its  master. 

We  have  still  to  speak  of  the  remoter  governments  of 
Yakutsk  and  Urkutsk,  the  newly-acquired  region  of  the  Amur, 
and  the  far  eastern  peninsula  of  Kamshatka.  They  have  all  the 
same  tale  to  tell.  The  Koridks,  whether  still  nomads,  or  settled 
in  villages,  "  are  either  Shamanists  or  imperfect  Christians." 
The  Parenzi  and  Kamenzi,  of  the  Gulf  of  Pendzinsk,  are 
Shamanists.  The  Pallanzi  are  partly  heathen,  partly  Chris 
tians,  if  such  a  name  can  be  applied  to  them,  of  the  Ostiak  and 
Samoyed  type.  The  Olutorians  are  still  more  un  disguised  ly 
pagan.  The  Oronchons  of  the  Upper  Amur,  as  Ravenstein 
relates  in  1861,  "  are  nominally  Christians,  but  they  resort  to 
the  practices  of  Shamanism  almost  every  night,"  and,  though 
ostensibly  members  of  the  Russo-Greek  Church,  keep  "  idols 
made  of  wood  and  fur"  in  their  dwellings.*  The  Russian 
Tungus,  composed  of  various  tribes,  "  as  a  rule  are  Shamanists, 
and  imperfect  converts  to  Christianity,  rather  than  Buddhists," 
as  the  Chinese  Tungus  are.f  The  Goldi  are  Shamanists,  as  are 
the  GiliakS)  by  whom  the  Abbe  de  la  Bruniere,  who  had  gone 
to  evangelize  the  region  of  the  Amur,  was  lately  martyred. 
The  Russian  Church  has  no  martyrs,  and  its  so-called  mis 
sionaries  undertake  the  work  of  which  we  have  now  seen  the 
results  from  the  same  motive  as  the  soldiers  who  accompany 
them,  and  in  obedience  to  the  same  authority. 

How  willingly  true  missionaries  would  preach  to  these  un 
happy  tribes,  "  without  money  and  without  price,"  the  pure 
and  holy  doctrine  which  millions  of  men  once  equally  degraded 
have  accepted,  in  many  a  land,  from  teachers  of  the  same  order, 
we  may  infer  from  the  heroic  self-devotion  of  the  four  Polish 
priests,  who,  with  the  reluctant  consent  of  the  Russian  Czar, 
carry  to  their  exiled  brethren  in  Siberia  the  consolations  of 
religion.  "  No  Christian  mind,"  says  one  who  profited  by  their 
charity,  "can  fail  to  appreciate  the  devotion  of  these  poor 
priests.  It  cannot  be  too  much  admired,  for  it  carries  them 
along  their  ceaseless  travels,  and  supports  them  as,  in  their 
sledges,  they  journey  through  the  intense  cold  of  Siberia,  from 
Tobolsk  to  Kamshatka.  and  from  Nertchinsk  to  the  Polar 


We  have  reached  the  extreme  eastern  frontier  of  the  Russian 
empire,  but  only  to  find  exactly  the  same  proofs  of  spiritual 
impotence  which  we  have  seen  in  the  provinces  of  the  west,  and 
in  all  the  wide  regions  which  lie  between  the  Gulf  of  Finland 

*  The  Russians  on  the  Amur,  ch.  xx.,  p.  351. 
f  Latham,  ch.  xxii.,  p.  243  ;  ch.  xxv.,  p.  268. 
\  Pietrowski,  ch.  v.,  p.  102 


MISSIONS   IN  THE   LEVANT,    ETC.  81 

and  Bliering  Straits,  between  the  Polar  Circle  and  the  Caspian 
Sea.  Everywhere  the  imperial  church  of  Russia  is  equally 
sterile.  Either  she  abandons  to  paganism  whole  nations,  with 
out  an  effort  to  kindle  among  them  the  light  of  the  Gospel,  or 
converts  them  into  such  "  Christians"  as  the  Tshuvash  and 
Voguls,  the  OstiaJcs  and  Tsherimis,  the  Koriaks  and  Samoyeds. 
Of  the  Tschuktshi,  who  had  all  received  baptism,  and  were 
reckoned  as  converts  by  the  Russian  Church  as  the  devil-wor 
shippers  of  Ceylon  are  by  the  Anglican,  Admiral  Wrangell 
says,  "  It  must  be  admitted  that  they'are  as  complete  heathens 
as  ever,  and  have  not  the  slightest  idea  of  the  doctrines  or  the 
spirit  of  Christianity."*  Finally,  the  Aleutians,  a  race  "  much 
more  powerful,  bodily  and  mentally,"  than  their  congeners  of 
Labrador  or  Greenland,  and  whose  "  blood  is  mixed  largely 
with  that  of  the  Russians,"  "  have  been  converted  to  an  im 
perfect  Christianity,"  faintly  differing  from  pagan ism.f 

If  now  we  turn  to  the  south,  we  receive  from  the  banks  of 
the  Don  and  the  Dneiper,  from  Georgia,  Circassia,  the  Crimea, 
and  all  the  Transcaucasian  provinces,  as  well  as  from  Russian 
Armenia,  the  same  reports  as  from  all  the  western,  northern, 
and  eastern  governments  of  the  empire.  The  Cossacks  of  the 
Don,  among  whom  De  Hell  found  evidence  of  strong  religious 
feeling,  call  themselves  "  true  believers,"  in  opposition  to  the 
members  of  the  State  Church,  "  because  a  slight  difference  in 
the  text  of  their  Bible  has  occasioned  a  very  great  one  in  their 
religious  sentiments."  So  difficult  is  it  in  Russia  to  conciliate 
religious  zeal  with  attachment  to  the  national  creed. 

The  KalmuTcs,  on  the  banks  of  the  Kouma,  are  thus  described 
by  the  same  witness.  "Russian  missionaries  endeavored  to 
convert  them  about  the  end  of  last  century,  but  these  attempts 
at  proselytism,  based  upon  force,  had  no  result,  and  only  created 
rebels."  A  few  consented  to  be  officially  baptized,  but  "  these 
pretended  Christians  are,  with  the  Turcomans,  the  most  formi 
dable  inhabitants  of  the  steppes.":): 

The  Douckoboren,  he  adds,  and  the  Molokaner — the  latter 
already  amounting  to  one  million — "  only  abandoned  the  religion 
of  their  ancestors  about  sixty  years  ago,"  and  were  violently 
transported  from  their  homes  by  the  government,  "  alarmed  at 
the  propagation  of  their  tenets,"  to  New  Russia.  They  now 
profess  the  fanatical  tenets  of  the  Mennonites,  and  belong  to 
that  dangerous  class  whose  rapid  increase  suggested  the  pre- 

*  Expedition  to  the  Polar  Sea,  by  Admiral  Wrangell  ch  vi    p  121 
f  Latham,  ch.  xxvi.,  p.  280. 

tX«i  Steppes,  &c.,  tome  i.,  ch.  xiii.,  p.  260  ;  ch.  xviii.,  p.  343 ;  tome  ii.,  ch.  iv., 
p.  Uo. 

VOL.  II.  7 


82  CHAPTER   VIII. 

diction  of  De  Custine,  "It  is  by  religions  divisions  the  Russian 
empire  will  perish." 

The  Ossets  of  the  eastern  slope  of  the  Caucasus,  numbering 
about  fifty  thousand,  and  subject  to  Russian  authority,  "have  a 
strange  mixture  of  Judaism,  Christianity,  Mahometanism,  and 
Paganism  for  a  creed. "*  The  Ossets  of  Georgia  "  have  been 
subject  to  Russia  since  the  time  Georgia  was  annexed  to  that 
empire.  A  portion  of  the  tribe  is  said  to  have  adopted  a  sort 
of  nominal  Christianity.  It  appears  that,  conversion  being  at 
tended  with  certain  advantages,  the  same  proselytes  had  been 
repeatedly  registered  under  different  appellations."f  The  Rev. 
Mr.  Percival  gave  us  exactly  the  same  account  of  the  Anglican 
baptisms  in  Ceylon.  "The  majority  of  the  Ossets  are  nominal 
ly  Christians,  and  belong  to  the  Greek  Church,"  observes 
Haxthausen  ;  "  they  are,  in  fact,  semi-pagans ;  indeed  some  are 
wholly  and  avowedly  heathens.  They  oifer  sacrifices  of  bread 
and  flesh  upon  altars  in  sacred  groves."^  Yet  the  Ossets,  whose 
connection  with  the  Russian  Church  has  only  aggravated  their 
misfortunes,  were  once,  as  Klaproth  remarks,  wholly  Christian. 

Of  the  Georgians  generally,  Bodenstedt  speaks  as  follows,  in 
a  work  commended  by  Humboldt.  "  It  is  incredible  how 
ruinous  and  demoralizing  Russian  influence  is.  The  manners 
and  the  customs  peculiar  to  the  country,  which  have  occupied 
for  centuries  the  place  of  laws,  vanish  before  the  foreign  in 
truders,  without  being  supplanted  by  any  thing  better 

The  Russians  can  only  multiply  the  primordial  ills  and  burdens 
of  the  people,  without  giving  them  a  moral  counterbalance. 
The  only  things  they  bring  with  them  into  the  conquered  lands 
are  new  coercive  measures,  new  forms  of  deceit,  of  falsehood, 
and  of  abuse  of  the  Church  for  objects  of  police."  In  Girca&sia, 
the  same  writer  remarks,  "  Christianity  has  become  hateful  to 
them  through  the  Russians."§ 

In  the  Caucasus,  Mr.  Spencer  observes,  "  the  Russians  com 
menced  their  intercourse  under  the  mask  of  proffered  protec 
tion,  friendly  commerce,  and  a  desire  to  instruct  them  in  the 
civilizing  truths  of  Christianity ;"  and  the  only  result  of  their 
presence  has  been  to  "reduce  their  once  fertile  meadows  to  a 
desert,"  and  to  excite  their  "deadly  hatred"  against  the  religion 
which  Russia  has  taught  them  to  despise  and  abhor.  |  The  fatal 

*  Latham,  ch.  xxix.,  p.  301. 

f  Life  and  Manners  in  Persia,  by  Lady  SI  iel,  p.  51. 

\  Trans-Caucasia,  p.  395. 

§  Life  in  the  Caucasus  and  the  East,  by  Friedrich  Bodenstedt,  vol.  i.,  p.  57  ; 
vol.  ii.,  pp.  163,  175 ;  ed.  Waddington. 

|  Travels  in  the  Western  Caucasus,  by  Edmund  Spencer,  Esq.,  vol.  i.,  cli. 
viii.,  p.  103  ;  ch.  xxix.,  p.  354. 


MISSIONS   IN   THE   LEVANT,  ETC.  83 

effects  of  Russian  influence  upon  all  the  Caucasian  tribes  sub 
ject  to  it  are  attested  with  impressive  unanimity  by  various 
witnesses.  The  hioushes  acknowledge  their  power  but  detest 
their  religion.  "  Every  attempt,"  says  Mr.  Spencer,  "  of  the 
Russian  government  to  win  them  over  to  embrace  the  tenets 
of  the  Greek  Church  failed."  "  The  Kabardan  Circassians," 
we  are  told,  "  who  had  hitherto  been  Christians  (of  the  Russian 
Church),  abandoned  their  religion  to  escape  her  control,  and 
became  Mohammedans."*  These  men  are  believed  by  Klap- 
roth  to  be  descendants  of  the  Greek  colonies  of  the  Lower 
Empire,  and  Latham  remarks,  that  "ruins  of  Christian  churches 
and  monasteries  in  even  the  non-Christian  parts  of  Caucasus 
are  numerous;  yet  so  utterly  has  every  Christian  tradition  died 
away  among  them,  that  when  Colonel  Poulett  Cameron  in 
quired  of  them  the  meaning  of  the  crosses  still  found  in  many 
of  their  highways,  "  their  only  answer  was  a  careless  and  in 
different  '  Allah  bilker  /'  '  God  knows  !'  "f 

When  "  some  of  the  Lesgians  are  called  Christians,"  says 
Latham,  "  little  more  is  meant  by  the  term  than  the  suggestion 
that  they  are  indifferent  Mahometans."  The  Abazes,  as  Klap- 
roth  relates,  professed  also  in  earlier  times  the  Greek  religion, 
but  became  Mahometans  in  18104  The  Karatchai  had  al 
ready  deserted  Fhotius  for  Mahomet  in  17S2.§  Finally,  Hen 
derson  gives  the  following  summary  of  the  results  of  Russian 
missionary  influence  in  all  the  Caucasian  provinces;  "The 
Tcherkesses,  most  of  the  Lesyians,  the  principal  Abkhaeion 
tribes,  the  Tchetchenzi,  the  Nogais,  the  Kumaks,  and  the 
Karatchais?  numbering  more  than  half  a  million,  "  are  Mo- 
hammedans  ;"  while  the  rest  of  the  Caucasian  tribes,  with  the 
exception  of  the  Georgians,  Armenians,  and  Jews,  "  are  in  a 
state  of  heathenism  "\ 

But  even  these  facts,  disgraceful  as  they  are  to  the  Russian 
Church,  do  not  reveal  the  whole  truth.  Here,  as  elsewhere, 
not  content  with  driving  whole  races  into  apostacy,  by  exhibit 
ing  to  them  only  immorality,  cruelty,  and  fraud,  she  has  driven 
away  the  only  missionaries  who  could  have  won  them  to  re 
ligion  and  civilization.  As  early  as  1612,  Father  Szgoda,  of 
the  Society  of  Jesus,  allowed  himself  to  be  captured  by  the 
Tatars,  and  carried  away  as  a  prisoner  to  the  Crimea,  in  the 
hope  that  he  would  find  as  a  captive  "  the  opportunity  of  preach- 

*  The  Progress  and  Present  Position  of  Russia  in  the  East,  ch.  ii.,  p.  20 
3d  edition  (1854). 

f  Personal  Adventures,  &c.,  vol.  i.,  ch.  vi.,  p.  332. 
i  Voyage  an  Mont  Caucase,  ch.  ix.,  pp.  202-225. 
8  Ibid.,  ch.  xi.,  p.  282. 
|  Piiblical  Researches,  app.,  p.  538. 


84:  CHAPTER   VIII. 

ing  the  Gospel  to  them."*  Nearly  two  centuries  later,  Klap- 
roth  found  a  community  of  Jesuits  at  Mozdok,  prepared  to  do 
what  they  had  done  in  every  other  land,  and  already  occupied 
in  evangelizing  the  tribes  of  the  Caucasus.  One  of  them,  the 
Pere  Henri,  won  the  admiration  of  the  great  linguist  by  his 
zeal  and  talent,  of  which  he  gave  a  proof  by  preaching  fluently 
in  Armenian  when  he  had  been  only  nine  months  in  the  country. 
"  The  government,"  Klaproth  observes,  "  ought  to  have  afforded 
every  possible  facility  to  these  religious,  and  would  thus  have 
spared  itself  a  painful  and  costly  task."  But  the  authorities  at 
St.  Petersburg,  who  desired  only  to  make  Russians  and  not 
Christians,  adhered  to  their  usual  policy,  and  have  reaped  the 
usual  reward.  The  dishonor  of  religion,  the  waste  of  blood  and 
treasure,  and  the  ruin  of  whole  provinces  which  might  have 
become  the  fertile  homes  of  a  peaceful  and  Christian  population, 
such  have  been  the  fruits  of  their  unprofitable  impiety.  Had 
Russia  continued  Catholic,  she  would  perhaps  long  since  have 
attained  both  the  religious  and  the  political  unity  which  she 
has  hitherto  vainly  sought,  and  might  have  seen  her  flag  float 
at  this  day  on  the  castles  of  the  Bosphorus,  and  been  hailed  by 
all  Christian  nations  as  the  benefactor  of  Europe,  instead  of 
the  baffled  conspirator  whose  selfish  intrigues  have  made  her 
the  common  enemy  of  mankind. 

Of  the  state  of  Armenia,  now  held  in  vassalage  by  Russia, 
we  shall  have  occasion  to  supply  ample  evidence  in  a  later 
section  of  this  chapter.  Tens  of  thousands  of  Armenians,  we 
shall  see  presently,  have  been  converted  in  our  own  day  by 
Catholic  missionaries,  but  it  is  in  Russia  that  they  have  found 
their  most  implacable  enemy.  Pursuing  everywhere  a  policy 
as  profitless  as  it  is  criminal,  and  as  fatal  to  the  true  interests 
of  the  empire  as  to  those  of  religion,  Russia,  says  M.  Eugene 
Bore,  "  forbids  the  Catholic  priests  to  give  instructions  to  the 
Armenians  who  have  passed  into  its  territories,  and  interdicts 
the  approach  of  every  foreign  ecclesiastic. "f  "  The  Catholic 
priests  in  Trans-Caucasia,"  adds  Dr.  Moritz  Wagner,  "  are 
strictly  forbidden  to  make  any  proselytes.  One  of  the  Cap 
uchins  informed  me,  that  it'  they  were  allowed  free  scope,  they 
could  convert  many  hundreds  of  the  Pagan  and  Mohammedan 
mountaineers."  He  added,  that "  multitudes  of  Suanetians  and 
Abkhasians,  most  of  whom  were  genuine  heathens,  had 
announced  their  wish  to  receive  baptism  in  the  convent  of" 
Kutais,  but  they  were  ordered  away  /  for  every  priest  who 

*  Histoire  du  Royaume  de  la  Chersonese  Taurique,  par  Mgr.  de  Bohusz, 
Archeveque  de  Moliilew,  liv.  xvi.,  p.  377. 
f  Correspondance  et  Memoires  d'un  Voyageur  en  Orient,  tome  i.,  p.  401. 


MISSIONS   IN  THE   LEVANT,  ETC.  85 

endeavors  to  convert  an  idolater  into  a  Roman  Catholic  is 
threatened  with  transportation  to  Siberia,  a  specimen  of  op 
pression  and  compulsion  that,  as  far  as  I  know,  has  never  been 
devised  by  any  potentate  before."* 

We  have  reached  the  shores  of  the  Black  Sea,  having  started 
from  those  of  the  Baltic,  but  only  to  receive  in  the  southern 
most  province  of  the  empire  the  same  reports  which  we  have 
gathered  in  every  other.  Even  "  the  Tatars  of  the  Crimea," 
says  Mr.  Milner,  although  educated,  as  M.  De  Dernidoff  asserts, 
by  their  masters,  f  "  have  suffered  in  manners  and  morals  by 
contact  with  the  knavish  and  notoriously  sottish  Russian 
peasantry.":):  Their  contact  wtth  the  Russian  clergy  can 
hardly  have  been  more  advantageous  to  them.  Mr.  Milner 
fully  confirms  the  account  which  De  Hell  gives  of  their 
"ignorance  and  moral  degradation,"  and  mentions,  as  an 
illustration  of  their  abject  servility,  that  the  chaplains  of  the 
Sebastopol  fleet  "  are  even  directed  respecting  the  points  to  be 
treated  in  their  religious  instructions  to  the  seamen  and  marines, 
and  an  officer  attends  their  services  to  ascertain  if  the  orders 
of  the  commander  are  obeyed !"  But,  as  De  Hell  observes, 
"  religion  has  no  influence  upon  them,"  and  they  accept  their 
degradation  without  even  being  conscious  of  it.  "  Laziness, 
intoxication,  and  fanaticism,  replace  with  them  faith,  kind 
liness,  and  charity."§  Meanwhile,  as  might  be  expected,  the 
inhabitants  of  the  Crimea  cleave  to  the  religion  of  their  fore 
fathers,  and  have  only  ceased,  under  Russian  tuition,  to  practise 
their  forgotten  virtues. 

One  more  fact  will  complete  the  tale  of  Russian  missionary 
influence  in  the  Crimea.  Dr.  Wolff,  who  preached  in  vain  to 
the  Caraite  Jews  at  Jufut-Kaleh,  observes  in  1861,  "It  is  most 
remarkable  that  though  proselytism  is  prohibited  in  Russia, 
these  Caraites  have  converted,  not  by  their  preaching,  but  by 
the  integrity,  uprightness,  and  honesty  of  their  conduct,  many 
of  the  Russians  to  the  Jewish  religion."] 

Such,  by  various  and  impartial  testimony,  has  been  the 
influence  of  the  Russian  Church  even  among  tribes  and  races 
immediately  subject  to  it.  and  such  the  gifts  which  she  has0 
imparted  to  populations  which  had  so  urgent  a  claim  upon  her 
charity,  if  she  could  have  felt  its  Divine  inspirations,  and  to 
regions  which  presented  the  most  attractive  field  for  the  apos 
tolic  ministry,  if  she  had  possessed  any  apostles  to  bear  her 

*  Travels  in  Persia,  &c.,  vol.  ii.,  cli.  iii.,  p.  204. 

|  Travels  in  8.  Russia,  by  M.  Anatole  de  Demidoff,  vol.  ii.,  p.  41. 

\  The  Crimea,  &c,,  cli.  ix.,  p.  309  ;  cli.  x.,  p.  367. 

§  Lea  Steppes,  &c.,  tome  ii.,  ch.  xii.,  p.  377. 

|  Travels  and  Adventures  of  Dr.  Wolff,  cli.  xii.,  p.  228. 


86  CHAPTER  VIII. 

message  to  them.  There  is  perhaps  no  darker  page  in  the 
religious  annals  of  mankind  than  that  which  records  the  indif 
ference  of  the  official  Church  towards  the  gentile  populations 
of  Russia,  as  there  is  nothing  more  shameful  than  the  sterility, 
which  would  be  monstrous  and  incredible  if  we  did  not  know 
what  befalls  communities  deserted  by  the  Spirit  of  God,  and 
which,  as  Haxthausen  has  candidly  told  us,  "is  undoubtedly 
attributable  to  its  separation  from  Rome." 

There  are  only  two  regions  in  the  world,  China  and  Syria,  in 
which  Russia  maintains  even  the  semblance  of  a  foreign  mis 
sion,  and  with  a  few  words  on  each  of  them  we  may  pass  to 
other  themes.  In  China,  in  spite  of  her  long  residence  and 
advantageous  position,  we  have  seen  that  Russia  has  never  even 
attempted,  in  a  solitary  case,  to  win  a  soul  to  Christ.  "The 
members  of  the  Russian  mission  in  Pekin,"  we  are  told  by 
Ravenstein  in  1861,  "have  never  engaged  in  missionary  work," 
though  established  in  that  city  since  1698  !*  Once,  indeed,  her 
agents  converted  a  tribe,  not  in  China,  but  on  their  way  thither, 
and  here  is  their  own  account  of  the  event.  Laurent  Lange, 
who  was  sent  in  1715  to  Pekin,  relates  that  the  tribe  in  ques 
tion  were  summarily  baptized  by  the  order  of  Prince  Gargarin, 
and  then  frankly  adds,  "  but  they  have  not  the  slightest  con 
ception  of  the  difference  between  Christianity  and  paganism."f 

Lastly,  in  Syria,  we  have  heard  already  from  Protestant 
writers  something  of  the  character  of  Russo-Greek  Monks,  and 
of  the  contrast  which  even  such  travellers  could  detect,  between 
their  "  besotted  and  gross  ignorance,"  and  the  zeal,  learning, 
and  piety  of  the  Latin  clergy.  It  is  on  the  sacred  summit  of 
Mount  Sinai, — where  "  not  one  of  the  fraternity,"  we  are  told, 
"  can  carry  on  a  conversation  in  any  other  than  his  native 
tongue,";); — that  the  former  have  planted,  during  many  cen 
turies,  the  centre  of  Russian  propagandism.  Yet  even  here, 
where  earthly  projects  seem  out  of  place,  the  selfish  schemes 
are  rebuked  by  the  sanctity  of  undying  traditions ;  even  here, 
wrhere  every  motive  conspires  to  stimulate  them  to  religious 
fervor,  or  at  least  to  the  affectation  of  it,  the  representatives  of 
the  Russian  Church  still  remain  speechless  and  insensible,  when 
it  is  only  the  glory  of  God  and  the  salvation  of  souls  which 
invite  their  sympathy.  "The  Convent  of  Mount  Sinai," 
observes  Dr.  Stanley,  "is  a  colony  of  Christian  pastors  planted 
amongst  heathens,  and  hardly  a  spark  of  civilization,  or  of 

*  The  Itusxians  on  the  Amur,  by  E.  G.  Kavcnstein,  F.R.G.S.,  eh.  ix.,  p.  72. 

f  Journal  du  Voyage  d  la  Chine,  par  Laurent  Lange,  p.  93.  Cf.  Nouveaux 
Memoires  de  la  Moscovie,  tome  L,  p.  193. 

\  The  Golden  Horn,  &c.,  by  Charles  James  Monk,  M.A.,  vol.  i.,  p.  103, 
(1851). 


MISSIONS   IN   THE   LEVANT,    ETC.  87 

Christianity,  so  far  as  history  records,  has  been  imparted  to  a 
single  tribe  or  family  in  that  wide  wilderness.  It  is  a  colony 
of  Greeks,  of  Europeans,  of  ecclesiastics,  in  one  of  the  most 
interesting  and  the  most  sacred  regions  of  the  earth,  and  hardly 
a  fact,  from  the  time  of  their  first  foundation  to  the  present 
time,  has  been  contributed  by  them  to  the  geography,  the 
geology,  or  the  history  of  a  country,  which  in  all  its  aspects  has 
been  ^submitted  to  their  investigation  for  thirteen  centuries."* 
On  the  other  hand,  an  ardent  Protestant  traveller,  who  had 
noted  the  same  facts,  remarks  with  admiration,  that  "  for  the 
care  which  is  bestowed  upon  the  remains  of  antiquity  in  Pal 
estine,  the  whole  of  Christendom  has  to  thank  the  Pope  and 
the  propaganda  of  Rome."f 

Enough,  then,  of  Russia  and  her  National  Church  as  a  mis 
sionary  power.  Additional  information  with  respect  to  both 
might  have  been  obtained  in  abundance  from  Catholic  sources, 
but  we  have  decided  in  these  volumes  to  limit  our  appeal  to 
Protestant  witnesses.  We  have  seen,  moreover,  that  we  can 
dispense  with  any  other  testimony.  If  there  be  in  the  world  a 
community  which,  while  involuntarily  testifying  to  Catholic 
truth,  illustrates  by  its  past  history  and  actual  condition  the 
dismal  penalties  of  separation  from  the  Holy  See,  it  is  surely 
that  fallen  Church,  which,  even  among  its  nominal  members  has 
bred  only,  with  rare  exceptions,  superstition  or  incredulity,  faith 
without  virtue,  or  profession  without  belief;  which  loses  every 
year  tens  of  thousands,  whose  sincere  but  unenlightened  zeal  it 
cannot  instruct,  and  whose  distrust  and  aversion  it  cannot 
conciliate ;  and  which,  far  from  seeking  to  spread  the  light  of 
the  Gospel  in  foreign  lands,  regards  with  stupid  indifference 
the  perishing  heathen  nations  in  its  own. 


THE   MAKONITES. 

If,  now,  after  this  long  digression,  we  resume  our  journey  in 
Palestine,  and  leaving  the  Holy  City  behind  set  our  faces 
towards  the  north,  we  shall  come  to  the  forests  and  mountains 
of  Lebanon.  Here  consolation  awaits  us  and  refreshment. 
Here  we  shall  find  a  nation  profoundly  Catholic  both  in  its 
social  and  religious  life,  contrasting  in  every  feature  with  the 
less  privileged  tribes  of  the  East,  constant  in  the  faith,  steadfast 
in  filial  devotion  to  the  Holy  See,  and  recompensed  by  a  generous 
Providence  with  gifts  and  qualities  which  have  not  only  merited 

*  Sinai  and  Palestine,  by  Arthur  Penrliyn  Stanley,  M.A.,  p.  56. 
f  F.  Bremer,  Travels  in  the  Holy  Land,  vol.  ii.,  p.  166. 


88  CHAPTER   VIII. 

the  benedictions  of  the  Church,  but  extorted  the  admiration  of 
her  enemies. 

When  we  consider  the  position  of  the  Maronites,  surrounded 
on  all  sides  by  Mahometans,  idolaters,  or  heretics ;  exposed  to 
every  evil  influence  which  has  gradually  corrupted  the  other 
Christian  natives  of  this  land ;  weak,  except  by  the  nature  of 
their  country ;  owing  all  their  security  to  their  own  valor,  all 
their  prosperity  to  their  patient  and  cheerful  industry ;  we  are 
tempted  to  ask  in  surprise,  by  what  mystery  have  they  alone 
preserved  through  ages  the  dignity  of  character,  the  purity  and 
simplicity  of  life,  which  even  the  most  prejudiced  travellers 
agree  in  ascribing  to  this  favored  race?  The  answer,  which 
we  need  not  anticipate,  will  be  sufficiently  revealed  in  the  evi 
dence  which  we  are  about  to  produce. 

We  have  not  hitherto  had  recourse  to  Catholic  testimony  in 
proving  the  contrast  which  it  is  the  main  object  of  these  volumes 
to  trace,  both  because  the  controversial  value  of  such  testimony 
would  be  insignificant,  and  because  Providence,  as  we  have 
several  times  observed,  has  forced  Protestants  to  collect  every 
where,  and  to  publish  to  the  world,  all  the  facts  which  illustrate 
that  contrast.  We  shall  adhere  to  our  rule  in  this  case  also, 
though  it  would  be  pleasant  to  quote  some  few  at  least  of  the 
magnificent  eulogies  which  eminent  writers  have  pronounced 
on  the  Maronite  nation,  the  nobility  of  their  character,  and  the 
unswerving  constancy  of  their  faith.  Let  us  claim,  for  the  first 
timfe,  this  indulgence. 

"  In  spite  of  their  great  numbers,"  says  M.  Achille  Laurent, — 
they  are  estimated  by  the  French  consular  agents  at  five  hundred 
and  twelve  thousand  five  hundred  in  the  Libanus,  and  thirty 
thousand  in  the  plain, * — "  and  though  surrounded  on  every  side 
by  infidels,  heretics,  and  schismatics,  never,  in  relation  to  the 
faith,  has  the  least  difference  been  known  amongst  them  ;  never 
has  any  schism  disturbed  their  unity ;  never  has  one  individual 
amongst  them  corrupted  the  purity  of  the  Catholic  doctrine."f 
"  This  Catholic  colony,"  says  M.  Jules  David,  "  seems  to  recall 
by  its  charity,  by  the  simplicity  of  its  manners,  by  its  smiling 
industry  and  community  of  labor,  the  primitive  Christian 
society  ;  a  society  of  united  and  active  brothers,  a  society  of 
equality  before  God,  a  veritable  communion  of  which  the  Church 
is  the  sublime  centre.";):  Lastly, — for  we  may  not  linger  even 
over  testimonies  which  are  like  music  to  the  ear, — an  apostolic 
missionary,  one  of  that  noble  band  of  discalced  Carmelites  who 


*  Do  Baudicour,  ch.  vi.,  p.  246. 

f  Relation  Historique  des  Affaires  de  Syrie,  tome  i.,  p.  403. 

i  Syrie  Moderne,  p.  21. 


MISSIONS  IN  THE  LEVANT,   ETC.  89 

havt  dared  to  imitate  their  Lord  in  His  utter  poverty,  gives  this 
account  of  them  in  1858.  After  describing  their  various  neigh 
bors, — the  barbarous  Moslem,  the  pastoral  Turcomans,  the 
reckless  Ansayrii,  the  false  and  hypocritical  Druses,  the  haughty 
Metualis, — disciples  of  the  anti-caliph  Ali,  "  of  whom  it  would 
be  difficult  to  say  whether  they  hate  a  Christian  or  a  Turk  the 
most," — and  lastly,  the  schismatical  Greeks,  "  the  ignorance  of 
whose  priests  is  only  equalled  by  the  moral  degradation  of  the 
people,"  he  continues  as  follows :  "  We  come  now  to  the 
Maronites.  The  heart  has  been  dried  up  and  the  soul  saddened 
by  the  confused  disorder  of  idolatry  and  schism.  It  is  now  our 
turn  to  rejoice.  The  ardent  faith  of  primitive  Christianity,  its 
sweet  piety,  innocence,  and  simplicity  of  manners,  is  found  re- 

Eroduced  amongst  the  Maronites.     They  appear  like  a  people 
:*esh  from  the  hand  of  the  Creator,  or  from  the  regenerating 
bath  of  the  Baptism  of  Jesus.     Oh,  blessed  people  !  how  great 
are  you  in  your  oppression  !  how  rich  in  your  poverty  !"* 

It  is  not  thus,  of  course,  that  Protestants  speak  of  them,  for 
they  have  attempted  to  creep  into  this  paradise  and  have  been 
somewhat  rudely  ejected ;  but  their  language,  though  tinged 
with  resentment  and  mortification,  abundantly  confirms  the 
reports  of  more  impartial  witnesses. 

"The  Maronites,"  says  Colonel  Churchill,  who  does  not 
share  the  petty  passions  of  the  Protestant  missionaries,  "  are 
still  the  i  fideles'  who  welcomed  Godfrey  de  Bouillon  and  his 
associates. "f  While  all  has  changed  around  them,  centuries 
have  left  them  unchanged.  They  are  "the  stanchest  Romanists 
in  the  world,"  says  the  Rev.  Mr.  Williams  ;  which  only  means 
that  they  resemble  true  Catholics  everywhere.  "  So  bigoted  is 
this  Romanist  sect,"  says  Mr.  Drew  Stent,  "  that  very  little 
can  be  effected  ;"  that  is,  they  spurned  the  heresies  of  Anglican 
and  Calvinist  teachers,  and  stoned  the  false  prophets  who  tried 
to  find  an  entrance  amongst  them.  "  The  missionaries,"  says 
Mr.  Wortabet,  alluding  to  the  Protestant  emissaries,  "  had  to 
retire  before  pelting  stones  and  an  angry  mob."  "  They  were 
driven  out,"  says  Mr.  Walpole,  "  by  the  fanatic  population,  and 
I  do  not  believe  they  ever  procured  the  satisfaction  they  ought. 
The  Maronites  are  very  proud  of  the  victory."  Pie  confesses, 
however,  in  spite  of  wounded  sympathies,  that  "  the  attempt 
was  worse  than  folly."  And  so  purely  spontaneous  was  the 
popular  movement  which  expelled  the  foreign  teachers,  because 
they  came,  with  money  in  their  hands,  blaspheming  the  Mother 
of  God,  the  Sacrament  of  the  Altar,  and  the  Communion  of 

*  Annals,  vol.  xix.,  p.  271. 

f  Mount  Lebanon,  by  Colonel  Churchill,  vol.  iii.,  ch.  vi.,  p.  66. 


90  CHAPTER  VIII. 

Saints,  so  wholly  independent  of  any  political  or  ecclesiastical 
influence,  that  a  Protestant  Association  confesses,  in  1854-,  that 
"  a  strong  proclamation  came  out  from  the  Maronite  and  Greek 
Catholic  Bishops  at  Beirut  to  all  their  people,  requiring  them 
to  guard  carefully  and  protect  all  the  members  of  the  American 
mission."* 

Let  us  hear  other  witnesses.  "  They  are  most  bigoted  adhe 
rents  of  the  Papacy,"  observes  one-writer,  "  allowing  not  merely 
the  claims  of  his  Holiness  as  Head  of  their  Church,  to  dictate 
.their  creed,  but  submitting  also  to  his  paternal  government  in 
matters  of  discipline."f  "  The  Maronites,"  says  Dr.  Robinson, 
and  all  Protestant  writers  use  the  same  language,  "  are  charac 
terized  by  an  almost  unequalled  devotion  to  the  See  of  Rome." 
They  have  lately  converted,  he  adds,  two  Emirs  of  the  Druses, 
together  with  their  families,  "so  that  now  almost  all  the 
highest  nobility  of  the  mountain  are  Maronites."J 

This  may  suffice.  No  one  will  deny,  in  the  face  of  such 
testimony,  that  the  Maronites  are  devoted  Catholics.  But  per 
haps  they  are  servile,  ignorant,  and  priest-ridden  ?  The  Eev. 
J.  L.  Porter,  of  whom  we  heard  at  Damascus,  and  who  had 
tb  avenge  both  his  personal  misadventures  and  those  of  his 
colleagues,  says  with  emphasis,  "They  are  as  ignorant  a  set  of 
priest-ridden  bigots  as  ever  polluted  a  country,  and  no  stranger," 
he  means  no  Protestant  missionary,  "  can  pass  through  their 
streets  without  meeting  insult  and  often  abuse  ;  they  are  as 
tyrannical,  as  unjust,  and  almost  as  bloodthirsty,  as  the  haughty 
Moslems."§  We  have  said  that  it  is  only  English  and  American 
missionaries,  but  chiefly  the  former,  who  soothe  their  mortiii- 
cation  by  outbursts  of  this  kind  ;  and  as  it  is  quite  true  that 
the  Maronite  nation  owes  its  character,  habits,  and  institutions 
Solely  to  the  influence  of  the  Catholic  religion,  it  may  be  well 
to  compare  Mr.  Porter's  account  of  them  with  that  of  other 
Protestants,  not  less  prejudiced,  but  having  more  respect  for 
truth,  for  themselves,  and  for  their  readers. 

"They  are,"  says  Colonel  Churchill  in  1853,  "  a  community 
of  Christians  who  are  virtually  as  free  and  independent  as  any 
state  in  Christendom. "| 

"They  are,"  exclaims  Mr.  Bayard  Taylor,  in  1855,  "the 
most  thrifty,  industrious,  honest,  arid  happy  people  in  Syria." 
"The  women,"  he  adds,  "are  beautiful,  with  sprightly,  intelli 
gent  faces,  quite  different  from  the  stupid  Mahometan  females;" 

*  American  Board  for  Foreign  Mistdom,  Reports,  p.  110  (1854). 

f  North  American  Review,  vol.  Ixxxi.,  p.  78. 

\  Biblical  Researches,  &c.,  p.  460. 

^  Fire  Years  in  Damascus,  vol.  i.,  cli.  xvi.,  p.  279. 

\  Mount  Lebanon. 


MISSIONS  IN  THE   LEVANT,  ETC.  91 

% 

and  their  home  "is  a  mountain  paradise,  inhabited  by  a  peo 
ple  so  kind  and  simple-hearted,  that  assuredly  no  vengeful 
angel  will  ever  drive  them  out  with  his  flaming  sword."* 

"They  are,"  writes  the  Countess  Hahn-Hahn,  "  that  indus 
trious  band  of  Christians  who  have  adorned  these  mountains 
with  cornfields  and  vineyards,  with  villages  and  convents."f 

"  Health  and  industry,"  says  Colonel  Napier,  "  appeared  to 
be  the  chief  characteristics  of  this  hardy  race.  The  men  were  a 
robust  and  fine-looking  set  of  fellows,  and  their  wives  and 
daughters,  availing  themselves  of  the  privileges  of  Christianity, 
were  not  ashamed  to  show  countenances  invariably  beaming 
with  smiles,  and  often  possessing  no  inconsiderable  share  of 
beauty ;"  while  the  Greek  schismatical  women  "  lead  nearly 
as  secluded  a  life  as  the  Osmanli  ladies  of  Constantinople  or 
Smyrna.":): 

Mr.  Farley  has  told  us,  in  flat  contradiction  to  Mr.  Porter, 
that  their  kindness  and  hospitality,  even  to  Protestant  travel 
lers  were  so  universal,  until  they  were  irritated  by  the  selfish 
intrigues  and  impertinent  bigotry  of  missionaries  whom  they 
would  have  been  content  to  despise  if  they  had  not  been  con 
strained  to  abhor  them,  that  any  Englishman  was  sure  of  a 
cordial  welcome  amongst  them,  and  that  he  could  never  forget 
the  "extreme  courtesy"  of  the  Maronite  clergy  towards  himself. 

Mr.  Monro,  an  intelligent  Anglican  clergyman,  who  had  the 
good  sense  not  to  insult  his  hosts,  and  had  no  personal  motive 
for  libelling  them,  not  only  contrasts  their  frank  hospitality  with 
the  suspicious  exclusiveness  of  other  Syrian  races,  but  adds, 
"The  kind  manners  and  energetic  carriage  of  these  people 
afforded  a  striking  instance  that,  where  industry  prevails,  the 
flowers  of  happiness  will  blossom,  and  abundance  ever  be  the 
fruit."§ 

Colonel  Napier,  in  1847,  and  Mr.  Monk,  in  1851,  rebuke 
with  no  less  emphasis  the  peevish  calumnies  of  the  angry  mis 
sionary  ;  the  latter  reporting  that  he  was  "  received  in  the  most 
hospitable  manner,"!  and  the  former  recording  his  experience 
in  tiiese  words :  "  Nothing  could  exceed  the  kindness  of  our 
reception  by  the  hospitable  mountaineers,  whose  cottages  were 
all  thrown  open  to  the  strangers.  ...  In  every  cottage  on 
whose  threshold  we  set  foot,  the  welcome  iFaddal>  was  pro 
nounced."  T 

*  The  Lands  of  the  Saracen,  ch.  xii.,  p.  174. 
f  Countess  Hahn-Hahn,  Letter  xxi. 

j  Reminiscences  of  Syria  and  the  Holy  Land,  by  Lieut.-Colonel  E.  Napier, 
vol.  i.,  ch.  v.,  p.  204. 

§  Travels  in  Syria,  by  the  Rev.  Vere  Monro.  vol.  ii.,  ch.  xxiv.,  p.  107. 
f  The  Golden  Horn,  &c.,  by  Charles  James  Monk,  M  A.,  ch.  xx.,  p.  303. 
1[  Reminiscences,  ch.  v.,  201. 


92  CHAPTER  VIII. 

Mr.  Walpole,  in  spite  of  strong  religious  antipathies,  declares 
that  their  valor  is  as  conspicuous  as  their  industry  and  kind 
liness.  "The  Maronites  rose  against  their  oppressors,  the 
Metuali,  and  drove  them  fairly  out  of  the  district.  .  .  .  The 
Metuali  have  a  high  character  for  warriors  and  courage.  This 
shows  what  the  Catholic  population  might  become  if  united." 
The  general  prosperity,  he  says,  was  so  remarkable,  that  "  it 
exhibited  a  scene  which  made  one  feel  proud  that  at  last  the 
Christian  dared  improve."  He  observes  also,  that  the  family 
of  Sheebal,  descended  from  Mahomet,  had  just  been  converted, 
and  adopted  into  the  Maronite  nation.* 

Mr.  Keating  Kelly  cannot  speak  of  them  without  enthusiasm. 
"  The  condition  of  this  people  is  essentially  happy.  Its  religion 
is  free  and  respected  ;  its  churches  and  its  convents  crown  the 
summits  of  its  hills  ;  its  bells,  that  sound  in  its  ears  as  a  welcome 
token  of  liberty  and  independence,  peal  their  summons  to  pray 
night  and  day  ;  it  is  governed  by  its  own  hereditary  chieftains, 
and  by  the  clergy  it  loves ;  a  strict  but  equitable  system  of 
police  preserves  order  and  security  in  the  villages  ;  property  is 
respected  and  transmitted  from  father  to  son  ;  commerce  is  ac 
tive;  the  manners  of  the  people  perfectly  simple  and  pure. 
Rarely  is  there  seen  a  population  whose  appearance  more  be 
speaks  health,  native  nobility,  and  civilization,  than  that  of 
these  men  of  Lebanon. "f 

Lastly,  even  a  Syrian  Greek,  who  cordially  hates  both  their 
religion  and  their  nation,  and  who  seems  by  converse  with 
English  Protestants  to  have  become  indifferent  to  his  own 
religion  without  adopting  theirs,  makes  the  following  confession. 
u  They  are  a  most  industrious,  contented,  happy  people  .... 
and  so  manly  and  courageous  that,  until  the  year  1843,  they 
had  never  been  conquered  by  the  Mahometans ;"  and  then  he 
adds  the  most  magnificent  eulogy  which  it  was  possible  to  pro 
nounce  upon  a  Christian  people,  that,  "  owing  to  the  influence 
of  the  bishops,  crime  is  in  a  great  measure  unknown  amongst 
the  Maronites"^. 

In  reading  these  impressive  testimonies,  from  writers  of 
various  creeds  and  nations,  to  the  virtues  of  a  Catholic  people, 
we  have  almost  forgotten  Mr.  Porter.  Let  us  quote  him  once 
more,  for  the  sake  of  adding  a  new  example  of  the  language 
in  which  passion  finds  vent  while  reason  is  mute,  and  of  the 
class  of  agents  whom  Protestantism  sends  forth  into  every 

*  The  Ansayrii,  icitJi  Travels  in  the  Further  East,  vol.  iii.,  ch.  i.,  p.  7 ;  ch. 
xviii.,  p.  434. 

•f  Syria,  and  the  Holy  Land,  by  Walter  Keating  Kelly,  ch.  viii.,  p.  97. 

;  The  Thistle  and  the  Cedar  of  Lebanon,  by  Risk  Allah  Effendi.  ch.  xvi.,  pp. 
269,  273. 


MISSIONS  IN  THE  LEVANT,   ETC.  93 

land,  but  only  to  augment  everywhere  the  repugnance  which 
is  entertained,  by  all  races  of  men,  towards  England  and  her 
representatives. 

The  Maronite  clergy,  Mr.  Porter  says,  "  are  ignorant, 
bigoted,  and  overbearing,"  and  their  religion  "  senseless 
mummery."  It  is  of  the  Syrian  clergy,  professors  of  the 
same  faith,  that  a  more  enlightened  English  Protestant  says, 
"  It  is  a  sublime  spectacle  to  contemplate  these  men  devoting 
themselves  to  deeds  of  charity  and  mercy,  and  welcoming  a 
long  martyrdom  for  conviction's  sake."*  "  I  can  imagine  St. 
Basil  the  Great,"  says  another  educated  Englishman,  "  or  the 
Gregories,  just  such  persons  in  appearance."f  "If  Titian 
were  about  to  paint  a  Doge  of  Venice,"  says  an  accomplished 
French  traveller,  speaking  of  the  Maronite  Patriarch  of  Cilicia, 
"  he  would  ask  for  no  other  model. "^  Even  Mr.  Porter,  in  an 
access  of  involuntary  admiration,  confesses  "  their  staid  dignity 
and  noble  bearing  ;§  while  the  more  candid  Dr.  Wolff  declares 
that  "  the  monks  of  the  Maronite  nation,"  though  they  "  tried 
to  convert  him  to  the  Church  of  Rome,"  "  are  usually  men  of 
great  vigor  and  power." 

But  Mr.  Porter  speedily  resumes  his  usual  tone.  "The 
education  of  the  people,"  he  observes,  "  they  never  think  of;" 
and  as  if  even  this  statement  admitted  of  improvement,  he  adds, 
"the  idea  of  imparting  religious  instruction  is  quite  out  of  the 
question."  Presently,  as  if  the  accounts  of  other  Protestant 
travellers  suddenly  occurred  to  him,  and  suggested  the  necessity 
of  caution,  he  says,  "  It  is  true  a  few  schools  have  been  estab 
lished,  but  these  are  got  up  by  the  people,"  who,  although 
"ignorant,  bigoted,  bloodthirsty,  and  polluters  of  the  soil," 
lie  now  represents  as  going  beyond  their  pastors,  to  whom  he 
declares  they  are  slavishly  subject,  in  promoting  education  ! 

Yet  Mr.  Ubicini  has  told  us,  that  in  every  province  of  Asiatic 
Turkey,  Catholic  schools  are  multiplying  in  all  directions,  and 
are  eagerly  frequented  by  children  of  all  sects.  Dr.  Robinson 
declares  of  the  Maronite  College  of  Kesrawan,  in  which  the 
Jesuits  teach  Arabic,  Syriac,  Latin,  and  Italian,  "  that  it  takes 
a  higher  stand  than  any  other  similar  establishment  in  Syria." 
Mr.  Farley  speaks  in  the  same  terms  of  the  Lazarist  College  at 
Antoura,  "  where  some  hundreds  of  students  who  come  from 
Beyrout,  Aleppo,  Damascus,  and  other  towns  in  Syria,  as  also 
from  Persia,  Egypt,  and  even  from  Nubia  and  Abyssinia,  are 
taught,"  in  addition  to  "  the  usual  branches  of  education," 

*  Farley,  Two  Years  in  Syria,  ch.  xxxiv.,  p.  291. 

f  Patterson,  p.  322. 

±  La  Syrie  avant  1860,  par  Georges  do  Salverte,  ch.  viii.,  p.  100. 

§  Vol.  ii.,  ch.  xvi.,  p.  296. 


94:  CHAPTER  VIII. 

"  tlie  Arabic,  French,  Italian,  and  Latin  languages."  M.  de 
Salverte  reports,  in  1861,  that  the  ecclesiastical  seminary  at 
Ghazir,  in  which  he  found  ninety  students,  is  so  efficient,  that 
its  excellence  dispenses  them  from  seeking  education  in  the 
colleges  of  Rome.*  Mr.  Wellsted  relates,  that  even  in  Aleppo, 
"  most  of  the  children  can  read  and  write  at  an  early  age. "7 
And  even  Risk  Allah,  though  he  affects,  in  order  to  please  his 
English  readers,  to  deplore  what  he  has  learned  to  call  the 
"  Romish  tendencies"  of  the  Maronites,  honestly  confesses  that 
"  their  schools  are  really  excellent ;"  and  whereas  the  Protesfc- 
ant  missionary  affirms  that  the  Maronite  clergy  "  never  think  of 
education,"  this  Syrian  Greek  avows,  in  spite  of  national  and 
religious  antipathies,  that  "  one  great  advantage  which  the 
Maronites  possess,  and  which  must  eventually  prove  very  bene 
ficial  to  them,  is  the  fact,  that  education  is  spreading  univer 
sally  amongst  them"'%. 

Lastly,  the  accomplished  M.  de  Saul§y  furnishes  the  following 
example  of  the  nature  of  the  education  imparted  to  all  comers 
in  the  college  at  Antoura.  A  native  pupil,  who  had  only 
attained  the  modest  position  of  assistant  dragoman  at  Beyrout, 
is  thus  described  by  this  competent  judge:  "He  speaks  and 
writes  French  very  correctly,  he  is  perfectly  well  read  in  all  our 
first-rate  authors,  and  altogether  his  education  may  vie  with 
that  of  the  lest  French  universities.  As  to  Arabic,  his  native 
tongue,  he  is  complete  master  of  it,  and  could,  if  required,  fill 
the  chair  of  the  ablest  professor. "§ 

But  in  all  this  there  is  no  lesson  for  Mr.  Porter.  He  had  a 
defeat  to  avenge,  and  after  five  years  of  unprofitable  labor  had 
convinced  even  himself  that  it  was  time  to  quit  Syria.  Arid 
BO  in  his  anger  he  forgot  prudence  as  well  as  truth.  Education 
is  so  literally  universal  among  the  Maronites,  though  their 
clergy  "  never  think  of  it,"  that  whereas,  in  the  words  of  the 
late  Mr.  Warburton,  "  there  is  not  an  Egyptian  woman  who 
can  read  and  write,  except  a  daughter  of  Mehemet  Ali  and  the 
few  who  have  been  educated  in  the  school  of  Mr.  Lieder,  the 
Maronite  women  of  the  Lebanon,  though  of  the  same  Arab 
race,  are  generally  instructed  "\  "  Education,"  says  Mr. 
Kelly,  "  though  limited  to  reading,  writing,  arithmetic,  and 
the  catechism," — we  have  seen  that  for  the  class  above  the 
peasants  the  course  includes  Arabic,  Syriac,  Latin,  French, 

*  La  Syrie,  &c.,  ch.  viii.,  p.  96. 

f  Travels,  &c.,  by  J.  It.  Wellsted,  Esq.,  F.R.S.,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  v.,  p.  91. 
f  Ch.  xvi.  p.,  270. 

§  Narrative  of  a  Journey  Round  the  Dead  Sea,  by  F.  de  Saulsy,  vol.  L, 
ch.  i.,  p.  5. 
|  The  Crescent  and  the  Cross,  vol.  i.,  ch.  xi.,  p.  100. 


MISSIONS  IN  THE  LEVANT,   ETC.  95 

and  Italian, — "is  universal  among  them,  and  gives  them  a 
deserved  superiority  over  the  other  tribes  of  Syria."*  Whether 
such  an  amount  of  education  can  be  said  to  be  "  universal"  in 
England  we  need  not  stay  to  inquire. 

But  Mr.  Porter  had  still  something  to  add.  It  was  possible 
to  clothe  his  enmity  in  still  more  impressive  language.  The 
Maronites,  like  all  the  oriental  tribes,  severely  exacting  in 
their  estimate  of  a  Christian  apostle,  had  rejected  him  and  his 
companions,  with  an  energy  proportioned  to  the  ardor  of  their 
faith,  as  ministers  of  the  Evil  one.  Mr.  Porter  repays  the 
indignity  with  the  following  announcement,  in  which  he 
appears  to  have  uttered  his  last  farewell  to  Syria  and  the 
Syrian  mission :  "  The  Protestant  missionaries  have  done  more 
for  the  advancement  of  education  within  the  short  period  of 
twenty  years,  than  the  combined  priesthood  of  all  Lebanon  and 
all  Syria  has  done  during  centuries."  It  is  our  turn  to  bid 
farewell  to  Mr.  Porter,  to  whom  we  have  perhaps  given  an 
undue  share  of  attention,  and  we  cannot  do  so  more  litly  than 
in  the  words  of  his  co-religionists. 

From  Mr.  Williams,  himself  a  Protestant  minister,  we  have 
learned,  on  the  one  hand,  that  the  Protestant  missionaries  in 
Syria  "  are  merely  playing  at  missions,"  and  that  "  self-sacrifice 
and  simple  trust"  are  not  to  be  learned  from  their  example ; 
and  on  the  other,  that  the  Catholic  Church  has  sent  to  this 
land  "the  best  instructed  and  most  devoted  missionaries  that 
the  world  has  seen  since  primitive  times."  Dr.  Southgate,  a 
Protestant  bishop,  has  assured  us  that  the  rare  disciples  of  Mr. 
Porter  and  his  colleagues  "  are  infidels  and  radicals  unworthy 
of  the  sympathy  of  the  Christian  public  ;"  while  Dr.  Wolff  has 
lately  announced,  after  an  experience  of  many  years,  that  "  the 
worst  people  among  the  Eastern  natives  are  those  who  know 
English,  and  have  been  converted  to  Protestantism."  To  these 
emphatic  statements  Sir  Adolphus  Slade  has  added,  that  many 
of  the  missionaries  themselves,  who  have  "  done  more  for 
education,"  though  they  have  neither  schools  nor  scholars,  than 
all  the  Catholic  clergy  for  centuries,  "  know  absolutely  no  other 
than  their  mother  tongue." 

Finally,  the  same  Protestant  writer,  long  resident  in  Syria, 
conversant  during  many  years  with  all  which  has  occurred  in 
that  land,  and  full  of  admiration  of  the  apostolic  men  by  whom, 
as  he  observes,  "  millions  of  souls  have  been  saved'^  in  these 
regions,  lends  us  the  following  appropriate  words  with  which 
to  take  leave  of  Mr.  Porter:  "Protestant  missionaryism  is 
much  extolled  ;  it  certainly  costs  a  great  deal ;  but  the  good  it 

*  Ubi  supra. 


96  CHAPTER   VIII. 

may  effect  is  as  a  drop  of  water,  compared  with  the  sea  of  ben 
efits  spread  by  the  Roman  Catholic  Church,  silently  and  unos 
tentatiously,  all  over  Turkey.""* 


THE   DRUSES. 

It  is  time  to  quit  the  mountains  and  valleys  of  Lebanon, 
where  we  have  found,  in  the  heart  of  a  land  long  abandoned  to 
every  error  and  impiety,  a  picture  which  a  Christian  may  well 
love  to  contemplate:  on  the  one  hand,  deep  religious  convic 
tion,  unshaken  through  ages,  and  that  instinctive  horror  of  her 
esy  which  is  one  of  the  surest  signs  of  election ;  on  the  other, 
as  even  enemies  allow,  valor,  dignity,  purity,  gentleness,  in 
dustry,  prosperity,  and  peace.  Such,  by  Protestant  testimony, 
is  the  influence  of  the  Catholic  religion  upon  generous  natures, 
penetrated  by  its  healing  power,  and  such  its  results  even 
among  a  people  of  Arab  origin,  though  surrounded  by  races 
and  tribes  with  whom  faitli  is  a  dream,  and  virtue  a  jest. 

It  is  characteristic  of  that  singular  form  of  religion  which 
seems  instinctively  to  prefer  crime  and  ignorance  in  union  with 
heresy  to  virtue  and  enlightenment  in  connection  with  the 
Church,  that  the  only  reflection  suggested  to  another  Epis 
copalian  clergyman,  of  the  same  class  as  Mr.  Porter,  by  the 
contrast  which  we  have  just  delineated,  found  expression  in 
these  words:  "How  sad,"  exclaims  the  Rev.  George  Fisk, 
"  that  Popery  should  taint  even  the  remains  of  the  glory  of 
Lebanon  !"  Greeks  and  Armenians,  sunk  in  mental  and  moral 
decrepitude,  Mr.  Fisk  would  embrace  with  love,  because,  as  he 
seriously  observes,  they  hold  "  the  great  leading  truths  of  the 
Gospel ;"  and  though  "  in  many  respects  superstitious,  and 
manifestly  corrupt,"  they  have  this  merit,  which  amply  supplies 
the  want  of  every  other,  that  "  they  have  never  merged  in  the 
apostasy  of  Rome."f  Mr.  Fisk  has  apparently  not  read,  or 
perhaps  forgotten,  the  testimonies  of  Protestant  writers,  who 
declare — as  we  have  already  heard  and  shall  hear  again  pres 
ently — that  the  only  Greeks  and  Armenians  who  deserve  the 
name  of  intelligent  or  consistent  Christians  are  precisely  those 
who  have  derived  new  life  from  reconciliation  with  the  Catho 
lic  Church. 

Allusion  has  been  made  to  the  Druses,  the  implacable  and 
hereditary  foes  of  the  Maronites.  If  we  add  a  few  words  with 
respect  to  the  former,  it  is  only  for  the  sake  of  noticing  the 

*  Turkey,  Greece,  and  Malta,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  xx.,  p.  423. 
\  A  Pastor's  Memorial,  ch.  ix.,  pp  398,  400,  410. 


MISSIONS   IN   THE   LEVANT,    ETC.  97 

characteristic  relations  of  the  Protestant  missionaries  with  them. 
Banished  by  the  Maronites  with  every  mark  of  contempt  and 
disgust,  they  took  refuge  among  their  hostile  neighbors,  and 
endeavored  to  make  alliance  with  them.  The  infamy  of  their 
character,  and  their  indifference  to  any  form  of  religion,  was  no 
impediment  to  the  negotiations  which  now  ensued.  To  prot 
estantize  the  Druses,  and  to  vex  the  Maronites,  would  be  a 
double  triumph  ;  but  it  was  one  which  they  were  not  destined 
to  enjoy.  "  The  Druses,"  said  Dr.  Yates,  with  great  confidence, 
"  will  unite  with  the  Protestant  Christians,  and  the  power  of 
the  Osmanlis  will  cease."*  Mr.  Fremantle,  an  Anglican  clergy 
man,  was  of  opinion  that  they  would  become  "  independent 
Episcopalians;"  and  as  if  this  were  not  enough  to  stimulate 
the  hopes  of  his  co-religionists  at  home,  he  gravely  added — in 
a  report  which  was  actually  published  by  the  "  Society  for 
Promoting  Christian  Knowledge" — that  "they  desire  to  be 
united  to  the  English  Church. "f  Whether  Mr.  Fremantle 
really  believed  this,  we  need  not  question.  The  Druses,  as  Mr. 
Chasseaud  observed  in  1855,  are  unscrupulous  hypocrites,  and 
will  affect  to  be  of  the  religion  of  any  society  in  which  they 
happen  to  find  themselves.^  They  pretend,  says  Mr.  Paton, 
to  be  Mahometans  when  it  suits  them.§  All  European  writers 
agree  in  describing  them  as  impious,  false,  and  bloodthirsty. 
Dr.  Clarke  says,  "Some  among  them  certainly  offer  their  high 
est  adoration  to  a  calf.r\  Kisk  Allah  declares,  apparently 
from  his  own  observation,  that  '•  while  they  profess  to  be  Ma- 
hommedans,  they  have  no  hesitation  whatever  in  denouncing 
Mahommed  as  a  false  prophet ;"  and  he  adds,  that  the  Druses, 
like  the  Kurds,  have  formed  such  an  estimate  of  the  creed  of 
"  English  Protestants"  as  to  assert,  "  that  their  religion  is  a 
species  of  free  masonry,  which  very  much  resembles  their 
own  ;"  and  one  of  their  leaders  assured  him  that  "  a  tall 
English  emir"  had  told  him  so.^f 

How  surely  these  atheists  of  Syria  reckoned  upon  the  sym 
pathy  of  "  English  Protestants,"  and  how  much  reason  they 
had  for  doing  so,  is  sufficiently  revealed  in  the  comments  mado 
by  the  latter  upon  the  Turco-Druse  insurrection  of  I860.  All 
their  apologies  are  for  the  Druses,  all  their  sarcasms  for  the 
Maronites.  u  The  Maronites  are  mere  savages,"  says  one  of  the 
ablest  organs  of  intellectual  Protestantism  ;  and  as  if  this  were 


*  Modern  History  of  Egypt,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  iv.,  p.  158. 

t  The  Eastern  Churches,  pp.  44,  49. 

j  The  Druses  of  the  Lebanon,  by  George  Washington  Chasseaud. 

§  Modern  Syrians,  p.  309. 

I  Clarke's  Travels,  vol.  iv.,  p.  136. 

1  UU  Supra,  p.  292. 

VOL.  ti.  8 


98  CHAPTER   VIII. 

not  venturesome  enough,  he  gravely  adds,  that  until  "  the  hour 
of  their  triumph  the  conduct  of  the  Druses  had  been  unim 
peachable  !"*  It  is  but  a  new  version  of  the  old  cry,  Non  hunc 
seel  Baral)bain.  The  worshippers  of  a  calf  are  preferred  before 
the  disciples  of  the  Cross  ;  and  the  latter,  though  travellers  of 
all  sects  confess  with  enthusiasm  their  nobility  and  virtue,  are 
peremptorily  described,  by  that  instinct  of  hate  which  can  cor 
rupt  even  genius  into  imbecility,  as  "mere  savages." 

An  equally  eminent  authority  observes,  that  "the  great  Druse 
chief  Mohamed  En-Nasar,  the  instigator  of  these  butcheries, 
counted  on  English  support,  and  therefore  it  need  not  be  added 
on  an  English  reward. "f  His  calculation  has  been  abundantly 
justified.  "The  Druses,"  observes  a  traveller  who  has  lived 
amongst  them,  "  seek  refuge  in  the  arms  of  England,  because 
they  know  that  every  other  nation  of  Europe  has  judged  and 
condemned  them  j"J  while  another  relates  that  he  heard  an 
[Englishman  say  to  a  Maronite  shiek,  that  England  gave  her 
support  to  the  Druses  solely  in  order  to  counterbalance  the 
influence  of  France  with  the  Christians.  "  You  admit,  then," 
replied  the  Maronite  chief,  "  that  as  soon  as  France  begins  to 
labor  for  God,  England  takes  up  arms  for  the  devil. "§ 

Lord  Carnarvon,  who  represents  the  official  mind  of  England, 
and  has  composed,  with  much  ability,  an  almost  enthusiastic 
apology  for  the  Druses,  insists  that  the  u  strong  connection  of 
gratitude  on  the  one  hand,  and  of  good  offices  on  the  other, 
which  has  existed  between  the  Druses  and  England,  ought 
neither  on  moral  nor  political  grounds  to  be  lightly  severed.''! 
In  other  words,  it  is  worthy  of  England  to  become  the  patron 
of  impiety,  and  an  adversary  of  the  Christian  religion,  if  by 
accepting  this  mission  she  can  counterbalance  French  influence 
in  the  East. 

It  appears,  however,  that  in  spite  of  the  avowed  sympathy 
and  alliance  between  the  Druses  and  the  English,  the  former 
only  amused  themselves  at  Mr.  Fremantle's  expense  when  they 
encouraged  his  cheerful  expectations ;  for  Mr.  Walpole  tells  us, — 
eleven  years  after  that  gentleman's  sanguine  prediction, — "  With 
the  Druses  the  Protestant  missionaries  have  made,  I  believe,  no 
progress."  They  are  not  yet  affiliated  to  the  "  English  Church," 
nor  is  there  any  immediate  promise  of  that  event.  "  Many 
professed  themselves  converts,"  says  Mr.  Walpole,  "but  directly 
the  minister  refused  them  some  request,  turned  round  and  said, 

*  Saturday  Review,  April  20,  1861. 

f  The  Times,  September  1,  1860. 

\  La  Virite  sur  la  Syrie,  par  Baptistin  Ponjoulat,  Lettre  xliii.,  p.  489. 

§  Mislin,  Les  Lieux  Saints,  tome  i.,  ch.  vi.,  p.  156. 

§  Recollections  of  the  Druses,  by  the  Earl  of  Carnarvon,  ch.  viii.,  p.  119. 


MISSIONS   IN   THE   LEVANT,   ETC.  99 

We  will  listen  to  you  as  long  as  you  pay  us."*  This  was  their 
view  of  the  value  of  Protestantism. 

In  1862,  the  agent  of  the  Church  Missionary  Society  reports 
thus  of  the  Druses :  "  There  does  not  as  yet  appear  an  opening 
for  the  reception  of  the  Gospel  among  them ;  on  the  contrary, 
their  hatred  of  Christians  and  Christianity  seems,  if  possible, 
to  increase:  and  direct  missionary  work  is  highly  irritating  to 
them,  and  excites  their  fanaticism. "f  Mr.  Fremantle  was  ap 
parently  too  sanguine. 

These  are  not  the  only  operations  of  Protestants  in  the 
Lebanon,  though  precisely  the  same  result  has  attended  all 
their  efforts.  We  have  heard  of  the  two  "  designing  brothers'' 
wrho  went  to  Malta,  and  "  agreed  to  be  baptized"  on  condition 
of  receiving  some  hundred  pounds.  Others  have  imitated  these 
neophytes  of  the  Lebanon  with  still  greater  success.  Dr.  Carno 
relates  the  story  of  "  the  noted  Eusebius,  Bishop  of  Mount 
Lebanon,"  who  far  surpassed,  as  became  his  more  elevated  rank, 
the  performances  of  his  ingenuous  flock.  This  Greek  prelate 
"  was  chaperoned  through  many  of  the  colleges  at  Oxford  by 
one  of  the  Masters."  In  such  society  his  anti-Roman  views 
made  him  a  welcome  guest ;  but  the  crafty  oriental  was  only 
speculating  on  the  inexhaustible  credulity  of  his  sympathizing 
hosts,  by  which  he  and  his  class  have  so  often  profited.  Eusebius 
obtained,  says  Dr.  Carne,  "  a  capital  printing  press,  and  about 
eight  hundred  pounds  in  money.  When  we  were  at  Sidon,we 
found  that  this  eastern  dignitary  was  living  in  a  style  of 
excessive  comfort,  and  to  his  heart's  content,  at  a  few  hours' 
distance.  With  this  money,  which  was  a  fortune  in  the  East, 
he  has  purchased  a  good  house  and  garden ;  not  one  farthing 
has  ever  gone  to  renovate  the  condition  of  the  Christians  of 
the  East,  and  the  printing-press,  or  some  fragments  of  it,  were 
known  to  have  found  their  way  to  Alexandria."^:  Oxford 
should  have  learned  by  this  time  to  mistrust  pseudo-converts, 
especially  when  they  come  from  the  East. 


ARMENIA. 

• 

We  may  now  take  our  departure  from  Syria,  in  order  to 
pursue  in  Armenia  the  investigations  which  we  have  almost 
completed.  It  is  in  the  latter  province  that  the  Protestant 
emissaries  from  America  boast  to  have  obtained  the  greatest 

*  The  Ansayrii,  cli.  xvi.,  p.  356. 

f  Sixty-third  Report,  p.  G6. 

j  Letters  from  the  East,  vol.  ii.,  p.  115. 


100  CHAPTER   VIII. 

numerical  results,  and  are  at  this  moment  engaged  in  operations 
which  deserve  particular  attention.  But  we  must  first  say  a  few 
words  on  Catholic  missions  to  the  Armenians. 

Nearly  twenty  years  ago,  Dr.  Joseph  Wolff  announced  to 
Europe,  that  "  about  sixty  thousand  Armenians  have  joined 
the  Church  of  Rome.""*  Since  that  date,  the  great  movement 
of  reconciliation  among  the  Armenian  nation  has  steadily 
progressed  ;  and  it  may  be  said  without  exaggeration  that,  at 
the  present  time,  hardly  a  week  elapses  without  a  fresh  instance 
of  conversions,  often  on  a  large  scale,  and  all  attesting  the  won 
derful  restoration  of  this  people  to  unity. 

And  this  remarkable  fact  is  perpetually  recurring,  in  spite 
of  that  "strong  national  bond"  which,  as  liaxthausen  notices, 
assimilates  the  Armenians  to  the  Jews,  "  whose  nationality  no 
human  power  can  destroy,''  and  which  knits  them  all  into  one 
tribe  and  family,  from  China  to  Morocco.  So  powerful  is  this 
ineradicable  instinct  of  nationality, — a  sentiment  always  more 
or  less  fatal  to  Christianity, — that  Armenians,  when  converted 
to  the  Church,  are  obliged,  like  converts  from  certain  European 
races,  to  repudiate  that  false  and  exaggerated  patriotism  which 
has  rent  Christendom  into  twenty  jealous,  selfish,  and  hostile 
bodies,  "  and  proudly  renounce  the  name  of  Armenians,  to  call 
themselves  Catholics."f 

During  the  last  two  centuries  this  consoling  movement  has 
received  a  constant  impulse  from  the  labors  of  European  mis 
sionaries.  In  1711,PereRicard  reconciled  one  bishop,  twenty- 
two  priests,  and  eight  hundred  and  seventy-five  lay  persons.^ 
Three  years  later,  in  1714,  Pere  Monier  received  the  abjuration 
of  more  than  seven  hundred,  and  shortly  afterwards,  in  com 
pany  with  Ricard,  penetrated  into  Kurdistan.  They  were  both 
chained  and  imprisoned  by  the  Pacha  of  Kars,  at  the  instigation 
of  the  Armenian  schismatics,  whose  vengeance  followed  them  to 
their  new  field  of  labor.  By  such  men,  and  witli  similar  re 
sults,  the  combat  has  ever  since  been  maintained,  the  heretics 
always  invoking  Moslem  aid,  and  seldom  in  vain.  And  these 
incidents  have  marked  the  conflict  up  to  the  present  hour. 
u  Recently,"  says  M.  Eugene  Bore,  "the  schismatical  patriarch 
purchased  from  the  vizir  for  two  thousand  purses  the  right  to 
prevent  a  member  of  his  Church  from  becoming  a  Catholic. v§ 


*  Narrative  of  a  Mission  to  Bokhara,  cli.  iii.,  p.  114. 
T  Haxtliausen,  cli.  vii  ,  p.  224. 
\  JVouveaux  Memoires  du  Levant,  tome  iii.,  p.  290. 
§  Armenie,  p.  138. 


MISSIONS   IN   THE   LEVANT,    ETC.  101 

the  American  missionaries  from  the  neighborhood  of  Etch- 
miadzin. 

Even  Protestant  travellers  are  almost  unanimous  in  affirming 
two  facts, — the  worthlessness  of  the  schismatical  and  the 
superiority  of  the  converted  Armenian.  "  The  Armenians,"  says 
the  Rev.  Mr.  Dwight,  "  appear  to  hold  a  lower  place  in  the 
scale  than  either  the  Greeks  or  the  Latins,"* — after  which  he 
evidently  felt  that  he  had  nothing  more  to  say.  He  confesses, 
however,  that  even  they  are  witnesses  for  the  Church,  since  they 
hold  all  the  Catholic  doctrines  controverted  by  Protestants,  a 
fact  confirmed  by  a  Prussian  writer,  who  lived  in  intimacy  with 
the  heads  of  the  sect,  and  was  led  to  make  the  following 
important  reflections :  "The  Armenian  Church  bears  a  marked 
testimony  to  the  antiquity  of  the  Catholic  Church.  All  the 
dogmas  attacked  at  and  since  the  Reformation  are  held  by  it, — 
the  Saints,  the  Seven  Sacraments,  Transubstantiation,  the 
Sacrifice  of  the  Mass,  and  Purgatory.  The  dogmas  which  the 
Armenians  hold  in  common  with  the  Catholic  Church  must  be 
of  high  antiquity,  for  as  early  as  the  Council  of  Chalcedon,  in 
451,  the  Armenian  Church  possessed  an  organization  of  its  own, 
and  jealously  guarded  itself  from  foreign  influence."!  This 
learned  writer  also  observes,  and  proves  by  well-known  ex 
amples,  that  the  "  Armenian  Church  not  only  acknowledges 
that  its  founder,  St.  Gregory  the  Illuminator,  received  the 
Armenian  Patriarchate  from  Rome,  but  it  has  several  times 
submitted  to  the  Pope,  as  the  centre  of  Unity  and  the  Supreme 
Patriarch."  He  had  reason  to. speak  with  confidence  of  the 
sentiments  of  the  highest  class  of  Armenian  prelates,  since 
JSTarses,  the  Patriarch  of  the  separated  Armenians,  gave  him 
the  following  explicit  assurance  with  his  own  lips,  when  he 
met  him  at  St.  Petersburg  in  1843  :  "  On  the  whole  we  are  in 
harmony  with  Rome;  the  Armenian  Patriarch  usually  sends 
a  notice  to  the  Pope  of  his  elevation  to  the  Patriarchate.  .  .  . 
There  is  no  essential  difference  in  doctrine  between  the  Arme 
nian  and  Latin  Churches ;  indeed,  perfect  agreement  has  been 
repeatedly  attained.  Jealousies  and  disputes  have  been  much 
more  frequent  with  the  Greek  Church."  It  was  impossible  to 
omit  testimony  so  interesting,  though  it  probably  reveals  more 
accurately  the  convictions  and  wishes  of  N arses  himself  than  of 
the  corrupt  and  ignorant  colleagues  whom  he  nominally  governs, 
and  of  whom  Haxthausen  declares  with  regret,  K  Avarice,  envy, 
hypocrisy,  and  even  gross  sensuality  are  common  amongst 
them." 

Such  are  the  penalties  of  separation  from  the  Holy  See,  even 

*  Christianity  in  Turkey t  p.  7. 
\  Haxthausen,  cli.  ix.,  p.  313 


102  CHAPTER  VIII. 

where  the  apostolic  doctrine  is  nominally  retained.  Captain 
AVilbraham  observed  at  Etclimiadzin  itself,  the  head-quarters 
of  the  schism,  and  in  the  cathedral,  the  "  want  of  attention, 
and  even  of  decorum,"  which  was  displayed  by  the  congrega 
tion  ;  and  added,  u  There  was  none  of  that  apparently  sincere, 
though  perhaps  blind  devotion,  which  I  have  so  often  remarked 
in  Roman  Catholic  chapels."  "The  Catholicos,"  he  says,  or 
Patriarch,  "  nominally  presides  over  the  synod,  but  a  Moderator 
has  been  appointed  by  the  Russian  government,  without  whose 
approval  nothing  can  be  done,  which  makes  the  emperor 
virtually  the  head  of  the  Armenian  Church  throughout  the 
world  ;"*  a  fact  of  which  Parses  bitterly  complained  to  Baron 
Yon  Ilaxthausen,  in  these  expressive  words :  "  How  undignified 
is  the  position  of  the  Patriarch  !  Every  letter  must  pass  through 
the  hands  of  the  Governor-general  of  Caucasia,  and  is  opened 
in  his  office,  where  every  clerk  may  read  it !"  Narses,  a  man 
superior  to  most  of  his  race  and  order,  might  have  reflected,  that 
this  is  the  usual  fate  of  those  who  consent  to  preside  over 
"National"  Churches,  f 

Mr.  Walpole  declares,  from  his  own  observation,  that  "  the 
falsehood  of  the  Armenian  monks  was  dreadful,  as  they  asserted 
that  so  and  so  was  the  belief  of  such  and  such  a  church." 

Dr.  Moritz  Wagner,  also  a  Protestant,  confirms  these  dismal 
statements.  "Gross  ignorance,  stupidity,  covetousness,  and 
immorality,  are  the  predominant  characteristics  of  these  eccle- 
biastics.  They  readily  assume  an  external  show  of  virtue  and 
self-denial,  whilst,  in  secret,  they  indulge  freely  in  vice.  Envy 
and  jealousy  reign  supreme  among  them.  They  do  not  appear 
to  have  a  shadow  of  brotherly  or  neighborly  love,  or  of  kindli 
ness  and  courtesy,  in  the  Christian  acceptation  of  those  terms.":): 
The  whole  community,  including  the  Patriarch  and  "his  bishops 
and  monks,"  are  described  by  Dr.  Bodenstedt,  who  lived  with 
them,  as  "  a  society  blunted  for  all  noble  purposes,  and  wasted 
by  unnatural  lusts."§  And  these  are  the  men  who  perpetuate 
the  schism. 

Dr.  Friedrich  Parrot  notices  also  the  moral  corruption  in 

*  Travels  in  the  Trans-Caucasian  Provinces  of  Russia,  ch.  ix.,  pp.  95-98. 

Dr.  D5llinger  observes  in  his  latest  work,  that  all  pagan  religions  were 
national,  and  that  while  it  is  the  special  glory  of  the  Christian  Church  to  have 
united  all  the  tribes  of  the  earth  in  one  family,  the  Sects  have  always  tended 
to  restore  the  pagan  element  of  nationality.  It  was  thus  with  the  Donatists, 
who  speedily  cast  out  the  idea  of  a  universal  communion.  "  The  whole  course 
of  the  Reformation  century,"  he  adds,  was  in  the  same  fatal  direction,  and 
"we  find  everywhere  the  victorious  (pagan)  principle  of  national  distinct 
churches.  7  he  Church  and  the  Churches,  p.  81.  In  this,  as  in  many  other 
respects.  Protestantism  was  a  return  towards  Paganism. 

|  Truccls  in  Persia,  &c.,  vol.  iii.,  p.  51  (1850). 

§  Lijc  in  the  Caucasus  and  the  East,  vol.  i.,  p.  231. 


103 

which  their  priesthood  is  sunk,"  and  gives  this  explanation  of 
their  profound  and  universal  ignorance.  "  Every  laic,  provided 
only  he  be  chosen  by  the  congregation,  and  have  passed  four 
teen  days  in  the  prescribed  fastings  and  ritual  observances  in 
a  church,  may  get  ordination  from  the  bishop,  without  either 
preparation  or  subsequent  education."  He  agrees  with  Colonel 
Drouville,  that  "  their  priests  and  bishops  are  all  as  ignorant 
as  it  is  possible  to  be;"  and  notices  the  usual  phenomenon 
in  all  heretical  bodies,  that  they  have  split  into  three  sects. 
"There  is  an  independent  Catholicos  at  Sis,  in  Cicilia,  and 
another,  who  has  maintained  himself  in  this  dignity  for  seven 
hundred  years,  in  the  island  of  Akhthamar,  in  the  lake  of 
Van."* 

Lastly,  Dr.  Wilson  observes — though  he  would  probably  have 
said  nothing  about  it  if  they  would  have  welcomed  his  friends — 
"  the  Armenians  partake  in  the  monothelite  as  well  as  the 
monophysite  heresy,"  a  statement  which  is  not  true  of  the 
whole  nation,  especially  in  Western  Asia. 

Such,  by  Protestant  testimony,  are  the  unfortunate  commu 
nities  who  are  paying  the  penalty  of  heresy  and  schism,  and 
whom  the  Church,  with  the  patience  and  zeal  of  a  mother,  has 
resolved  to  restore  to  truth,  charity,  and  obedience.  How  far 
she  has  succeeded  in  this  aim  we  may  now  briefly  state. 

We  have  already  heard  from  Dr.  Wolff  that  sixty  thousand 
had  been  reconciled  when  he  visited  them.  Captain  Wilbraham 
admits  that  "  a  considerable  proportion  have  returned  to  the 
Catholic  Church,  from  which  this  nation  seceded,  when,  in  the 
year  491,  they  rejected  the  authority  of  the  Council  of  Chalce- 
don."f  Dr.  Parrot,  though  a  Kussian  Imperial  Councillor  of 
State,  allows  that  no  small  portion  of  the  clergy  and  laity 
also  have  attached  themselves  to  the  Koman  Catholic  Church.":): 
"  Komanism,"  says  the  Rev.  Justin  Perkins,  of  whom  we  shall 
hear  more  presently,  "is  taking  root  and  extending,"  which  he 
considers  "  the  conversion  of  the  Armenians  from  bad  to  worse." 
"  Very  few  of  the  Nestorians  now  remain,"  he  adds,  "  on  the 
western  side  of  the  Koordish  mountains,  who  have  not  yielded 
to  the  intrigues  and  usurpations  of  Papal  domination. "§  This 
gentleman  is  apparently  of  opinion  that  the  operations  of  the 
Americans,  which  shall  be  described  immediately,  involve 
neither  intrigue  nor  usurpation. 

But  the  conversions  effected  by  Catholic  missionaries  have 
not  been  confined  to  Armenia  Proper.  "At  Constantinople," 

*  Journey  to  Ararat,  ch.  iv.,  p.  92;  cli.  v.,  pp.  105-110. 
f  Ch.  xxxi.,  p.  352. 
%  P.  110. 

§  Residence  en  Persia,  p.  4. 


104:  CHAPTER   VIII. 

says  Mr.  Curzon,  "  a  great  number  of  the  higher  and  wealthier 
Armenians  give  their  adherence  to  the  Kornan  Catholic  creed.'7 
Of  the  Chaldean  Catholics,  Dr.  Wilson  observes,  "  They  form, 
I  am  sorry  to  say,  a  great  portion  of  the  Nestorians  west  of  the 
mountains  of  Kurdistan."  Bagdad  and  Mosul  have  yielded  to 
the  same  beneficent  power.  "Emissaries  from  Rome,"  says 
Mr.  Perkins,  "have  been  laboring,  with  a  zeal  and  perse 
verance  worthy  of  a  better  cause,  to  effect  the  conversion  of 
the  entire  Nestorian  Church.  Mrs.  Perkins  received^  a  letter 
from  a  pious  English  lady,  who  resides  in  Bagdad,  in  which 
the  writer  says,  "  the  religious  state  of  this  city  is  very  unsatis 
factory  ;  the  Kornan  Catholics  carry  the  day  in  every  way.  .  . 
A  large  body  of  bishops  and  priests  are  going  to  Mosul  in  a 
day  or  two,  to  form  a  convention  to  endeavor  to  bring  over  all 
the  Chaldeans  to  the  Papal  faith."  Fortunately,  we  can  trace 
the  results  of  this  expedition ;  for  a  little  later  Mr.  Walpole 
tells  us,  with  an  angry  commentary  hardly  worthy  of  so  intel 
ligent  a  traveller,  that  of  the  fourteen  Christian  churches  at 
Mosul  belonging  to  the  different  sects,  several  are  now  in  the 
hands  of  Roman  Catholics ;  .  .  .  .  whether  by  right  or  other 
wise," — how  could  a  few  poor  missionaries  gain  them  except 
by  persuasion? — "the  Catholics  have  gathered  to  themselves 
many  congregations." 

The  expedition  from  Bagdad  was  evidently  successful ;  indeed 
Dr.  Southgate  was  able  to  report,  with  unfeigned  regret,  that 
"  the  whole  body  of  the  Nestorian  Church  is  now  a  branch  of 
the  Church  of  Rome,  and  with  a  sad  propriety  may  the  Papal 
Nestorians  assume  the  national  name  of  Chaldeans."*  "  The 
Nestorians  who  once  inhabited  the  Mosul  district,"  says  Dr. 
Asahel  Grant,  "have  all  embraced  the  Romish  faith."f  "The 
whole  Chaldean  nation,"  adds  an  English  traveller,  "may  now 
be  esteemed  Catholics.":); 

Finally,  the  Patriarch  of  the  Chaldeans,  writing  from  Mosul 
in  1853,  could  already  report  that  thirty-five  thousand  wanderers 
from  that  nation  alone  had  beon  restored  to  the  true  fold, 
and  that  the  "  opposition  of  the  Methodists"— he  means  the 
Anglican  and  other  missionaries — was  the  chief  impediment  to 
the  conversion  of  the  few  who  were  still  in  schism,  but  whose 
imperfect  faith  was  in  danger  from  contact  with  Protestant 
neology,  as  their  morals  were  from  the  lavish  distribution  of 
Protestant  gold.§  The  mission  of  Protestantism  seems  to  be 
everywhere  the  same.  Its  agents  cannot  make  Christians 

*  Vol.  ii.,  ch.  xvi.,  p.  183. 

f  The  Nestorians,  ch.  iii.,  p.  27. 

j  Patterson,  app.,  p.  401. 

§  Revue  Orientate  et  Algerienne,  tome  iv.,  p.  357. 


MISSIONS   IN   THE   LEVANT,    ETC.  105 

themselves,  but  they  can  prevent  others  doing  so.  By  the 
banks  of  the  Tigris,  as  by  those  of  the  Nile  and  the  Jordan ; 
in  the  cities  of  China,  as  in  the  villages  of  Hindostan  ;  in  the 
islands  of  the  Pacific,  as  in  those  of  the  Mediterranean  ;  their 
aim  is  to  rend  unity,  to  mar  the  work  which  they  can  neither 
understand  nor  imitate,  to  confirm  the  heathen  in  his  unbe 
lief  and  the  heretic  in  his  corruption ;  and  the  only  triumph 
to  which  they  aspire  is  to  keep  back  a  few,  when  all  around 
are  waking  to  a  new  life  of  truth  and  virtue,  from  sharing  the 
blessings  which,  but  for  their  presence,  would  perhaps  regen 
erate  the  world. 

Let  us  return  for  a  moment,  before  we  conclude  this  part  of 
our  subject,  to  Armenia  Proper.  The  movement  of  Catholic 
regeneration  of  which  Western  Asia  is  now  one  of  the  most 
conspicuous  theatres,  has  at  last  penetrated  to  the  very  heart 
and  centre  of  the  Armenian  schism.  Rumors  had  reached 
Europe  towards  the  close  of  1859  of  extraordinary  and  almost 
unprecedented  conversions  in  the  regions  which  surround 
Etchmiadzin.  An  Armenian  gentleman,  who  arrived  in  Eng 
land  in  the  month  of  September  of  that  year,  brought 
intelligence  of  the  almost  simultaneous  conversion  of  ten 
thousand  Armenians  in  the  neighborhood  of  Erzeroum.  Ap 
plication  was  made  to  the  proper  authorities  for  authentic 
information  with  respect  to  so  remarkable  an  event,  and 
through  the  intervention  of  a  venerable  prelate  a  letter  has 
been  obtained  from  the  Catholic  Armenian  Primate,  dated 
Constantinople,  October  26,  1859,  which  contains  the  follow 


ing  statement : 


"  I  willingly  communicate  to  you  the  details  of  the  conver 
sions  which  take  place  almost  every  week  from  the  schismati- 
cal  Armenian  Church  to  the  centre  of  unity  in  these  latter 
times,  and  especially  during  the  last  two  years,  in  which  so 
great  a  religious  movement  has  been  manifested  in  various 
parts  of  Asia,  that  it  might  more  fitly  be  called  a  religious 
revolution — eke  potrei  meglio  intitolare  una  ri-volusione  reli- 
yiosa.  In  Karput  and  Arabghir,  cities  in  the  neighborhood 
of  Erzeroum,  more  than  five  hundred  families  with  some  of 
their  priests  have  been  converted  to  Catholicism.  In  Tadem, 
Sartorici,  and  Garrnir,  regions  adjacent  to  Karput,  about  one 
hundred  families.  In  Malatia  and  Adjaman,  also  contiguous 
districts,  one  hundred  and  fifty  families  with  their  priest.  Last 
week  I  received  letters  from  Palo,  also  in  the  territory  of 
Karput,  and  containing  more  than  two  hundred  villages,  wliich 
inform  me  that  fifty  families  have  expressed  their  desire  to  be 
admitted  to  Catholic  unity.  In  Marasci,  near  Diarbeker,  more 
than  six  hundred  families,  with  some  of  their  clergy,  have 


106  CHAPTER  VIII. 

become  Catholics,  and  other  families  in  the  neighboring  dis 
tricts.  At  Rodosto,  near  Adrianople,  and  again  at  Bandyrma, 
in  the  diocese  of  Byrsa  in  Bithynia,  seventy  families,  besides 
others  similarly  disposed,  have  addressed  petitions  to  me  to 
be  received  into  Catholic  unity."  The  illustrious  prelate  does 
not  state  the  exact  numerical  total  of  the  converts,  which  was 
probably  unknown  to  him  ;  but  as  they  amount  already  to 
about  fifteen  hundred/amities,  besides  others  similarly  disposed, 
we  may  easily  form  an  approximate  estimate.  But  even  this  is 
not  all,  for  the  Archbishop  immediately  adds  :  "  J  omit  to  speak 
of  other  districts  in  the  like  condition,  and  especially  of  one 
vast  province,  with  respect  to  which  I  am  also  conducting  ne 
gotiations,  in  favor  of  more  than  ten  thousand  families." 

Such  is  the  work  of  God,  in  these  last  times,  among  the 
schismatical  communities  of  the  East.  Worn  out  by  the 
exactions  of  simoniacal  priests  and  bishops,  scandalized  by  the 
ignorance  and  immorality  of  their  fallen  pastors,  conversant  in 
many  cases  with  the  superior  virtue  and  dignity  of  their  country 
men  who  have  been  reconciled  to  the  Church,  and  above  all 
touched  by  the  compassionate  grace  of  God,  and  the  purity, 
wisdom,  and  goodness  of  the  apostles  whom  He  has  sent 
amongst  them, — they  begin,  in  this  eleventh  hour  of  their  his 
tory,  to  turn  wistful  eyes  towards  the  source  of  unity  and 
peace,  and  to  marvel  that  they  have  so  long  despised  the  bless 
ings  which  they  knew  not  to  be  within  their  reach. 

It  only  remains  to  show, — once  more  by  Protestant  testimony, 
—that  as  soon  as  they  enter  the  Church,  they  begin  to  acquire 
the  freedom,  virtue,  and  enlightenment  to  which  they  had  so 
long  been  strangers.  This  also,  thanks  to  the  copiousness  and 
exuberance  of  Protestant  literature,  we  shall  be  able  to  prove. 

"The  Roman  Catholics,"  said  an  Anglican  clergyman  some 
years  ago,  "  have  compassed  sea  and  land,  have  made  and  still 
retain  proselytes  to  the  Papal  Supremacy  from  every  Christian 
community  and  nation,  Abyssinia  excepted."  If  Mr.  Jowett 
had  written  a  little  later,  he  would  have  been  obliged  to  omit 
the  exception.  Other  writers,  who  share  Mr.  Jowett's  prej  udices, 
will  now  tell  us,  in  language  more  emphatic  than  could  be  ex 
pected  from  such  witnesses,  though  far  below  the  truth,  what 
influence  these  conversions  have  produced  upon  the  life  and 
character  of  their  fortunate  subjects. 

Let  us  begin  with  the  Greeks.  Of  the  converts  from  this 
nation  we  have  been  told,  by  men  who  can  hardly  speak 
with  composure  of  the  Catholic  Church,  such  truths  as  the 
following:  "They  are,"  says  Dr.  Wilson,  in  words  already 
quoted,  "amongst  the  most  liberal  and  intelligent  native 
Uhnstians  in  the  East."  They  exhibit,  since  their  conversion, 


MISSIONS   IN  THE   LEVANT,    ETC.  107 

says  Dr.  Robinson  more  cautiously,  "a  certain  elevation." 
'•their  intercourse  with  the  Roman  Catholic  Church,"  adds 
Dr.  Durbin,  "  tends  to  elevate  them  in  the  scale  of  civilization." 
And  these  are  all  vehement  Protestants. 

'Of  the  Armenian  converts,  equally  hostile  witnesses  give 
exactly  the  same  account,  though  we  may  be  sure  they  speak 
with  reluctance  and  constraint.  "~  "Like  the  Christians  in  other 
parts  of  Turkey,"  says  Messrs.  Smith  and  Dwight,  eager  parti 
sans  of  Protestant  missions,  "  they  who  have  embraced  the  faith 
of  Rome  are  more  respectable  for  wealth  and  intelligence  than 
their  countrymen."  They  add,  that  "  most  of  the  native  Chris 
tians  employed  by  Protestants  in  the  Levant  are  of  the  Romish 
persuasion," — a  fact  which  they  consider  discreditable  to  the 
officials,  merchants,  and  others,  who  employ  them  solely  on 
account  of  their  superior  trustworthiness,  because  it  encourages 
"  the  Pope's  anti-Christian  power."* 

"The  Catholic  Armenians,"  says  Captain  Wilbraham,  "are 
generally  superior  in  education  and  intelligence  to  their  coun 
trymen,'' — which  this  gentleman  attributes,  "  in  some  measure, 
to  the  circulation  of  knowledge  occasioned  by  the  literary  la 
bors  of  the  Catholic  Armenian  convent  in  Venice."f  In  other 
words,  they  are  brought  by  their  conversion  into  contact  with 
Catholic  intelligence  and  learning. 

"The  Roman  Catholic  branch  of  the  Armenian  Church," 
says  Mr.  Curzon,  "  has  done  much  more  for  literature  and 
civilization  than  the  original  body."  Of  the  converts  he  says, 
"Their  minds  are  more  enlarged,  they  are  less  Oriental  in  their 
ideas,"  &c.  ;J  an  emphatic  testimony,  by  a  capable  witness,  to 
the  civilizing  influence  of  the  Catholic  religion.  Mr.  Curzon 
also  observes,  that  "  the  Armenian  monks  at  Venice  printed 
the  Armenian  Bible  in  1805 ;  and  entirely  by  their  energy,  the 
small  spark  which  alone  glimmered  in  the  darkness  of  Arme 
nian  ignorance  in  the  East  has  gradually  increased  its  lighj:." 
"The  Mechitarists,"  says  Haxthausen,  "  have  printed  Armenian 
translations  from  all  the  languages  of  Europe,  and  in  every 
department  of  literature." 

"  It  is  a  remarkable  fact,"  says  Dr.  Joseph  Wolff  in  his  latest 
publication,  "and  it  must  not  be  concealed,  that  ....  the 
native  Christians  of  the  Turkish  empire  in  general,  where 
Roman  Catholic  missionaries  have  not  penetrated,  are  ignorant, 
rude,  and  uncouth,  like  buifaloes !  Roman  Catholic  mission 
aries  have  carried  everywhere  the  light  of  civilization. "§ 

*  Missionary  Researches  in  Armenia,  Letter  i.,  p.  20. 

f  Ch.  xxxi.,  '352. 

i  Armenia  and  Erzeroum,  ch.  xv.,  p.  230. 

§  Travels  and  Adventures  of  Dr.  Wolff,  ch.  xv.,  p.  274. 


108  CHAPTER   VIII. 

Of  the  Syrians,  even  Dr.  Southgate  notices  the  pregnant 
fact,  that  "  the  adherents  of  the  Church  of  Korne  have  all  been 
themselves  converted  individually,"  and  that  "they  are  zeal 
ously  and  intelligently  attached  to  their  new  faith."* 

Of  the  Chaldeans,  we  have  heard  that  they  have  become  a 
Catholic  nation  ;  and  of  the  Maronites,  who  owe  all  the  "  de 
served  superiority"  which  even  Protestants  recognize  in  them 
to  the  influence  of  their  religion,  we  need  say  nothing  more 
than  has  been  already  related  by  English  and  American 
writers. 

Of  the  converted  Jacobites,  Mr.  Badger  confesses,  in  spite  01 
that  uneasy  dislike  and  jealousy  of  the  Catholic  Church  which 
is  now  perhaps  more  intense  in  Anglicans  than  in  any  other 
class,  "  If  the  truth  must  be  told,  they  are  decidedly  superior, 
in  many  respects,  to  their  Jacobite  brethren. "f 

Lastly,  the  eventual  triumph  of  the  Faith  in  all  the  long 
separated  communities  of  the  East  appears  so  certain  to  a 
German  philosopher  who  had  watched,  with  cold  but  intelli 
gent  impartiality,  its  irresistible  progress,  that  he  does  not 
hesitate  to  announce  in  these  emphatic  terms  the  inevitable 
issue :  "  There  is  no  doubt  that  the  theology  of  the  West  will  in 
time  penetrate  the  Eastern  Church,  with  all  its  divisions,  Greek, 
Armenian,  Nestorian,  and  Coptic. "J 

And  now  we  have  heard  enough  of  Catholic  missions  in  the 
Levant,  Syria,  and  Armenia,  of  their  uninterrupted  success,  and 
of  the  character  both  of  the  missionaries  and  their  disciples. 
The  history  exactly  agrees  with  what  we  have  heard  in  every 
other  land.  On  one  side  we  have  found  God  and  his  gifts,  on 
the  other  only  man  and  his  frailties.  The  few  Protestant  con 
verts,  attracted  only  by  offers  of  payment,  and  spurning  the 
hand  from  which  they  receive  it,  are,' as  Dr.  Southgate  admits, 
"  infidels  and  radicals ;"  or,  as  Mr.  Williams,  Mr.  Patterson, 
and  others  report,  notorious  for  "  scandalous  irregularities  arid 
excesses— either  worthless  persons,  or  skeptics  and  infidels;" 
while  even  a  Protestant  minister  not  only  confesses  the  uni 
versal  failure  of  his  co-religionists  in  Syria,  but  candidly  asks, 
"  Are  we  ever  likely  to  succeed  any  better  ?"  Such  is  one  more 
example  of  the  momentous  contrast  which  has  not  hitherto 
been  revealed  to  the  world,  because  neither  genius  nor  learning 
could  have  anticipated,  much  less  dispensed  with,  the  facts 
which  living  writers  have  collected  for  our  instruction. 

And  what  explanation  do  Protestants  offer,  in  this  case,  of  tho 

*  Narrative,  &c,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  xxiii.,  p.  284. 
1  Vol.  i.,  p.  63. 
Trans-Caucasia,  by  Baron  Von  Haxthausen,  ch.  iii.,  p.  67. 


MISSIONS   IN   THE   LEVANT,    ETC.  109 

success  of  Catholic  missions  and  the  failure  of  their  own  ?  In 
China,  they  assure  us  that,  "  in  becoming  Papists,"  and  subse 
quently  martyrs,  "  they  give  up  nothing"*  In  India,  "  Popery 
is  'better  adapted"  to  the  illogical  Hindoo.  In  Ceylon,  and  in 
other  lands,  it  is  "  ceremonial"  which  accounts  for  the  contrast. 
And  what  is  it  in  Syria?  In  this  province,  the  explanation  is 
still  more  unexpected,  and  the  very  hypothesis  which  unites  in 
itself  the  largest  measure  of  extravagance  and  impossibility  is 
precisely  that  which  has  been  selected  for  the  occasion.  Who 
would  have  anticipated  that,  in  the  land  of  the  Moslem, 
"  where,1'  as  Mr.  Walpole  observes,  "  the  Christian  exists  only 
on  sufferance,"  it  is  by  "  cruelty  and  violence"  that  a  few 
Lazarists,  Franciscans,  and  Sisters  of  Charity  win  their  way  ? 
"  Romish  tyranny,"  says  the  Rev.  Mr.  Fremantle,  for  the  special 
instruction  of  the  Anglican  Church,  "  has  been  insulting  and 
persecuting,  and  assisting  the  Mahommedans  to  oppress  the 
fallen  churches."  And  this  account,  which  would  be  received 
with  a  shout  of  laughter  by  a  Druse  or  a  Mussulman  audience, 
is  repeated  by  other  English  writers,  with  various  modifications, 
as  the  true  history  of  Catholic  victories  in  Syria. 

Yet  as  late  as  1845,  we  find  a  competent  authority  making 
this  declaration,  in  the  form  of  an  appeal  to  Europe  :  "  I  know 
for  a  positive  fact,  that  at  this  moment  all  classes,  sects,  and 
denominations,  are  crying  aloud  for  European  protection."! 
Fourteen  years  later,  Mr.  Wingfield  still  reports,  that  "  the 
assassination  of  Christians,  even  of  the  richer  class,  is  unhappily 
of  no  very  rare  occurrence."^:  Mr.  Warrington  Smyth  relates, 
about  the  same  time,  that  he  himself  saw  a  new  church  in 
Bulgaria  wantonly  destroyed,  "crushing  in  an  hour  the  hopes 
of  years."§  "Never,"  adds  a  Protestant  minister  in  1862, 
"  were  the  Christians  throughout  Turkey  exposed  to  more 
atrocious  cruelty  than  at  the  present  day,  when  the  Mahometan 
power  is  kept  alive  merely  by  the  mutual  distrust  of  the  great 
powers  of  Europe."!  "  The  various  Christian  sects  who  occupy 
the  plains  of  Syria,"  says  Colonel  Churchill,  "  live  in  perpetual 
dread  of  some  outbreak  of  Mohammedan  fanaticism. "T  How 
reasonable  that  dread  was,  the  dismal  tragedy  of  1860  once- 
more  proved.  Even  the  Maronites,  whose  numbers  and  valor, 
as  well  as  their  geographical  position,  appeared  to  give  them 


*  The  Land  of  Sinim,  ch.  iv.,  p.  132. 

\  Memoir  on  Syria,  by  Charles  Fiott  Barker,  formerly  Secretary  to  Mr.  Consul- 
general  Barker,  p.  50. 

$  A  Tour  in  Dalmatia,  &c.,  by  W.  F.  Wingfield,  M.A.,  ch.  vi.,  p.  158. 
§  A  Year  with  the  Turks,  ch.  ix.,  p.  289. 

f  Serma  and  the  Servians,  by  the  Rev.  W.  Denton,  M.A.,  ch.  i.,  p.  15. 
1  Mount  Lebanon,  vol.  iii.,  ch.  xxvii.,  p.  387. 


HO  CHAPTER  VIII. 

an  exceptional  security,  fell,  betrayed  and  ensnared,  in  that 
cruel  conspiracy  of  Druse,  and  Turk,  and  Metuali ;  and  were 
at  all  times  so  exposed,  in  spite  of  the  nominal  protectorate  of 
France,  whose  generous  designs  were  thwarted  by  the  policy  of 
a  jealous  and  non-Catholic  nation,  that  as  one  of  their  bishops 
observed  to  Mr.  David,  "  Dieu  seul  est  Ion  pour  la  Syrie"  In 
Antioch  itself,  though  it  is,  as  Mr.  Paton  remarks,  u  nominally 
the  metropolis  of  the  orthodox  Greeks,"  "  the  Moslems  are  so 
fanatical,  that  they  do  not  allow  the  Christians  to  have  a  church 
in  the  town."*  And  it  is  in  such  a  state  of  society  as  this,  in 
which  the  Catholics  exist,  like  the  sectaries,  "  only  on  suffer 
ance,"  and  in  daily  peril  of  destruction,  that  helpless  missionaries 
and  religious  women,  who  attract  tens  of  thousands  by  the 
sweet  odor  of  their  virtues,  from  all  ranks  and  sects,  are  said 
to  do  so  by  "  insults  and  tyranny,"  and  by  "  persecuting  the 
fallen  churches  !"  Such  is  the  Protestant  explanation  of  their 
euccess,  and  it  is,  as  usual,  an  Anglican  clergyman  who  sug 
gests  it. 

PROTESTANT   MISSIONS. 

Before  we  close  this  chapter,  let  us  add  a  few  words,  in  further 
illustration  of  the  contrast,  on  Protestant  missions  in  Armenia. 
Hitherto  we  have  encountered  grave  and  earnest  men,  fit 
preachers  of  the  evangelical  truths  of  which  their  own  apos 
tolic  lives  were  the  most  impressive  illustration ;  having  the 
counsels  of  Holy  Writ  in  their  hearts  rather  than  on  their 
tongues,  and  still  more  eloquent  by  example  than  in  speech. 
Hence  their  peaceful  triumphs,  hence  their  acceptance  among 
all  the  oriental  races.  We  have  now,  in  conclusion,  to  notice 
briefly  a  class  of  men  towards  whom  we  need  not  affect  an 
esteem  which  even  their  co-religionists  have  refused  :  men  to 
whom  Holy  Scripture  appears  to  be  every  thing  except  a  teacher ; 
men  whose  mouths  are  full  of  imprecations  against  the  pure 
and  the  just,  while  they  do  not  even  attempt  to  imitate  their 
least  merits ;  whose  whole  life  is  one  unbroken  course  of 
littleness  and  self-indulgence,  united  with  irrational  contempt 
for  the  manly  virtues  which  they  hate  without  understanding  ; 
whose  mission  seems  to  consist  in  marring  the  Unity  for  which 
Jesus  prayed,  and  in  beguiling  others  to  reject  the  blessings 
which  they  have  forfeited  themselves  ;  and  whose  own  friends 
confess,  with  one  voice,  that  the  few  hearers  whom  they  entice 
are  only  ten  times  more  immoral  and  unbelieving  than  they 
were  before. 

The  principal  historian  of  Protestant  missions  in  Armenia  is 

*  Modem  Syrians,  cli.  xix.,  p.  220. 


MISSIONS   IN   THE   LEVANT,   ETC.  Ill 

the  Eev.  Justin  Perkins.  Let  us  hear  his  account  of  himself 
and  his  work. 

Mr.  Perkins  quotes  the  following  passage  from  the  "  Instruc 
tions"  to  the  American  missionaries  by  the  society  which  em 
ployed  them  :  "  You  are  not  sent  among  these  Churches  to 
proselyte.  Let  the  Armenian  remain  an  Armenian,  if  he 
will;  the  Greek  a  Greek,  and  the  Nestorian  a  Nestorian." 
"  The  object  of  the  American  missions  to  Syria,  and  other  parts  of 
the  Levant,"  says  Dr.  Robinson,  "  is  not  to  draw  off  members 
of  the  Oriental  Churches  to  Protestantism."  Such  was  perhaps 
the  original  programme,  and  for  a  time  caution  restrained  the 
American  agents.  They  offered  only  secular  education,  the  use 
of  books,  medical  treatment,  and  other  harmless  boons.  When 
they  thought  their  position  assured,  they  assumed  their  real 
character,  and  boasted,  as  we  have  seen,  of  the  very  operations 
which  their  nominal  instructions  forbade  them  to  attempt. 

They  even  claimed  to  have  the  field  all  to  themselves,  and 
warmly  resented  the  intrusion  of  other  Protestant  sects,  and 
especially  of  Anglicans.  The  report  of  the  American  Board  for 
]  8 Jrl  protests  energetically  against  the  English  for  entering  into 
communication  with  the  Nestorians,  because  such  a  proceeding 
may  "tend  to  awaken  the  thought  among  the  Nestorian 
ecclesiastics  that  there  are  rival  Protestant  sects  and  interests, 
upon  which  they  may  practice  for  the  private  gratification  of 
avaricious  desires."  As  a  financial  precaution,  in  order  to  keep 
down  the  price  of  converts  by  having  only  one  bidder,  there 
was  much  wisdom  in  this  view;  but  the  Anglicans  answered, 
by  the  mouth  of  Mr.  Badger,  an  Episcopalian  minister,  that  the 
prudent  suggestion  was  "as  presumptuous  as  it  is  ludicrous." 
Mr.  Badger  even  observed  that  his  American  rivals  "  seemed  to 
lay  claim  to  inspiration,  and  decided  what  was  truth  and  what 
was  error  with  the  assurance  of  apostles."  Meanwhile,  the  Nes- 
torians  looked  on,  and  began  to  entertain  "  avaricious  desires." 

We  have  seen  that  Mr.  Badger  was  no  less  indignant  with 
the  Catholic  missionaries  for  their  endeavor  to  draw  the  E"es- 
torians  out  of  the  pit  of  heresy,  ignorance,  and  corruption, 
which  even  Protestant  writers  of  the  most  advanced  school 
have  described  to  us.  This  Anglican  clergyman,  attracted  by 
their  sounding  titles,  and  rejoicing  in  their  separation  from 
unity,  evidently  thought  them  a  far  more  privileged  class  than 
either  Catholics  or  Protestants.  It  is  true  they  deny  the  Incar 
nation,  but  they  are  outside  the  Church,  and  were  therefore- 
welcome  allies  for  Mr.  Badger.  "The  Nestorian  Church,"  he 
says,  "abounds  in  noble  gifts  and  rightful  titles!"* 

*  The  Nestorians,  &c.,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  xlvi.,  p.  351. 


112  CHAPTER  VIII. 

There  was  a  time  when  even  the  most  advanced  Protestants, 
while  Catholic  traditions  still  lingered  faintly  amongst  them, 
professed  to  reverence  the  Council  of  Ephesus,  and  to  anathe 
matize  the  Nestorian  heresy.  Now,  it  seems,  they  anathema 
tize  nothing;  and  in  this  new  Pyrrhonism  they  see  only  a  sign 
of  their  own  progress  and  improvement.  Geneva  itself  once 
taught  its  students  to  say,  "  I  abhor  all  the  heresies  which  were 
condemned  by  the  first  Council  of  Nice,  the  first  of  Ephesus 
and  that  of  Cnalcedon."*  "  We  detest  &\\  sects  and  heresies,' 
said  the  French  Protestant  communities,  at  what  they  called 
<;the  Synod  of  Paris,"  in  1559,  condemned  by  the  same  Coun- 
cils.f  At  the  present  day,  even  Anglican  clergymen,  especially 
those  of  the  High  Church  school,  celebrate  the  "  noble  gifts 
and  rightful  titles"  of  Nestorianism  !  The  Rev.  Webb  Le  Bas 
calls  the  title  OeoroKog  a  blasphemy ,"$  though  even  La  Croze 
was  ashamed  to  say  less  than  that  "  the  title  has  nothing  con 
trary  to  sound  theology  ;"§  and  the  celebrated  Calvinist  Bal- 
dseus  flatly  asserted,  that  the  Nestorians  "  teach  points  con 
trary  to  salvation.r\  But  an  Anglican  clergyman,  when  he 
once  begins  to  speak  against  the  Catholic  faith,  is  pretty 
sure  to  surpass  both  Cafvinists  and  Lutherans.  The  Rev. 
Dr.  Kerr,  also  an  Anglican,  called  the  monophysites  of  Mala 
bar  "  a  precious  remnant  of  &  pure  and  valuable  people."^ 
Dr.  Southgate,  a  Protestant  bishop,  speaks  of  the  Nestorian 
heresy,  if  such  it  must  he  reputed"**  implying  that  the  Fathers 
of  Ephesus  were  the  real  heretics.  The  "Rev.  Henry  Townly 
considers  the  principal  tenet  of  Nestorianism  "  a  point  of 
orthodoxy  on  which  we  are  agreed. "ff  Mr.  Layard  says  of 
the  Chaldean  Nestorians,  "there  are  no  sects  in  the  East,  and 
few  in  the  West,  who  can  boast  of  such  purity  in  their 


enumerating 

tized  by  the  Council  of  Ephesus,  confidently  asks,  "  In  all  this 
where  is  there  any  heresy  ?"||[  Evidently  Mr.  Badger  is  not 
alone  in  his  admiration  of  the  Kestorians,  an  admiration  which, 
however,  he  would  perhaps  have  concealed,  if  he  had  read  the 

*  Ruchat,  Histoire  de  la  Reformation  de  la  Suisse,  tome  viL,  p.  291. 

t  Quick  s  History  of  the  Reformed  Churches  in  France,  vol.  i.,  p.  7  (1692). 

t  Life  of  Bishop  Middleton,  vol.  i.,  ch.  xi.,  p.  319. 

8  Histoire  du  Ghristianisme  des  Indes,  tome  i.,  livre  i.,  p.  16. 

|  Ap.  Churchill,  vol.  iii.,  p.  576. 

I  Report  on  the  State  of  the  Christians  of  Cochin  and  Travancore,  p.  8. 

"*  Aamritw,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  xix.,  p.  224. 

\\  Answer  to  the  Abbe  Dubo-is,  p.  230. 

ft  Nineveh  and  its  Remains,  vol.  i.,  p.  268. 

fT/ie  Aimtyrii,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  i.,  p.  10. 
Travels  in  Asia  Minor,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  xli.,  p.  272. 


MISSIONS  IN  THE  LEVANT,  ETC.  113 

historian  Evagrius,  who  relates  that  the  founder  of  their 
religion,  the  heresiarch  IsTestorius,  was  not  only  anathematized 
by  an  (Ecumenical  Council,  but  that  he  died,  like  Herod,  by 
the  judgment  of  God,  his  tongue  being  gnawed  by  worms.* 

Let  us  leave  Mr.  Badger  to  accompany  Mr.  Perkins  and  his 
American  colleagues.  Here  is  a  description,  by  Dr.  Asahel 
Grant,  of  the  country  which  they  selected  for  their  residence. 
"  A  plain  of  exuberant  fertility  is  inclosed  between  the  moun 
tains  and  the  lake,  comprising  an  area  of  about  five  hundred 
square  miles,  and  bearing  upon  its  bosom  no  less  than  three 
hundred  hamlets  and  villages.  It  is  clothed  with  luxuriant 
verdure,  fruitful  fields,  gardens  and  vineyards,  and  irrigated  by 
considerable  streams  of  pure  water  from  the  adjacent  mountains. 
The  landscape  is  one  of  the  most  lovely  in  the  East."  Some 
writers  have  suggested  that  it  was  the  site  of  the  terrestrial 
paradise. 

Here  the  Americans  established  their  dwelling,  and  here 
commenced  the  operations  which  Mr.  Perkins  has  described. 
A  few  extracts  from  his  narrative,  supplemented  by  other 
witnesses,  will  explain  their  nature,  and  the  character  of  the 
missionaries. 

They  hear  that  the  Nestorian  Patriarch  at  Julamerk  is  about 
to  embrace  the  Catholic  faith.  In  a  few  hours  a  messenger  is 
bearing  across  the  plain  an  urgent  remonstrance,  in  which  they 
address  to  him,  amongst  other  inquiries,  this  question :  "  Is 
there  Paul,  or  Peter,  or  the  Pope  at  Rome,  crucified  for  us  ?"f 
It  does  not  appear  how  far  he  was  affected  by  this  interrogation. 

Mr.  Perkins  professes  much  disdain  for  his  Nestorian  friends. 
"  They  are  very  degraded,"  he  says,  and  their  religion  is  "  a 
revolting  form  of  Christianity."  On  the  other  hand,  they 
feasted  with  him,  and  jested  with  him,  and  by  his  advice  took 
wives  and  begat  children ;  and,  above  all,  they  accepted  his 
Bibles  and  tracts,  which,  as  he  observes,  "gives  us  a  glorious 
field  of  common  ground." 

Here  are  some  examples  of  his  dealings  with  the  Nestorian 
bishops  who  became  his  pensioners.  Of  one  of  them,  he  says, 
"  Under  the  influence  of  the  mission,  he  has  got  so  much  the 
better  of  his  canonical  scruples  on  the  virtue  of  episcopal  celi 
bacy,  that  he  has  married  a  young  wife,  and  is  rearing  a  fam 
ily."  Mr.  Perkins  was  much  encouraged  by  this  easy  triumph, 
and  his  companions  resolved  to  rival  his  success.  "  The 
American  missionaries,  Messrs.  Goodell  and  Bird,"  says  Dr. 
Wolff,  "  have  succeeded  in  converting  two  Armenian  bishops 

*  Hist.  Ecclesiast.,  lib.  i.,  cap.  vii. 
f  Residence  in  Persia,  p.  163. 

VOL.  TT.  9 


CHAPTER  VIII. 

from  the  established  Armenian  symbols  and  ancient  liturgy  to 
the  vague  and  uncertain  creed  of  the  Congregation alists  of 
America;  from  their  attachment  to  their  Patriarch  of  Etchmi- 
adzin  to  the  half  neological  writings  of  Professor  Moses  Stuart, 
of  Andover."*  He  adds  that  they  did  this  "  merely  for  the 
sake  of  a  wife,"  that  both  of  them  married  immediately,  and 
that  in  order  to  quiet  the  troubled  conscience  of  their  wives, 
they  frequently  expounded  to  them  "  1  Tim.  iii.  2," — with  the 
interpretation  which  their  American  friends  had  suggested. 

And  when  they  have  pulled  down  these  unfortunate  men  to 
their  own  level,  they  call  it  "  bringing  them  under  Zion's 
king ;"  and  having  collected  together  a  few  such  as  these,  by 
exciting  lust,  or  avarice,  or  both, — having  sapped  all  faith  and 
religion  in  them,  and  taught  them  to  sing  their  shame  in  texts 
of  Scripture,— they  call  them  "  God's  infant  Church  !"f  "  Woe 
to  you,"  said  our  Lord  to  such  as  these,  "  because  you  shut  the 
kingdom  of  heaven  against  men,  for  you  yourselves 'do  not  enter 

in,  and  those  that  are  going  in  you  suffer  not  to  enter For 

this  you  shall  receive  the  greater  judgment.  Woe  to  you,  be 
cause  you  go  round  about  the  sea  and  the  land  to  make  one 
proselyte,  and  when  he  is  made,  you  make  him  the  child  of 
hell  twofold  more  than  yourselves."^: 

Mr.  Perkins  took  Mar  Yohannan,  an  ex-JSTestorian  bishop,  to 
the  United  States, — just  as  Tzatzoe  and  Africaner  were  con 
veyed  to  England, — and  when  he  arrived  there,  the  Episco 
palian  Protestants  claimed  him  as  an  ally.  "You  belong  to 
us?  they  said,  in  a  formal  address,  and  they  protested  against 
the  indecency  of  his  herding  with  Methodists,  Presbyterians, 
Anabaptists,  and  other  children  of  the  "Reformation,"  from 
which  they  derived  their  own  origin.  Under  the  tuition  of  his 
American  guides,  this  poor  man,  once  a  bishop,  made  the  fol 
lowing  official  reply  :  u  I  do  not  wish  tq  hear  you  say.  You 
belong  to  us  ;  I  have  not  come  here  to  make  difference  among 
Christians."  And  then  he  expounded  his  new  ecclesiastical 
love  Episcopalians,  and  Congregation  alists,  and 
Presbyterians,  and  Dutchmen,  and  Methodists,  and  Baptists. 
....  There  is  no  difference  in  them  with  me."§ 

Such  was  the  general  result  of  the  influence  of  Mr.  Perkins. 

What  the  complexion  of  his  theology  was,  we  may  infer  from 

the  following  facts.    Of  Nestorins,  and  his  denial  of  the  BBOTOKO^ 

he  says,   '  Protestant  Christians  would  certainly  never  have 

ght  the  worse  of  him  ;"  and  then,  forgetting  the  description 

*  Journal,  pp.  148-9. 

f  Christianity  in  Turkey,  ch.  v.,  p.  180. 

\  Matt,  xxiii.,  15. 

§  Residence  in  Persia,  p.  3G7. 


MISSIONS   IN  THE   LEVANT,    ETC.  115 

which  he  had  himself  given  elsewhere,  of  "  the  revolting  form 
of  Christianity"  professed  by  Nestorians,  he  exclaims,  "Their 
belief  is  orthodox  and  scriptural !"  With  respect  to  the  sacra 
ment  of  Baptism,  he  derides  the  oriental  Christians  because 
they  "  appeared  to  suppose  that  this  rite  possessed  some  mys 
terious  charm  that  involved  the  agency  of  the  Holy  Spirit."* 
Such  are  the  teachers  whom  America  sends  to  promote  the 
fortunes  of  Protestantism  in  the  East. 

Mr.  Perkins  would  perhaps  have  remained  in  Armenia  till 
the  present  hour,  but  the  care  of  his  wife  and  family,  as  usual, 
put  an  end  to  his  labors.  Armenia  was  a  pleasant  residence, 
but  did  not  offer  any  career  to  his  offspring.  "The  children  of 
missionaries,"  he  says,  "should  be  to  the  Churches  objects  of 
deep  interest,  as  well  as  of  tender  sympathy ;"  and  for  this 
reason,  because  the  promise  of  our  Lord  to  all  who  should  leave 
"  father  or  mother,  or  wife  or  children,  for  His  sake,"  applies  in 
a  special  manner  "to  the  children  of  His  missionary  servants  !"f 
It  appears,  therefore,  that  the  Divine  promise  of  special  bene 
diction  to  all  who  abandon  these  worldly  ties  means,  in  the 
opinion  of  Mr.  Perkins,  that  "  they  shall  have  a  double  blessing 
who  retain  them."  Finally,  "  Mrs.  Perkins'  health"  suggested 
a  return  to  America ;  and  as  he  seems  to  have  suspected  that 
his  retirement  from  Armenia  might  possibly  suggest  malevolent 
interpretations,  he  complains  apologetically,  and  by  way  of  pre 
caution,  that  "  there  is  a  sensitiveness  in  the  Christian  com 
munity  on  the  subject  of  the  return  of  missionaries."  It  is 
probable,  in  spite  of  the  protest  of  Mr.  Perkins,  that  this  sensi 
tiveness  will  continue. 

Perhaps  we  have  now  sufficient  knowledge  of  the  character 
of  American  missionaries ;  but  here  is  one  more,  and  it  shall 
be  the  last  illustration.  In  a  series  of  volumes,  bearing  a  grave 
title,  and  recommended  to  public  attention  by  one  of  the  scien 
tific  societies  of  America,  the  reader  will  encounter  the  follow 
ing  passage.  "  K.  is  on  her  prancing  pony  ;  Mrs.  T.  is  on  the 
lank,  thin-chested,  but  deep-chested  mountain  horse ;  Mr.  T. 
has  mounted  kicking  Sada;  and  I'm  aloft  on  tibn-devouring 
Mahjub."  This  is  not,  as  might  have  been  supposed,  a  sport 
ive  account  of  a  pic-nic  party,  addressed  by  some  Syrian  As- 
pasia  to  a  sympathizing  friend,  but  the  official  narrative  of  "  a 
missionary  tourf  extracted  from  "Notes  of  a  Tour  in  Mouni 
Lebanon,  by  a  Missionary  of  the  American  Board  in  Syria," 
and  solemnly  read  before  the  American  Oriental  Society!;): 


*  P.  247. 
t  P.  344. 
\  Journal  of  the  American  Oriental  Society,  vol.  ii.,  p.  237 


116  CHAPTER  VIII. 

Here  we  might  have  terminated  our  notice  of  Protestant 
missions  in  Armenia,  but  that  Providence  has  provided  a  witness 
to  their  real  character  and  results  whose  remarkable  evidence  it 
would  be  wasteful  to  neglect.  In  every  country  we  have  found 
Protestant  writers  to  tell  us,  from  personal  observation,  what 
the  emissaries  of  England  and  America  are  really  doing  among 
the  heathen,  and  what  are  their  relations  with  other  sects. 
Armenia  is  no  exception  to  this  rule.  If  there  is  a  country 
in  the  world  in  which  the  agents  of  Protestantism  have  been 
more  boastful  and  self-complacent  than  in  any  other,  it  is  the 
province  in  which  we  are  now  going  to  resume  their  operations. 
Catholic  travellers  could  have  told  us  how  fruitless,  except  in 
corruption  and  unbelief,  those  operations  have  been — but  we 
have  resolved  not  to  hear  Catholics  on  this  point.  It  is  from 
Protestants  alone  that  we  can  receive  such  facts,  since  only  by 
their  unsuspicious  evidence  could  they  be  adequately  proved. 

Dr.  Moritz  Wagner,  who  seems  to  profess  some  form  or 
modification  of  Anglicanism,  who  was  the  intimate  friend  and 
constant  guest  of  Mr.  Perkins  and  his  colleagues,  who  warmly 
professes  "  esteem  and  love"  for  his  hosts,  and  considers  "  their 
devotion  entitled  to  all  praise,"  is  exactly  the  witness  whom 
we  should  desire  to  interrogate.  Fortunately  that  intelligent 
naturalist  has  anticipated  our  wish,  and  here  is  his  account  of 
the  Protestant  missionaries  and  of  their  work  in  the  fertile 
plains  of  Armenia. 

Let  us  hear  first  what  he  relates  of  the  manner  of  life  of  his 
opulent  hosts.  ^  The  institution  at  Urmia,"  he  says,  "  costs 
the  North  American  missionary  societies  about  fifty  thousand 
dollars  annually ;"  and  he  will  tell  us  immediately  how  that 
substantial  revenue  is  spent.  A  writer  of  his  own  nation,  also 
a  guest  at  Urmia,  had  already  informed  the  world  that 
the  mansion  of  the  missionaries  "  is  furnished  with  so  many 
conveniences  and  comforts,  that  it  seemed  to  me  as  if  I 
were  not  under  the  roof  of  simple  followers  of  Christ  and 
teachers  of  the  Gospel,  but  in  that  of  some  wealthy  private 
gentleman.  Here  were  four  ladies,  a  whole  troop  of  children, 
&c."*  Dr.  Wagner  modestly  laments  that  he  has  not  sufficient 
power  "  to  depict  the  charms  and  features  of  this  missionary 
residence,"  of  which  he  declares  with  emotion  that  "  the  whole 
idyllic  scenery"  will  never  be  effaced  from  his  recollection.  But 
this  was  only  a  portion  of  the  missionary  delights.  They  had 
also  « a  summer  residence  at  Seir,  scarcely  four  miles  from 
Urmia,  inclosed  by  a  wall  flanked  with  four  towers,  and  covering 
the  upper  terrace  of  a  hill,  from  which  the  eye  commands  a 

*  Voyage  Round  the  World,  by  Ida  Pfeiffer,p.  221. 


MISSIONS  IN  THE  LEVANT,   ETC.  117 

wonderful  prospect  of  the  vast  blooming  plain  of  Urmia,  with 
its  three  hundred  and  sixty  villages."  And  these  palatial 
mansions,  with  a  suitable  income  of  more  than  ten  thousand 
pounds  per  annum,  were  the  selected  abodes  of  Jive  missionaries, 
and  of  what  Dr.  Wagner  calls,  no  doubt  justly,  "  their  amiable 
housewives."  We  are  not  surprised  to  learn  from  their  privi 
leged  guest  that  "  the  missionaries  not  only  live  comfortably, 
but  even  luxuriously,  as  was  testified  by  their  stables,  which 
were  almost  tilled  with  horses  of  all  oriental  breeds."  Dr. 
Wagner  adds,  however,  without  the  least  intention  of  jesting, 
that  bis  friends  had  generously  quitted  America,  where  both 
their  dwellings  and  their  stables  were  probably  on  a  smaller 
scale,  "  for  the  propagation  of  Christianity." 

It  was  in  these  well-furnished  halls  that  Mr.  Justin  Perkins 
held  his  court.  "All  the  gentlemen,"  says  Dr.  Wagner,  "  were 
capitally  mounted,"  but  Mr.  Perkins  was  distinguished  even 
among  his  peers.  "  I  have  never  seen  throughout  the  East  a 
finer  horse  than  the  snow-white  mare  of  Mr.  Perkins.  Each 
movement  of  the  beautiful  animal,  which  had  cost  a  considerable 
sum,  was  full  of  grace.  It  looked  to  the  greatest  advantage 
when  kneeling  down  to  drink." 

But  Mr.  Perkins  and  his  friends  had  one  trial,  in  the  midst 
of  these  fabulous  enjoyments ;  they  were  obliged  to  share  their 
wealth  with  the  needy  Armenians,  who  positively  refused  their 
proffered  alliance  on  any  other  terms.  The  "Patriarch"  led 
the  band.  "He  had  good  reasons,"  our  German  informant 
observes,  "  for  showing  civility  to  Mr.  Perkins,  and  allowing 
him  to  preach  without  interference  the  Gospel  according  to 
Presbyterian  views,  for  he  received  a  considerable  subsidy  from 
the  mission,  exceeding,  by  twice  the  amount,  the  income  he 
received  from  his  congregations.  The  same  motive  applied  to 
the  priests  of  lower  degree,  whose  cringing  politeness  to  the 
missionaries  was  sufficiently  explained  by  their  poverty,  their 
love  of  lucre,  and  their  monthly  salaries." 

And  these  were  not  the  only  classes  who  dilapidated  the  fifty 
thousand  dollars  which  annually  flowed  into  the  missionary 
treasury  from  enthusiastic  subscribers  at  home,  who  were 
perhaps  not  fully  acquainted  with  the  mode  in  which  their  con 
tributions  were  consumed.  "The  missionaries  showered  their 
gold,"  says  their  favored  guest,  "  with  a  liberal  hand,  and  not 
only  taught  the  youth  gratis,  l)ut  gave  them  a  weekly  gratuity. 

Each  bishop  receives  from  the  Americans  a  monthly 

allowance  of  three  hundred  Turkish  piastres,  and  ordinary 
ecclesiastics  from  a  hundred  and  fifty  to  two  hundred  piastres. 
On  the  condition  of  this  allowance  being  continued,  the 
Kestorian  clergy  permit  the  missionaries  to  preach  in  their 


118  CHAPTER  VIII. 

villages,  to  keep  schools,  &c.  Without  this  payment,  or 
bribery,  of  the  priests  for  a  good  end,  the  missionaries  could 
not  maintain  their  footing  in  this  country.  Even  the  peasant 
is  only  carrying  on  a  pecuniary  speculation,  in  sending  his 
child  to  school.  Each  scholar  receives  weekly,  a  sahefgeran  ; 
and  though  this  gift  is  small,  the  schools  would  become  directly 
empty  if  it  were  to  cease." 

Finally,  if  we  ask  Dr.  Wagner  to  tell  us  frankly  how  many 
converts  were  really  gained  by  this  enormous  expenditure — 
amounting,  in  thirty  years,  to  one  million  and  a  half  dollars, 
or  more  than  three  hundred  thousand  pounds  sterling — he  is 
willing  to  gratify  our  curiosity,  and  honestly  confesses  that  it 
has  converted  nobody.  Even  Nestorians,  though  willing  to 
accept  any  amount  of  American  money,  do  not  cease  to  despise 
American  doctrine.-  Amongst  the  domestic  servants  in  the 
palace  of  Mr.  Perkins  were  two,  the  one  a  Jew,  the  other  an 
Armenian,  who  professed  to  be  disciples.  Dr.  Wagner,  a  very 
amiable  man,  was  charitably  disposed  to  think  well  of  the 
Armenian,  who  constantly  expressed  an  earnest  desire  to  visit 
Europe  and  America ;  but  the  "  other  missionary  servant,  a 
converted  Jew,  who  had  been  my  guide  to  Seir,  hinted  slyly 
that  it  was  not  so  much  the  devout  impulse  of  a  pilgrim  which 
prompted  his  friend  John  to  visit  Europe  and  Christendom,  as 
selfishness  and  ambitious  aspirations.  He  implied  that  the 
shrewd  Nestorian  fancied  that,  if  he  knew  the  English  tongue 
better,  he  could  play  the  part  of  Messrs.  Perkins  and  Starking 
among  his  countrymen."  These  intelligent  "converts"  evidently 
appreciated  each  other,  and  the  acute  Dr.  Wagner  seems  at  last 
to  have  appreciated  them  all.  "As  a  missionary  servant,"  he 
says,  "John  was  a  very  unimportant  personage  in  the  land  ;  but 
as  missionary,  and  supported  by  the  mission  fund,  even  the 
higher  clergy  would  have  paid  court  to  him,  which  was  enough 
to  excite  the  ambition  of  the  Nestorian  youth."  And  then  follow 
these  grave  words,  in  which  the  true  character  of  these  costly 
missions, — always  appealing  to  the  meanest  sentiments  of  the 
human  heart,  and  openly  conducted  on  the  worst  principles  of 
human  cunning,— is  exposed  by  this  friendly  and  capable 
witness.  "  If  we  except  a  few  Jews,  won  over  from  motives  of 
&BAK,  these  expensive  establishments  have  made  no  converts" 
This  is  all  that  has  been  accomplished,  he  says,  by  "America's 
evangelical  apostles,  who  are  so  splendidly  remunerated,  and 
the  wealthy  members  of  the  societies,  who  have  never  yet  raised 
their  voices  against  negro-slavery,  and  the  hunting  down  of  the 
poor  red-skins  by  rifle-shots  and  bloodhounds,  but  who  pay 
many  hundred  thousand  dollars  to  support  their  useless  ?nissions 
in  the  East."  "The  American  mission,"  he  declares,  and  with 


MISSIONS  IN  THE  LEVANT,  ETC.  119 

this  final  testimony  we  may  close  our  Armenian  narrative, 
"cannot  boast  of  splendid  results  in  relation  to  the  improvement 
of  morality,  stimulus  by  virtuous  examples,  or  the  advancement 
of  culture.  Even  Mr.  Perkins  admitted  this."  Yet  in  his 
official  reports  that  gentleman  only  spoke  of  his  continual 
triumphs,  and  even  relates  in  his  book  such  tales  as  the  follow 
ing:  "The  Rev.  William  Goodell  dropped  a  copy  of  the  tract 
entitled  the  Dairymaids  Daughter  in  Nicomedia;"  and  this,  he 
affirms,  knowing  what  the  home  subscribers  could  bear,  created, 
without  the  aid  of  any  missionary,  "  a  considerable  number  oi 
enlightened,  spiritual  Christians !"  And  the  man  who  could 
thus  inock  the  well-meaning  contributors  to  his  own  luxury, 
privately  confessed  to  Dr.  Wagner,  who  fortunately  made  a 
note  of 'the  words,  that  "he  thought  almost  all  hope  must  be 
given  up  in  the  case  of  the  present  generation. "*  Thus,  by 
the  aid  of  a  little  patience  and  industry,  we  have  arrived  at  last, 
by  exclusively  Protestant  testimony,  at  a  full  knowledge  of  the 
character  and  results  of  all  the  Protestant  missions  in  Armenia, 
Syria,  and  Turkey. 


GEORGIA   AND   PERSIA. 

We  need  not  pause  to  offer  any  reflections  upon  the  history 
which  we  have  now  completed.  Once  more  we  have  traced  a 
contrast,  and  one  which  solicits  no  comment.  Once  more  we 
have  advanced  a  step  in  that  controversy  which,  as  we  have 
said,  God  has  already  taken  out  of  the  hands  of  men,  to  decide 
it  Himself.  He  knows  how  to  distribute  His  own  gifts,  and 
we  have  seen  upon  whom  He  confers,  to  whom  He  refuses  them. 
And  the  facts  which  we  have  now  observed  in  so  many  regions, 
and  which  contain  so  momentous  a  lesson,  are  equally  uniform 
in  every  part  of  Western  Asia. 

We  might  pursue  our  researches,  at  the  risk  of  wearying  the 
reader,  in  Georgia,  and  even  in  Persia,  and  everywhere  we 
should  find  the  same  impressive  phenomena,  everywhere  trace 
the  same  unvarying  contrast.  In  Georgia, — where,  as  early  as 
the  thirteenth  century,  Catholics  were  detected  by  being  ordered 
"to  trample  on  the  crucifix,"  and  multitudes  gained  the  crown 
of  martyrdom,! — there  are  now  German,  American,  and  Scotch 
missionaries.  Here  is  one  example  of  each  class.  An  English 
traveller,  who  visited  the  German  colony  near  Tiflis,  under  the 
Lutheran  missionary  Dittrich,  says,  "I  was  sorry  to  learn  from 

*  Travels,  &c.,  vol.  iii.,  ch.  viii.,  pp.  234-258. 

t  Histoire  de  la  Georgie,  par  M.  Brosset,  tome  i.,  p.  504. 


120  CHAPTER  viir 

Mr.  Dittricli  that  the  German  colonies  had  not  flourished.  .  .  . 
He*  told  me  that  great  disunion  prevailed  amongst  the  colonists, 
principally  from  differences  of  religious  opinion."*  Of  those  at 
Abbas  Tiiman,  whom  he  also  found  in  great  misery,  Dr. 
Bodenstedt  says,  "  What  silences  compassion  is  the  deplorable 
disharmony  in  which  they  live  with  each  other."f  Yet  they 
thought  themselves  qualified  to  convert  the  Armenians  to  one 
or  other  of  their  own  shifting  creeds,  or  to  all  of  them  at  once. 

To  the  Americans  at  Shoosha,  in  Georgia,  the  Russian 
Emperor  sent  the  following  admonition:  "Learning  by  the 
real  state  of  things  that  you,  since  the  time  of  your  settlement 
at  Shoosha,  have  not  yet  converted  anybody,  and,  deviating 
from  the  proper  limits,"  the  conversion  of  the  heathen,  "have 
directed  your  views  to  the  Armenian  youth,  which,  on  the  part 
of  the  Armenian  clergy,  has  produced  complaints,  the  conse 
quences  of  which  may  be  very  disagreeable;  his  Majesty's 
ministers  have  concluded  to  prohibit  you  all  missionary  labors, 
and  for  the  future  to  leave  it  to  your  own  choice  to  employ 
yourselves  with  agriculture,  manufactures,  or  mechanical  trades. 
It  has  pleased  his  Majesty  the  Emperor  to  confirm  this  de 
cree."} 

It  is  true  that  the  emperor  tried  to  silence  the  Catholics  also, 
not  because  they  had  failed,  like  the  Americans,  to  convert  the 
heathen,  but  because  they  would  have  converted  the  whole 
country  if  he  had  not  prevented  them.  Yet  Dr.  Wagner  found 
eight  hundred  Catholics  "  at  or  near  Kutais,"  who  all  spoke 
the  Imeritian  dialect ;  while  the  pupils  of  the  convent,  to  the 
number  of  thirty  or  forty,  "  could  read  and  write  Georgian, 
and  read  Italian  with  tolerable  facility."  He  notices  too  kt  the 
respect  and  esteem  which  the  Superior  (of  the  Franciscans) 
had  obtained  in  the  town  and  country,"  and  observes,  "  I 
frequently  witnessed  the  child-like  veneration  in  which  he  was 
held  by  the  Armenian  boys."§  Baron  Von  Haxthausen  also 
mentions  an  Italian  missionary,  who  "  died  thirty  years  ago, 
and  the  Georgians  number  him  among  their  saints."  Such 
men  were  opposed  by  the  Czar,  as  the  Americans  were,  but  for 
very  different  reasons. 

It  is  a  curious  illustration  of  the  different  policy  of  England, 
and  of  the  deplorable  influence  which  she  everywhere  exerts  in 
support  of  seditious  fanaticism  or  meddlesome  unbelief,  that 
when  Mr.  Perkins,  whose  operations  we  can  now  appreciate, 
solicited  the  sympathy  of  the  Eight  Hon.  Henry  Ellis,  British 

*  Wilbraham,  Travels  in  the  Trans-Caiaasian  Provinces,  ch.  xvii.,  p.  182. 
f  The  Caucasus,  &c.,  vol.  ii.,  p.  27. 
\  Quoted  by  Perkins,  p.  221. 
£  Travels,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  in.,  p.  202. 


121 

Ambassador  in  Persia,  in  1835,  he  received  the  following 
characteristic  reply :  "  The  proposed  introduction  of  the  pure 
doctrines  of  the  Reformed  Church  among  the  Nestorian 
Christians  in  this  country  cannot  fail  to  be  a  matter  of  deep 
and  serious  interest  to  his  Majesty's  government."*  Russia, 
with  more  discretion,  promptly  dismissed  the  friends  of  Mr. 
Ellis  as  likely  to  prove  "  very  disagreeable,"  and  suggested  to 
them  the  more  congenial  pursuit  of  manufactures  or  median 
ical  trades. 

Lastly,  for  we  need  not  stay  to  multiply  testimonies  of  which 
we  have  learned  by  this  time  to  appreciate  the  universality, 
Sir  Robert  Porter  gives  this  account  of  the  emissaries  from 
Scotland.  "  A  Scotch  colony  of  missionaries  have  established 
themselves  in  the  neighborhood  of  Konstantinogorsk  ;  but  it 
may  be  regarded  as  an  agricultural  society,  rather  than  a  theo 
logical  college."f 

In  Persia, — where  Jesuits  once  received  honors,  even  in  the 
tent  of  Nadir  Schah,  as  their  brethren  did  in  that  of  Akbar  ;:£ 
and  where  in  our  own  day  Napoleon,  comprehending  with  his 
infallible  sagacity  all  that  such  men  could  effect,  stipulated, 
by  the  treaty  of  1808,  for  protection  in  favor  of  all  Jesuits 
whom  France  might  send  to  that  land, — Catholic  missionaries, 
having  the  apostolic  graces  of  chastity  and  holy  poverty,  have 
won  the  respect  even  of  the  disciples  of  the  false  prophet,  while 
a  crowd  of  American  missionaries  dispense  on  every  side  the 
enormous  funds  intrusted  to  them.  "  The  money  they  lavish," 
says  the  Prefect  of  the  Armenian  missions  in  Persia,  "  presents 
a  strong  temptation  to  certain  Armenians,  who  follow  them 
for  a  while,  in  order  to  profit  by  their  profusion,  but  invaria 
bly  adhere  to  the  tenets  of  their  own  religion. "§  The  Armenian 
clergy,  we  are  told  by  the  wife  of  a  British  ambassador,  "  re 
ceive  salaries"  from  them,  like  their  fellows  in  the  neighbor 
hood  of  Urmia.  Of  the  French  Lazarists,  the  same  lady  says, 
"  These  gentlemen  abounded  in  zeal  and  activity,  but  they 
were  poor,  and  wholly  unable  to  contend  against  the  treasures 
of  Boston. "J  Such  is  everywhere  the  influence,  when  they 
have  any,  of  Protestant  missionaries.  To  generate  corruption 
and  immorality,  without  producing  even  the  semblance  of  re 
ligious  conviction  ;  to  destroy  faith,  but  never  to  inspire  it ; 
and  to  hinder  those  who,  in  spite  of  their  poverty,  know  how 
to  kindle  the  light  of  truth  and  charity  in  all  hearts — such  is 

*  Residence  in  Persia,  &c.,  p.  219. 

f  Trawls  in  Georgia,  vol.  i.,  p.  47. 

I  Cretineau  Joly,  tome  vi.,  ch.  i.,  p.  51. 

§  Annals,  vol.  i.,  p.  95. 

\  Life  and  Manners  in  Persia,  by  Lady  Sliiel,  p.  356. 


122  CHAPTER  VIII. 

their  deplorable  work.  And  their  partisans  at  home  are  never 
weary  of  sending  them  money  to  be  employed  in  such  aims. 

They  do  not  even  attempt,  as  might  be  anticipated,  to  con 
vert  the  Persians,  who  suppose,  like  all  orientals,  that  they  are 
atheists.  Indeed,  Mr.  Perkins  incautiously  relates  an  anecdote 
which  shows  that  the  Persians  are  quite  as  likely  to  convert 
the  Protestants  as  to  be  converted  by  them.  "  A  pious  English 
family  in  Persia,"  he  says,  "  were  surprised  and  shocked  on  one 
day  finding  their  little  girl,  then  four  years  old,  kneeling  with 
her  face  towards  Mecca,  and  lisping  the  devotions  of  the  false 
prophet."* 

But  it  is  time  to  close  this  chapter,  already  extended  to  un 
due  limits,  and  we  may  conclude  it  with  an  anecdote  not  less 
curious  than  that  which  we  have  just  heard.  Not  long  ago,  a 
French  traveller,  journeying  from  Ispahan  to  Bagdad,  came 
upon  a  small  Catholic  colony  towards  the  close  of  a  sultry  day. 
They  were  assembled  together  in  the  house  of  one  of  them, 
and  having  recited  vespers,  were  engaged,  when  the  traveller 
joined  them,  not  in  asking  gifts  for  themselves,  but  in  praying 
for  the  conversion  of  England  !  They  seem  to  have  under 
stood,  even  in  their  far  home  beyond  the  Tigris,  that,  in  spite 
of  the  zeal  of  some,  and  the  good  intentions  of  many,  England 
is  still,  by  her  relentless  warfare  against  Unity,  the  great  im 
pediment  to  the  conversion  of  the  heathen  ;  and  that  the  surest 
way  to  obtain  for  them  admission  into  the  family  of  God,  was 
to  solicit  for  her  the  recovery  of  the  gifts  which  she  has  lost, 
and  of  the  faith  which  she  has  denied.  And  these  Persian 
Christians  were  right.  If  England  had  remained  Catholic,  it 
is  probable  that  at  this  hour  there  would  not  have  been  a 
pagan  altar  in  the  world. 

*  P.  343. 


CHAPTEE  IX. 


MISSIONS    IN    AMEEICA. 
PART  I. 

SOUTH     AMERICA. 

THE  gifts  and  promises  of  God,  it  lias  been  said,  have  travelled 
from  East  to  West,  from  the  rising  to  the  setting  sun.  To  each 
tribe  of  the  human  family  in  turn  the  Angel  of  the  Covenant 
has  delivered  the  message  of  peace,  then  passed  on  his  way. 
In  the  appointed  hour  he  crossed  the  great  sea,  with  his  face 
westwards.  Then,  for  the  first  time,  the  name  of  Jesus  was 
proclaimed  in  that  mighty  continent  which  stretches  almost 
from  pole  to  pole,  and  within  whose  boundless  plains  a  new 
chapter  of  man's  history  has  found  its  scenes  and  its  actors. 
Here,  among  many  tribes,  and  nations  of  various  tongues,  the 
ministers  of  light  and  darkness  have  long  contended  together 
for  the  mastery.  When  we  have  read  the  story  of  their  conflict, 
we  may  close  our  book.  Earth  has  nothing  more  to  offer  us. 
We  shall  have  visited  in  turn  all  her  provinces ;  and  having 
started  from  the  remote  eastern  sea  which  beats  against  the 
long  coasts  of  China,  we  shall  stand  at  length  on  the  opposite 
frontier  of  man's  narrow  home,  the  western  limits  of  his  wan 
derings,  and  may  once  more  look  across  the  ocean  to  the  land 
from  which  we  commenced  our  journey. 

No  portion  of  the  earth  presents  on  a  larger  scale,  none  in 
more  vivid  colors,  the  contrast  which  it  has  been  the  business 
of  these  volumes  to  trace,  than  that  whose  religious  history 
we  are  about  to  review.  When  Nature  divided  the  great 
American  continent  into  two  parts,  she  seems  to  have  prepared 
by  anticipation  a  separate  theatre  for  the  events  of  which  each 
was  to  be  the  scene,  and  for  the  actors  who  were  destined  to 
perform  in  either  a  part  so  widely  dissimilar.  The  one  was  to 
be  the  exclusive  domain  of  the  Church,  the  other  the  battle 
field  of  all  the  Sects. 

A  thousand  writers  have  related,  with  sympathy  or  regret, 
but  otherwise  with  unvarying  uniformity,  the  historical  results 
of  a  distribution  which  all  seemed  to  have  noticed,  and  in  which 


124:  CHAPTER  IX. 

may  be  traced,  on  the  broadest  scale,  and  with  a  clearness  and 
precision  which  exclude  even  the  risk  of  error,  all  the  charac 
teristic  marks  which  have  distinguished  in  every  age  the  City 
of  God  from  the  City  of  Confusion.  The  races  of  the  South, 
we  shall  see,  have  derived  both  their  religion  and  their  civili 
zation  from  the  missionaries  of  the  Cross ;  the  tribes  of  the 
North,  doomed  to  swift  destruction,  have  been  abandoned  to 
teachers  of  another  school,  and  to  prophets  of  another  faith. 
And  these  have  been  the  results  of  the  unequal  partition.  In 
the  South,  the  Church  has  united  all,  of  whatever  race,  in  spite 
of  the  ignorance  or  the  ferocity  of  the  barbarians,  in  spite  01 
the  follies  or  the  crimes  of  some  of  her  own  children,  into  one 
household  and  family.  In  the  North,  the  original  heirs  have 
been  banished  or  exterminated,  without  pity,  and  without  re 
morse,  that  the  sects  might  build  up  in  the  desert  which  they 
had  created  a  pandemonium  of  tumult  and  disorder,  so  full  of 
division  and  discord,  that  the  evil  spirits  might  well  congregate 
here  from  all  the  "  dry  places"  of  the  earth,  and  deem  that  they 
had  found  at  last  their  true  home.  Let  us  introduce  at  once  a 
few  of  the  witnesses  whom  we  are  hereafter  to  hear,  that  we 
may  understand  what  is  the  history  upon  which  we  are  about 
to  enter,  and  what  are  the  facts  which  it  will  disclose  to  us. 

The  contrast  which  we  are  going  to  trace  is  thus  indicated, 
with  frank,  outspoken  candor,  by  men  who  had  analyzed  all  its 
features.  u  More  than  a  million  and  a  half  of  the  pure  aborigi 
nal  races,"  says  the  author  of  the  Natural  History  of  Man, 
"  live  in  South  America  in  the  profession  of  Christianity."* 
"  The  history  of  the  attempts  to  convert  the  Indians  of  North 
America,"  says  the  annalist  of  Protestant  missions,  "  is  a  record 
of  a  series  of  failures."f  This  is  the  first  great  fact,  in  its 
broad  outlines,  which  will  be  presented  to  our  notice ;  and  it  is 
one,  as  an  eminent  English  ethnologist  observes,  "  which  must 
be  allowed  to  reflect  honor  on  the  Roman  Catholic  Church, 
and  to  cast  a  deep  shade  on  the  history  of  Protestantism."^: 

A  second  and  equally  impressive  fact,  which  has  excited  the 
attention  of  a  multitude  of  writers  of  all  nations,  is  thus 
expressed  by  a  prejudiced  traveller,  who  had  lived  among  the 
tribes  of  the  equinoctial  regions.  "  Far  from  being  diminished, 
their  number  has  considerably  increased.  A  similar  increase 
has  taken  place  generally  among  the  Indian  population  in  that 
part  of  America  which  is  within  the  tropics  ....  the  Indian 
population  in  the  missions  is  constantly  augmenting."  On  the 

*  Prichard,  sec.  xliv.,  p.  427. 

f  Quoted  in  Monthly  llevicw,  vol.  Ixxxiv.,  p.  143. 

\  Prichard,  ubi  supra. 


MISSIONS  IN  AMERICA.  125 

other  hand,  "  In  the  neighborhood  of  the  United  States,  on  the 

contrary,  the  Indians  are  fast  diminishing  in  numbers 

In  the  United  States,  as  civilization  advances,  the  Indians  are 
constantly  driven  beyond  its  pale."'*  We  shall  trace  this  con 
trast  hereafter  in  all  its  details. 

Finally,  a  third  feature  of  the  prodigious  contrast  which  we 
are  about  to  examine  is  this — that  while  the  innumerable 
native  tribes  who  have  been  converted  to  Christianity  between 
the  thirtieth  parallel  of  north  and  the  thirty-fifth  of  south 
latitude,  through  a  tract  of  more  than  four  thousand  miles  in 
length  and  nearly  three  thousand  in  breadth,  have  never 
departed  from  the  Catholic  faith,  and,  as  Protestant  writers 
will  assure  us,  cleave  to  it  at  this  day  as  obstinately  as  ever : 
within  the  wide  territories  of  the  United  States,  where  the 
Indian  has  only  been  corrupted  or  destroyed,  nominal  Christians 
of  the  Anglo-Saxon  race  have  themselves  become  divided  and 
subdivided  into  such  a  chaos  of  jarring  sects,  that,  as  their  own 
leaders  declare,  with  a  sorrow  which  comes  too  late,  there  is 
nothing  like  it  in  the  history  of  the  wTorld.  "  In  the  Western 
world,"  says  a  Protestant  minister,  "  religion  is  made  to  appear 
too  often  as  a  source  of  contention  rather  than  as  a  bond  of 
union  and  peace."f  Already,  at  the  close  of  the  seventeenth 
century,  the  English  governor  of  New  York  reported  of  that 
province,  that  it  swarmed  with  men  of  "  all  sorts  of  opinions, 
and  the  most  part  of  none  at  all ;"  and  a  hundred  years  later, 
an  English  clergyman  could  still  describe  the  inhabitants  of 
his  own  district  as  "  people  of  almost  all  religions  and  sects, 
but  the  greatest  part  of  no  religion."^  In  our  own  day,  it  has 
even  become  necessary  to  adopt  a  new  nomenclature,  in  order 
to  classify  divisions  and  subdivisions  which  had  elsewhere 
neither  a  form  nor  a  name.  "  Two  grand  divisions  of  the 
Baptists,"  one  of  the  innumerable  offshoots  from  the  Anglican 
Establishment,  who  already  possess  more  than  five  thousand 
churches,  are  known,  Mr.  Olmsted  says,  "  as  the  Hard  Shells 
and  the  Soft  Shells ;"  and  even  such  titles  are  perhaps  no 
greater  outrage  upon  the  religion  of  the  Gospel  than  many 
which  are  daily  uttered,  with  quiet  complacency,  in  our  own 
land.  The  relations  of  these  cognate  tribes  to  one  another,  Mr. 
Olmsted  adds,  are  marked  by  "an  intense  rivalry  and  jealousy," 
as  "persistent"  as  that  which  subsists  between  Druses  and 
Maronites,  between  the  followers  of  Ali  and  the  disciples  of 

*  Journal  of  a  Residence  in  Colombia,  by  Captain  Charles  Stuart  Coclirane, 
vol.  i.,  ch.  iii.,  pp.  218,  233. 

f  The  Western  World  Revisited,  by  the  Rev.  Henry  Caswall,  ch.  i..  p.  9  ;  ch. 
xii.,  p.  316. 

\  Documentary  History  of  New  York,  vol.  i.,  p.  186 ;  vol.  iii.,  p.  1113. 


126  CHAPTER  IX. 

Omar.*  "  The  dearest  and  warmest  friends  of  the  Bepublic," 
we  are  told,  "  look  with  fear  and  trembling  on  her  sectional 
divisions,  her  party  jealousies,  the  strange  and  anomalous 
divisions,  subdivisions,  and  minor  subdivisions  of  her  inter 
minable  and  contending  religious  denominations."-)  "Churches 
are  divided,"  observes  another  Protestant  writer,  "Presbyteries 
are  divided,  Synods  are  divided,  the  General  Assembly  is 
divided ;"  and  this  is  due,  he  considers,  to  u  extreme  looseness 
in  doctrine  and  practice  on  the  one  hand,  and  a  violent  attempt 
to  coerce  it  into  orthodoxy  on  the  other.":f  "  The  continual 
splitting  of  the  numerous  sections  of  Protestantism,"  Dr.  Schedel 
remarks,  in  1858,  still  recording  the  unwelcome  phenomena  to 
which  the  disciples  of  the  Reformation  feel  that  they  can  apply 
no  remedy,  and  using  them  as  an  argument  in  favor  of 
rationalism,  "  has  had  the  effect  of  producing  a  deep  impression 
of  its  danger  for  religion."§  "  The  clergy  complain,"  says  an 
English  traveller  of  the  same  school,  "  of  the  enormous  spread 
of  bold  books,  from  the  infidel  tract  to  the  latest  handling  of 
the  miracle  question.  There  are  schisms  among  all  the  more 
strict  of  the  religious  bodies,  and  large  secessions  and  new 
formations  among  those  which  are  bound  together  by  slight 
forms."||  Lastly, — for  there  is  no  need  to  multiply  testimonies 
to  a  fact  which  no  one  disputes,  or  to. the  real  nature  of  a  reli 
gion  of  which  these  are  so  invariably  the  fruits,  that  its  own 
professors  now  regard  all  unity  as  chimerical,  except  the 
diabolical  unity  of  evil, — Dr.  Stephen  Olin,  a  respectable  Wes- 
leyan  preacher,  exclaims  once  more,  "  Twenty  years  of  obser 
vation  have  produced  in  my  mind  a  deliberate  conviction  that 
the  sorest  evil  which  presses  upon  the  American  Churches,  the 
chiefest  obstacle  to  their  real  progress  in  holiness  and  useful 
ness,  is  the  spirit  of  sectarianism. "T 

But  even  these  three  facts  do  not  illustrate  the  whole  contrast 
which  we  are  about  to  trace  in  America,  after  proving  it  for 
every  other  land,  between  the  work  of  the  Church  and  the  work 
of  the  Sects.  The  first  has  won  a  thousand  tribes  to  the  Cross ; 
has  seen  them  increase  and  multiply  on  every  side  under  her 
gentle  rule,  and  has  preserved  them  for  two  hundred  years,  in 
spite  of  many  calamities,  in  unbroken  unity  of  faith.  The 
second  have  not  gained  so  much  as  a  single  tribe,  have  destroyed 

*  Olmsted,  Our  Slave  States. 
•f  Statesmen  of  America,  by  S.  Maury,  p.  483. 
J  Colton's  Thoughts  on  the  Religious  State  of  the  Country,  p.  66 
§  The  Emancipation  of  Faith,  by  H.  E.  Scliedel,  M.D.,  vol.  ii.,  p.  410  (Ne\V 
York,  1858). 

[Society  in  America,  by  Harriet  Martineau,  vol.  iii.,  p.  257. 
TF  Works,  vol.  ii.,  p.  451. 


MISSIONS  IN  AMERICA.  12T 

without  mercy  the  races  which  they  could  not  convert,  and 
have  themselves  become  a  proverb  to  the  whole  earth  of  re 
ligious  division  and  discord.  Yet  this  also  does  not  exhaust 
all  the  facts  of  the  contrast. 

It  would  have  been  something  if  the  sects  could  have  pleaded 
that  at  least  they  had  done  their  best,  and  only  failed  after 
earnest  and  courageous  effort.  Even  this  is  a  praise  which 
they  have  not  cared  to  earn,  and  which  their  own  advocates 
refuse  to  allow  them.  We  shall  see  presently  what  Protestant 
writers  say  of  the  dauntless  courage  and  sublime  virtue  of  the 
men  who  converted  South  America ;  of  their  own  friends  they 
speak  as  follows :  "  The  pious  men  of  America,"  says  Moll- 
hausen,  with  pardonable  irony,  "  look  with  indifference  on  the 
heathen  before  their  own  doors,  but  send  out  missionaries  to 
preach  Christianity  in  the  remotest  parts  of  the  world !  When, 
through  the  covetousness  of  the  white  civilized  races,  the  free 
inhabitants  of  the  steppes  shall  have  been  ruined  and  extermi 
nated,  Christian  love  will  find  its  way  to  their  empty  wigwams, 
and  churches  and  meeting-houses  rise  over  the  graves  of  the 
poor  victimized  owners  of  the  green  prairies."*  They  leave 
them  to  perish  with  indifference,  says  another  German  Prot 
estant,  who,  like  Mollhausen,  had  lived  among  them,  because 
"  there  are  no  territories  to  be  won,  there  are  no  natives  to  be 
enticed  into  building  comfortable  houses  for  the  Christian 
teachers,  they  would  have  to  lead  a  wild  life  with  them,  no 
further  profit  in  view  as  is  the  case  with  the  South  Sea  Islands, 
but  only  the  prospect  of  being  driven  with  their  pupils  from 
one  place  to  another,  living  on  grubs,  acorns,  and  other  indi 
gestible  things ;  while,  on  the  other  hand,  a  comfortable  life 
and  a  good  income  look  far  more  inviting."f  Such  language 
need  not  surprise  us,  for  we  have  seen  many  examples  in  the 
course  of  these  pages  both  of  the  contempt  which  the  more 
enlightened  Protestants  feel  for  their  own  missionaries,  and  the 
indifference  with  which  they  avow  it. 

Dr.  Moritz  Wagner,  another  German  Protestant,  who  also 
had  lived  among  American  missionaries,  has  already  told  us,  in 
the  same  tone  of  honest  reprobation,  that  "  America's  evangeli 
cal  apostles,  who  have  never  yet  raised  their  voices  against  the 
hunting  down  the  poor  redskins,  pay  many  hundred  thousand 
dollars  to  support  their  useless  missions  in  the  East" — not  be 
cause  they  love  the  orientals  more,  but  simply,  as  Dr.  Living 
stone  intimates  with  respect  to  South  Africa,  because  they 

*  Journey  from  the  Mississippi  to  the  Coasts  of  the  Pacific,  vol.  i.,  ch.  xi., 
p.  220,  ed.  Sinnett. 
•j-  Gerstaecker,  Journey  Round  the  World,  vol.  i.,  ch.  vi.,  p.  350. 


128  CHAPTER  IX. 

cannot  bear  to  be  anticipated  or  excluded  by  the  restless 
activity  of  rival  sects.  Mr.  Buckingham,  also,  an  English 
writer,  who  had  dwelt  among  them,  notices  the  characteristic 
fact,  that  while  an  American  religious  society  ^  voted  by  accla 
mation  thousands  of  dollars  at  once  to  Persia,  Siam,  or  the 
Sandwich  Islands,  which  demanded  nothing  from  them,  and 
only  asked  to  be  left  alone,  they  allotted,  as  if  in  derision,  "for 
North  American  Indians,"  perishing  at  their  own  doors,  the 
modest  sum  of  two  hundred  !*  And  even  when  their  cautious 
emissaries,  moved  by  the  attractions  which  alone  prevail  with 
such  men,  venture  to  follow  the  native  to  his  forest  home,  it  is 
only,  as  we  shall  see,  to  abandon  after  a  brief  space  the 
unprofitable  labor ;  so  that  Humboldt  did  not  scruple  to  say. 
that  the  relics  of  the  aboriginal  races  of  North  America,  who 
have  come  into  contact  with  the  agents  of  English  or  American 
religions,  are  "sinking  into  a  lower  moral  state. than  they  oc 
cupied  before."f 

And  this  heavy  reproach  is  repeated,  in  still  more  emphatic 
language,  even  by  American  Protestants.  "  While  the  Pequods 
and  other  northern  tribes,"  says  Judge  Hall,  of  Cincinnati, 
"  were  being  exterminated,  or  sold  into  slavery,  the^more  for 
tunate  savage  of  the  Mississippi  was  listening  to  the  pious  coun 
sels  of  the  Catholic  missionaries.  They  exercised,  of  choice,  an 
expansive  benevolence,  at  a  period  when  Protestants,  similarly 
situated,  were  bloodthirsty  and  rapacious.":):  "  The  Jesuit 
mission-farms,"  says  Mr.  Law  Olmsted,  in  1857,  "  are  an  ex 
ample  for  us.  Our  neighborly  responsibilities  for  the  Lipans" 
— a  tribe  on  the  Texan  frontier — "  is  certainly  more  close  than 
for  the  Feejees,  and  if  the  glory  of  converting  them  to  decency 
be  less,  the  expense  would  certainly  be  in  proportion. "§  Last 
ly,  Mr.  Melville,  also  one  of  their  own  countrymen,  noticing 
the  vaunt  that  paganism  is  almost  extinct  in  the  United  States, 
thus  rebukes  the  hollow  and  impious  boast :  "The  Anglo-Saxon 
hive  have  extirpated  paganism  from  the  greater  part  of  the 
North  American  continent,  Imt  with  it  they  have  likewise  extir 
pated  tJie  greater  portion  erf  the  Red  race."\ 

Such,  by  German,  English,  and  American  testimony,  has 
been  the  work  of  Protestantism.  On  the  other  hand,  a  modern 
French  naturalist,  who  visited  in  person  thirty -nine  existing 
nations  of  pure  American  race  in  the  Southern  continent,  and 

•  America,  by  J.  S.  Buckingham,  Esq.,  vol.  i.,  cli.  x. 
f  Preface  to  Mollhausen's  Journey,  p.  xiii. 

i  History  of  the  lleliyious  Denominations  of  the  United  States,  by  J.  D.  Rupp, 
p.  163. 

S  Journey  through  Texas,  p.  298. 

ii   The  Marquesas  Inlands,  ch.  xxvi.,  p.  217. 


MISSIONS   IN    AMERICA.  129 

collected  statistics  from  which  we  shall  borrow  hereafter,  de 
clares,  that  he  found  indeed,  scattered  through  the  regions 
which  he  so  painfully  explored,  ninety -four  thousand  one 
hundred  and  ninety-seven  pagans ;  but  that  he  counted  also, 
within  the  same  district,  one  million  five  hundred  and  ninety 
thousand  nine  hundred  and  thirty  native  Christians.  And 
then  he  relates,  speaking  rather  as  a  man  of  science  than  as  a 
Christian,  that  these  poor  Indians,  often  robbed  of  their  pastors 
and  almost  always  wronged  by  their  rulers,  exhibit  the  same 
astonishing  inflexibility  of  faith,  even  in  cases  where  they  have 
been  enfeebled  by  ignorance  or  superstition,  of  which  we  have 
already  seen  so  many  examples ;  so  that,  as  M.  d'Orbigny 
observes,  "  they  push  their  profession  of  the  Catholic  religion 
even  to  fanaticism."*  Mendoza  could  say,  at  an  earlier  date, 
and  in  language  more  worthy  of  the  subject,  that  "  the  natural 
people  of  South  America,  never  since  they  were  converted, 
have  been  found  in  any  heresy,  nor  in  any  thing  contrary  to 
the  Koman  faith  ;"f  and  living  Protestants  will  presently 
assure  us,  not  only  that  all  attempts  to  shake  their  faith  are 
equally  vain  at  the  present  day,  but  that  in  many  parts  of 
South  America,  and  notably  in  Chili,  where  the  emissaries  of 
the  English  Bible  Society  have  made  their  appearance,  "  the 
life  of  an  Englishman  is  in  danger  among  the  peasantry,"  so 
vehement  is  their  dislike  of  heresy,  and  of  those  who  recom 
mend  it  to  them.;);  Finally,  for  we  must  not  anticipate  evi 
dence  which  will  claim  our  attention  later,  Sir  James  Mackin 
tosh  thus  attests  the  memorable  contrast  which  had  not  escaped 
his  philosophical  review,  and  of  which  the  fact  noticed  by 
Mendoza  is  not  the  least  instructive  portion.  "  The  natives  of 
America,  who  generally  felt  the  comparative  superiority  of  the 
European  race  only  in  a  more  rapid  or  a  more  gradual  destruc 
tion,  and  to  whom  even  the  excellent  Quakers  dealt  out  little 
more  than  penurious  justice,  were,  under  the  paternal  rule  of 
the  Jesuits," — he  might  have  added,  under  that  of  the  Fran 
ciscans,  the  Dominicans,  and  many  more, — "  reclaimed  from 
savage  manners,  and  instructed  in  the  arts  and  duties  of  civil 
ized  life."§  Such,  in  its  leading  features,  is  the  history  of^ 
which  we  are  now  going  to  trace  the  outlines. 

In  attempting  to  follow  the  course  of  events  of  which  the 
details  have  filled  hundreds  of  volumes,  and  which  had  for  their 
theatre  the  whole  extent  of  the  vast  American  continent, — in 

*  Voyage  dans  I'Amerique  Meridionale,  par  Alcide  d'Orbigny,  tome  iv., 
p.  252. 

f  Historic  of  the  Kingdome  of  China,  vol.  ii.,  p.  224,  ed.  Hakluyt  Society. 

t  Travels  in  Chili,  by  John  Miers,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  xix.,  p.  223. 

§  Review  of  the  Causes  of  the  Revolution,  Works,  vol.  ii.,  p.  251  (1846). 

VOL.  II.  10 


130  CHAPTER  IX. 

the  North,  from  California  to  the  Gulf  of  Florida,  and  from 
the  banks  of  the  St.  Lawrence  to  those  of  the  Gila  and  the  Co 
lorado  ;  in  the  South,  from  Carthagena  to  Buenos  Ayres,  and 
from  the  Andes  to  the  mouths  of  the  Amazon,  the  Orinoco, 
and  the  Plata ;  it  is  not  a  history  which  the  reader  will  expect 
to  find,  hardly  even  a  sketch,  of  a  warfare  which  has  filled  the 
world  with  envy  or  admiration,  which  lasted  more  than  two 
centuries,  and  in  which  the  Church  poured  out  like  water  the 
sweat  and  the  blood  of  her  children ;  while  even  her  enemies 
have  celebrated  its  final  issue  with  an  enthusiasm  which  the 
most  inveterate  prejudice  could  not  silence,  as  one  of  the  most 
astonishing  of  her  many  triumphs.  The  story  of  American 
missions  includes  names  as  venerable  as  any  in  the  long  cata 
logue  of  apostles,  and  tells  of  the  deeds  of  a  whole  army  of 
martyrs  and  confessors, — of  Anchieta  and  Rodriguez,  of  Vieyra 
and  d'Almeida,  of  D'Aguilar  and  Venegas,  of  Herrera  and 
Ugarte,  of  Betanzos  and  Las  Casas,  of  Bracamante  and  Portillo, 
of  Lopez  and  Barzana,  of  the  Blessed  Peter  Claver  and  St. 
Francis  Solano ; — of  the  martyrs  Suarez  and  Figuerroa,  Baraza 
and  Lizardi,  Richler  and  Lucas  Cavellero;  of  Aranda  and 
Montalban,  of  Azevedo,  whom  the  Huguenots  cut  in  pieces, 
and  Henri  de  la  Borde,  whom  the  English  ensnared  and  then 
cruelly  murdered ;  of  Jogues  and  de  Brebeuf,  of  Lamberville 
and  Lallemand,  and  a  thousand  more — for,  as  M.  Cretineau 
Joly  observes,  "  the  number  of  missionaries  who  fell  is  really 
incalculable ;" — of  that  multitude  of  apostolic  warriors  of  whom 
even  American  Protestants  of  our  own  day  have  said,  that  their 
monuments  will  yet  be  raised  by  the  free  people  to  whom  they 
bequeathed  examples  of  heroism  which  Americans  know  how 
to  admire  ;  who  labored,  as  Mr.  Washington  Irving  confessed, 
"  with  a  power  which  no  other  Christians  have  exhibited;"* 
who  excelled  all  others,  as  Mr.  Schoolcraft  admits,  "  in  bold 
ness,  zeal,  and  indomitable  efficacy  ;"f  and  who  more  than  jus 
tified,  as  Professor  Walters  of  Philadelphia  remarks,  whatever 
applause  the  admiration  of  mankind  has  lavished  "upon  their 
dauntless  courage  and  their  more  than  human  charity  and  zeal.":): 
It  is  of  such  men,  and  of  their  work,  that  we  are  now  to 
speak — not  fitly,  but  according  to  the  measure  of  our  capacity. 
It  is  a  comparison  of  their  life  and  death,  of  their  labors, 
Bufferings,  and  conquests,  with  the  sterile  career  of  men  of 
another  order,  but  ostensibly  busy  in  the  same  calling,  which 
will  furnish  the  last  but  not  the  least  instructive  example  of  the 

*  Knickerbocker,  June,  1838. 

\  Notes  on  thelroquois,  by  Henry  R.  Schoolcraft,  ch.  xii.,  p.  403  (1847). 

f  Rupp,  Hist,  of  Religious  Denominations,  &c.,  p.  119. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  131 

contrast  of  which  we  have  already  produced  so  many  illustra 
tions  ;  and  to  which  the  Prophet  pointed  when  he  proposed 
this  very  contrast  as  the  infallible  test  by  which  men  should 
be  able  to  distinguish,  throughout  the  whole  Christian  era, 
between  true  and  false  apostles,  between  the  work  of  the  Church 
and  the  work  of  the  Sects. 

Let  us  begin  with  South  America,  and  the  world-famed  mis 
sions  of  Brazil  and  Peru,  of  Chili  and  Paraguay.  A  little  later 
we  shall  traverse  Mexico  in  our  way  to  the  north,  enter  Cali 
fornia  and  Oregon,  visit  the  lakes  of  the  northern  continent 
and  the  plains  of  Canada,  and  trace  the  decay  of  the  unhappy 
races  whom  the  Saxon,  unable  to  convert  them  to  God,  has 
pushed  from  their  homes,  or  violently  swept  from  the  earth, 
that  he  might  people  after  his  own  fashion  the  regions  from 
which  they  have  been  banished  forever. 

We  shall  use,  according  to  our  custom,  and  as  far  as  it  is 
available,  the  testimony  of  Protestant  writers.  They  have 
served  us  in  all  our  former  journeys,  and  will  not  refuse  to  aid 
us  in  this.  Let  us  begin  with  their  account  of  Catholic  mis 
sions  in  Brazil.  Mr.  Southey — of  whose  sentiments  towards 
the  Catholic  Church  we  shall  presently  see  abundant  tokens, 
and  who  did  not  hesitate  to  tell  his  countrymen,  "  I  deprecate 
what  is  called  Catholic  emancipation" — has  diligently  compiled 
whatever  relates  to  the  history  of  Brazil.  He  will  be  our 
principal  guide. 

BRAZIL. 

It  was  in  1549  that  John  III.  of  Portugal,  solicitous,  as  Mr. 
Southey  observes,  "  for  the  souls  of  his  Brazilian  subjects,"  re 
solved  to  dispatch  to  their  aid  missionaries  of  the  Society  of 
Jesus.  Brazil  was  not  the  only  land  which  owed  eternal 
gratitude  to  the  Christian  zeal  of  that  vigorous  and  enlightened 
monarch,  who  received  from  his  contemporaries  more  honor 
than  Mr.  Southey  is  willing  to  allow  him.  "He  was  super 
stitious  to  the  lowest  depth  of  degradation,"  says  this  English 
historian,  with  that  quiet  composure  which  his  countrymen 
usually  display  in  judging  such  men.  In  spite  of  this  defect, 
"he  was  truly  and  righteously  anxious  to  spread  his  religion, 
such  at  it  was,  among  the  heathen."*  So  he  sent  Father 
Emanuel  de  Nobrega,  and  five  others,  chosen  by  St.  Ignatius 
himself  for  this  difficult  mission  ;  and  it  was  under  their  auspices 
that  the  new  city  of  St.  Salvador,  hitherto  only  a  fortified  camp, 
began  to  assume  the  dimensions  which  made  it  afterwards  the 

*  History  of  Brazil,  by  Kobert  Southey,  vol.  i.,  ch.  viii.,  p.  214  (1817). 


132  CHAPTER   IX. 

capital  of  northern  Brazil.  "  The  Jesuits,']  says  Mr.  Son  they, 
for  Providence  employs  such  men  to  proclaim  the  truths  which 
they  wish  to  hide,  "  immediately  hegan  that  system  of  benefi 
cence  towards  the  natives  from  which  they  never  deviated  till 
their  extinction  as  an  order."  From  that  hour  the  native  of 
South  America  was  to  find,  in  every  forest  where  he  had  made 
his  home,  and  by  the  banks  of  every  river  on  which  his  frail 
bark  could  float,  a  friend,  a  father,  and  a  guide ;  who  would 
save  him  from  himself  and  from  his  oppressors,  and  teach  him 
to  love  a  religion  which  could  move  such  as  them  to  abandon 
home,  country,  and  kinsfolk,  in  order  to  make  such  as  him  a 
partaker  in  its  promises,  its  joys,  and  its  rewards. 

The  attempt  was  bold,  but  not  too  bold.  The  missionaries, 
says  Mr.  Southey,  had  to  encounter  "  obstacles  great  and  nu 
merous,"  and  of  these  the  almost  universal  practice  6f  canni 
balism  was  not  the  least  formidable.  But  the  children  of  St. 
Ignatius,  like  those  of  St.  Francis  and  St.  Dominic,  who  shared 
this  field  with  them,  knew  how  to  combat  the  enemy,  whatever 
form  he  might  assume.  They  succeeded,  therefore,  in  rooting 
out  cannibalism.  It  was  their  first  victory  ;  but  Mr.  Southey, 
who  will  presently  tell  iis  how  they  did  it,  was  so  displeased 
with  their  proceedings,  that  he  could  only  find  relief  by  ex 
claiming,  "  Nothing  is  too  impudent  for  the  audacity  of  such  a 
priesthood,  nothing  too  gross  for  the  credulity  of  their  besotted 
believers."*  Mr.  Southey,  however,  will  inform  us  hereafter, 
that  when  missionaries  of  another  faith  attempted  to  instruct 
the  same  savage  disciples,  it  was  contempt,  and  not  credulity, 
which  they  excited  among  them. 

Happily,  like  the  rest  of  his  .class,  this  historian  is  not 
rigorously  consistent.  "  These  missionaries,"  hp  says,  only  a 
few  pages  later,  "  were  every  way  qualified  for  their  office. 
They  were  zealous  for  the  salvation  of  souls  ;  they  had  dis 
engaged  themselves  from  all  the  ties  which  attach  us  to  life,  and 
Were  therefore  not  merely  fearless  of  martyrdom,  but  ambitious 
of  it."f  How  such  a  temper,  and  such  self-annihilation,  were 
consistent  with  the  grave  demerits  imputed  to  them  by  Mr. 
Southey,  he  does  not  explain.  "  They  believed  the  idolatry 
which  they  taught,"  he  says,  as  if  he  wished  to  excuse  them 
as  far  as  possible,  "  and  were  themselves  persuaded  that  by 
sprinkling  a  dying  savage,  and  repeating  over  him  a  form  of 
words  which  he  did  not  understand,"— it  is  Mr.  Southey  who 
say s  so — "they  redeemed  him  from  everlasting  torments.  . .  Nor 
can  it  be  doubted  that  they  sometimes  worked  miracles  upon 

*  History  of  Brazil,  cli.  viii.,  p.  230. 
i  ".  252, 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  133 

the  sick  ;  for  when  they  believed  that  the  patient  might  be 
miraculously  cured,  and  he  himself  expected  that  he  should  be 
so,  faith  would  supply  the  virtue  in  which  it  trusted."* 

This  singular  explanation  of  their  supernatural  power,  which 
seems  to  have  satisfied  Mr.  Southey,  has  one  inconvenience  ; 
it  leaves  the  missionaries  under  the  reproach  of  idolatry,  but  it 
makes  God  their  accomplice.  Yoltaire  once  said,  with  more 
than  his  usual  wit  and  not  more  than  his  usual  profaneness, 
"  Si  Dieu  a  fait  1'homme  a  son  image,  1'homme  le  lui  a  bien  ren- 
du."  The  ductile  divinity  imagined  by  Mr.  Southey,  who  was 
so  easily  persuaded  to  work  miracles  even  at  the  risk  of  propa 
gating  "idolatry,"  had  suffered  not  a  little  from  that  process, 
and  was  evidently  fashioned  after  a  human  type.  The  infirmi 
ties  of  such  a  god  disqualify  him  for  ruling  over  Christians. 
But  perhaps  we  may  accept  Mr.  Southey's  admission  that  the 
Catholic  missionaries  "  worked  miracles  upon  the  sick,"  with 
out  adopting  his  explanation  of  the  fact.  Let  us  inquire  of  him, 
in  the  next  place,  how  they  extirpated  cannibalism. 

"All  efforts  at  abolishing  this  accursed  custom,"  he  says, 
"  were  in  vain.  One  day  Nobrega  and  his  companions  heard 
the  uproar  and  rejoicing  of  the  savages  at  one  of  these  sacrifices ; 
they  made  their  way  into  the  area,  just  when  the  prisoner  had 
been  felled,  and  the  old  women  were  dragging  his  body  to  the 
fire  ;  they  forced  the  body  from  them,  and  in  the  presence  of 
the  whole  clan,  who  stood  astonished  at  their  courage,  carried 
it  off.  The  women  soon  roused  the  warriors  to  revenge  this 
insult.  By  the  time  the  Fathers  had  secretly  interred  the  corpse, 
the  savages  were  in  search  of  them."  The  barbarians  were 
swift  and  eager  in  pursuit,  but  by  the  aid  of  the  Portuguese 
authorities,  the  missionaries  escaped  their  fury ;  and  such  was 
the  impression  which  their  intrepidity  produced  upon  them, 
that  "  it  was  not  long,"  says  our  historian,  "  before  these  very 
savages  came  to  solicit  their  forgiveness,  and  promised  not  to 
repeat  these  feasts." 

But  Mr.  Southey  has  more  to  tell  us.  "  One  of  the  Jesuits," 
he  says,  "succeeded  in  effectually  abolishing  cannibalism  among 
some  clans  by  going  through  them  and  flogging  himself  before 
their  doors  till  he  was  covered  with  blood,  telling  them  he  thus 
tormented  ^himself  to  avert  the  punishment  which  God  would 
otherwise  inflict  upon  them  for  this  crying  sin.  They  could  not 
bear  this,  confessed  what  they  had  done  was  wrong,  and  enacted 


heavy  punishments  against  any  person  who  should  again  be 
guilty."f     It  was  thus  that  the  missionary 


missionaries  rooted  out  canni- 


*  History  of  Brazil,  p.  258. 
P.  254;    ' 


134:  CHAPTER  IX. 

balism.  It  is  true  that  the  process  involved  pain  and  suffering, 
and  that  they  encountered  every  day  the  risk  of  death  in  its  most 
intolerable  forms  ;  but,  as  Mr.  Southey  has  remarked,  "  they 
were  not  merely  fearless  of  martyrdom,  but  ambitious  of  it." 

With  more  remote  tribes,  over  whom  they  had  not  as  yet 
acquired  the  personal  influence  which  they  were  afterwards  to 
exert  throughout  the  whole  country,  the  Fathers,  we  are  told, 
"thought  themselves  fortunate  in  obtaining  permission  to  visit 
the  prisoners  and  instruct  them  in  the  saving  faith,  before  they 
were  put  to  death."  It  was  a  perilous  ministry,  which  only 
such  men  would  have  accepted;  and  on  these  occasions,  in 
order  to  escape  the  observation  of  the  savages,  while  they 
complied  with  the  Divine  precept  which  makes  Baptism  a 
condition  of  salvation,  "  they  carried  with  them  wet  handker 
chiefs,  or  contrived  to  wet  the  skirt  of  their  sleeve  or  habit, 
that  out  of  it  they  might  squeeze  water  enough  upon  the 
victim's  head"  to  administer  the  Sacrament  of  Baptism.  In 
recounting  this  proceeding,  which  excites  his  vehement  disap 
probation,  Mr.  Southey  adds  :  "  What  will  not  man  believe,  if 
he  can  believe  this  of  his  Maker  !"  As  it  was  his  Maker  who 
taught  him  the  lesson,  why  should  man  be  blamed  for  believ 
ing  it? 

When  at  length,  by  inexhaustible  patience  and  intrepid 
valor,  living  the  while  on  the  roots  of  the  earth  and  sharing 
the  rude  cabin  of  the  savage,  these  men  of  gentle  birth  and 
cultivated  tastes  had  laboriously  won  some  ferocious  tribe  from 
its  foul  superstitions,  taught  them  to  pronounce  with  reverence 
the  sweet  names  of  Jesus  and  Mary,  and  planted  in  them  the 
first  rudiments  both  of  faith  and  civilization,  "  they  made  the 
converts  erect  a  church  in  the  village,  wrhich,  however  rude, 
fixed  them  to  the  spot ;  and  they  established  a  school  for  the 
children,  whom  they  catechised  in  their  own  language.  .... 
They  taught  them  also  to  read  and  write,  using,  says  Nobrega, 
the  same  persuasion  as  that  wherewith  the  enemy  overcame 
man,  'Ye  shall  be  as  gods,  knowing  good  .and  evil ;'  for  this 
knowledge  appeared  wonderful  to  them,  and  they  eagerly 
desired  to  attain  it."  And  then  Mr.  Southey,  unmoved  "even 


by  the  touching  picture  which  he  himself  had  drawn,  haughtily 
exclaims,  "Good  proof  how  easily  such   a  race  might  have 
been    civilized!"      More    humane    and    candid    writers   will 


presently  tell  us,  indeed  he  will  tell  us   himself,   in    a   later 
volume,  when  he  had  forgotten  these  hasty  words,  that  they 


o  ,  they 

to  assist  at  Mass,"  that  is,  to  do  an  act  which  'in  itself  is  no 


MISSIONS   IN    AMERICA.  135 

mean  education,  "  and  to  sing  the  Church  service."  Here  was 
a  beginning  at  least  of  "civilization  ;"  and  it  was  so  complete 
in  its  later  effects,  so  abiding  in  its  influence,  that  three  hun 
dred  years  after  we  shall  find  even  English  writers  not  only 
celebrating  the  agricultural  and  economical  results  still  visible 
in  the  Christian  missions,  but  contrasting  the  courtesy  and  dig 
nity,  as  \vell  as  the  spiritual  fervor  of  these  children  of  the 
forest,  with  the  boorish  coarseness  and  animal  instincts  of  their 
own  countrymen. 

Mr.  Southey,  however,  was  not  satisfied,  in  this  early  portion 
of  his  work,  with  the  efforts  of  the  missionaries  to  civilize  the 
natives  of  Brazil.  Yet  even  he  could  understand,  and  he  ex 
presses  the  conviction  in  eloquent  words,  that  "  a  ritual  worship 
creates  arts  for  its  embellishment  and  support ;  habits  of  settled 
life  take  root  as  soon  as  a  temple  is  founded,  and  the  city  grows 
round  the  altar."  The  Brazilians  anticipated  Mr.  Southey  in 
appreciating  this  important  fact,  and  he  will  trace  for  us  here 
after,  in  spite  of  himself,  the  prodigious  work  of  civilization 
accomplished  among  races  even  more  barbarous  than  these  by 
the  apostles  of  the  Church  ;  while  others  will  tell  us,  that  if  to 
"  assist  at  Mass,"  and  to  "  sing  the  Church  service,"  were  the 
chief,  they  were  not  the  only  lessons  which  they  taught,  though 
they  taught  these  so  well,  that,  exactly  three  centuries  after 
Emauuel  de  Nobrega  landed  in  Brazil,  M.  d'Orbigny,  who  had 
listened  with  admiration  to  the  ecclesiastical  music  sung  by  the 
Indians  in  the  mission  of  San  Xavier,  confesses,  "  I  could  not 
but  admire  the  labors  of  the  Jesuits,  when  I  reflected  that  pre 
vious  to  their  arrival  the  Chiquitos,  still  in  the  savage  state, 
were  scattered  through  the  recesses  of  the  forest !"  During 
twelve  generations  they  have  handed  down,  from  father  to  son, 
the  lessons  which  the  Jesuits  taught  them  ;  and  d'Orbigny 
adds,  that  though  they  martyred  the  earlier  missionaries, 
uonce  Christian,  they  have  persevered,  and  at  this  day  nothing 
would  induce  them  to  return  to  the  life  of  the  woods."*  To 
what  extent  they  were  really  civilized  we  shall  learn  hereafter, 
by  the  testimony  of  Protestant  writers,  including  Mr.  Southey 
himself. 

The  first  missionaries  in  Brazil,  to  whom  we  must  now  re 
turn,  had  to  contend  not  only  with  the  ignorance  and  ferocity 
of  its  native  tribes,  but  with  the  profound  immorality  of  the 
reckless  adventurers  who  had  deserted  Portugal  to  try  their 
fortunes  in  the  New  World.  In  Brazil,  as  in  Mexico,  it  was 
from  men  of  this  stamp,  self-banished,  and  stained  with  many  a 
crime,  yet  retaining  even  in  their  fall  the  faith  which  Catholics 

,  &c.,  tome  iv.,  p.  250. 


136  CHAPTER  IX. 

BO  larely  lose,  that  the  missionaries  experienced  the  most  ob 
stinate  and  formidable  opposition.  Seeking  only  the  goods  of 
this  world,  they  resented  the  admonitions  of  men  who  valued 
only  those  of  the  next.  "As  the  Jesuits  steadfastly  opposed 
their  cruelties,"  we  are  told  by  two  Protestant  ministers,  "  the 
Portuguese  resorted  to  every  means  of  annoyance  against  them. 
As  the  Indians  were  driven  back  into  the  wilds  of  the 
interior,  through  fear  of  the  slave-hunters,  the  Jesuits  sought 
them  out,  and  carried  to  them  the  opportunities  of  Christian 
worship  and  instruction."*  Hence  the  implacable  warfare 
which  the  Portuguese  merchants  waged  against  the  mission 
aries.  But  this  was  only  an  additional  motive  with  the  latter 
for  deeds  of  charity  towards  their  enemies.  With  uncompro 
mising  firmness,  but  with  gentle  speech,  they  admonished  them 
of  their  errors,  refusing  the  Sacraments  to  all  who  maltreated 
their  slaves  or  set  them  an  unchristian  example.  "  Many  were 
reclaimed,"  says  Mr.  Southey,  "  by  this  resolute  and  Christian 
conduct."  The  immorality  of  professing  Christians  was  van 
quished,  then,  by  the  same  fervent  apostles  before  whose  pres 
ence  idolatry  had  already  begun  to  flee  away. 

In  1553,  a  reinforcement  of  seven  Fathers  arrived  in  Brazil, 
the  number  already  in  the  field  being  wholly  unequal  to  a  work 
which  was  destined  to  assume  such  vast  proportions,  and  to  re 
quire  the  co-operation  of  so  great  a  multitude  of  laborers,  that 
the  day  arrived  when  the  Jesuits  alone  in  South  America  num 
bered  seventeen  hundred,  out  of  the  thirteen  thousand  who,  at 
the  same  moment,  were  preaching  the  Faith  to  the  heathen  in 
every  part  of  the  globe.  Amongst  the  new-comers  was  one  of 
that  privileged  order  in  whom  the  effects  of  the  first  transgres 
sion  seemed  to  be  almost  effaced,  and  who  are  admitted,  while 
still  in  the  flesh,  to  that  intimate  union  with  God  which  the 
rest  of  the  elect  only  attain  in  another  life.  Joseph  Anchieta 
was  in  his  twentieth  year  when  he  arrived  in  Brazil.  Here, 
during  forty-four  years,  he  was  to  display  before  the  eyes  of 
Christians  and  Pagans  a  new  example  of  those  astonishing 
virtues  which  confirm  the  one  in  the  obedience  of  the  faith,  and 
attract  the  other,  by  the  force  of  their  irresistible  fascination,  to 
put  on  its  easy  yoke.  But  as  we  have  now  to  enter  a  region  in 
which  such  guides  will  decline  to  follow  us,  we  must  separate 
for  a  while  from  Mr.  Southey,  and  take  for  our  companions  men 
who  do  not  start  aside  with  instinctive  repugnance  from  the 
presence  of  a  saint,  nor  strive  to  reduce  all  the  creatures  of  God 
to  their  own  level,  nor  believe  that  the  supernatural  and  the 
impossible  are  one  and  the  same  thing.  We  shall  hear  indeed 

*  Brazil  and  the  Brazilians,  by  Kidder  and  Fletcher,  »h.  xx.,  p.  368. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA. 


137 


what  such  men  say  of  Anchieta,  as  we  have  already  heard  what 
they  say  of  St.  Francis,  and  de'  Nobili,  and  their  kinsmen  in 
grace  ;  but  we  must  leave  them  for  a  moment,  lest  they  disturb 
us  in  our  contemplation  of  one  to  whom  even  nature,  it  is  said, 
was  sometimes  obedient ;  whom  the  beasts  of  the  forest  attended 
as  companions,  forgetting  their  instincts  of  carnage  ;  in  whose 
presence  the  very  heathen  held  their  breath,  amazed  at  the 
works  which  God  wrought  by  his  hand ;  and  who  renewed  on 
the  other  side  of  the  Atlantic  the  triumphs  of  that  Divine 
ministry  which  had  so  often  united  heaven  and  earth  in  many 
a  province  of  the  old  world. * 

It  was  to  a  people  among  whom  the  graces  of  man's  original 
state  were  so  completely  obliterated  that  they  were  hardly 
raised  above  the  brute  creation, — "  utterly  devoid  of  modesty, 
without  any  clothing,  and  so  gross  and  inhuman  as  actually  to 
devour  one  another," — that  Anchieta,  confiding  only  in  the 
omnipotence  of  the  weapons  with  which  the  Church  arms  her 
apostles,  announced  the  law  of  Christ.  A  Saint  was  needed 
for  such  a  task,  and  a  Saint  was  at  hand. 

Employed  at  first  in  teaching  Latin  in  the  school  which 
de  Nobrega  had  founded  at  Piratininga,  Anchieta  spent  his 
earlier  years  in  patience,  humility,  and  obedience ;  yearning  for 
the  hour  when  he  might  proclaim  the  Holy  Name  to  the  tribes 
of  Brazil,  but  waiting  in  silence  for  the  permission  which  he 
was  too  meek  to  anticipate.  Meanwhile  he  composed  a  Brazilian 
Grammar,  which  became  afterwards  a  text-book  in  Portugal  for 
all  who  were  destined  for  the  American  mission.  A  little  later, 
lie  produced  a  Dictionary  of  the  same  dialect ;  then  an  Expo 
sition  of  the  whole  body  of  Christian  doctrine ;  and  soon  after, 
a  multitude  of  Canticles  and  devout  Songs,  in  four  different 
languages,  in  order  to  replace  the  profane  or  indecent  songs 
which  were  in  use  among  the  people.  His  compositions  u  were 
continually  sung,  day  and  night,"  says  his  biographer,  "in  the 
streets  and  thoroughfares,  so  that  the  praises  of  the  Christian 
doctrine  everywhere  resounded." 

At  length,  having  been  admitted  to  the  priesthood,  he  com 
menced  the  special  work  of  a  missionary.  Alone,  and  with 
naked  feet,  fearing  neither  the  pangs  of  hunger,  nor  the  viper's 
sting,  nor  the  jaw  of  the  wild  beast,  he  would  penetrate  the  vast 
forests  of  this  tropical  land.  On  one  occasion,  having  entered 
a  wood,  "  without  any  conscious  motive,  and  as  if  guided  by 
another,"  he  found  an  aged  Indian  supported  against  a  tree,  who 
greeted  him  with  the  assurance  that  he  had  for  some  time  been 
expecting  his  arrival.  He  had  journeyed  from  a  remote 

*  The  Life  quoted  is  the  Oratorian  edition  of  1849. 


138  CHAPTER   IX. 

province  on  the  borders  of  the  distant  Plata,  and  could  only 
explain  that  he  had  been  guided  by  an  impulse  which  he  could 
not  resist  to  that  spot,  where,  he  was  told,  "  he  should  be  taught 
the  right  path."  When  Anchieta,  who  comprehended  that  a 
special  grace  had  brought  to  him  this  unexpected  neophyte, 
had  unfolded  the  chief  mysteries  of  the  Catholic  faith,  he 
replied,  "It  is  thus  that  I  already  received,  but  I  knew  not 
how  to  express  them."  A  little  rain-water,  lodged  in  the 
leaves  of  some  wild  thistles,  sufficed  to  baptize  him;  and  when 
Anchieta  returned  to  his  companions,  and  related  what  had 
passed,  he  added,  that  he  had  just  buried  him,  with  his  own 
hands,  according  to  the  rites  of  the  Church. 

But  it  was  not  always  with  such  Indians  as  this  that  his 
apostolic  journeys  brought  him  in  contact.  The  tribe  of  the 
Tamuyas,  one  of  the  fiercest  and  most  warlike  in  Brazil, 
resenting  the  gradual  advance  of  the  Portuguese,  and  perhaps 
dreading  the  new  power  of  which  they  might  one  day  become 
the  victims,  fell  suddenly  on  the  colony  of  St.  Vincent,  massacred 
the  white  population,  and  ravaged  the  whole  district  with  the 
blind  and  sanguinary  fury  of  barbarians.  Father  de  Nobrega, 
touched  with  compassion  for  the  misery  of  these  Christians, 
who  were  already  preparing  to  abandon  the  country,  conceived 
a  project  which  only  the  heart  of  a  true  missionary  could  have 
entertained.  Taking  with  him  Anchieta,  fitting  companion  for 
so  perilous  a  mission,  he  boldly  entered  the  territory  of  the 
Tamuyas.  Received  at  first  with  unexpected  reverence,  the 
ambassadors  hastened  to  propose  terms  of  peace.  Two  months 
elapsed  in  fruitless  negotiations,  when  de  Nobrega  was  suffered 
to  depart,  in  order  to  concert  new  measures  at  St.  Vincent, 
leaving  Anchieta  as  a  hostage  in  the  hands  of  the  savages.  As 
they  parted  at  this  critical  moment,  "  Anchieta  manifested  to 
Father  Nobrega  three  different  circumstances  which  had  been 
revealed  to  him  in  the  same  night,  God  then  beginning  to  treat 
him  as  His  familiar  friend,  and  disclosing  to  him  the  hidden 
secrets  of  His  Divine  Providence."  The  first  was,  that  the  town 
of  Biritioca,  at  the  entrance  of  St.  Vincent,  from  which  they 
were  distant  at  that  moment  about  seventy  miles,  was  already  in 
possession  of  the  savages ;  the  second,  that  a  person  well  known 
to  Nobrega  had  been  crushed  to  death ;  the  third,  that  a  Por 
tuguese  vessel,  laden  with  supplies,  was  on  the  point  of  entering 
the  port  of  St.  Vincent.  On  the  arrival  of  Nobrega,  the  two 
first  statements  were  immediately  confirmed  ;  a  little  later,  the 
third  received  its  welcome  fulfilment. 

Meanwhile,  Anchieta  was  alone  with  the  savages,  as  calm  and 
unmoved  as  if  he  had  been  in  the  company  of  little  children. 
Outraged  by  their  intolerable  indecency,  and  his  life  perpetually 


MISSIONS  IN  AMERICA.  139 

menaced  by  their  capricious  fury,  he  had  recourse  to  the  usual 
weapons  of  apostles,  prayer  and  mortification.  "The  continence 
of  these  Fathers,"  says  Mr.  Southey,  to  whom  we  may  return  for 
a  moment,  "had  occasioned  great  admiration  in  their  hosts,  and 
they  asked  Nobrega  how  it  was  that  he  seemed  to  abhor  what 
other  men  so  ardently  desired.  He  took  a  scourge  out  of  his 
pocket,  and  said  that  by  tormenting  the  flesh  he  kept  it  in 
subjection."  Anchieta,  he  adds,  "  who  was  in  the  prime  of  man 
hood,  made  a  vow  to  the  Virgin  that  he  would  compose  a  poem 
upon  her  life,  trusting  to  preserve  his  own  purity  by  thus 
fixing  his  thoughts  upon  the  Most  Pure."  Yet  Mr.  Southey, 
true  to  his  instincts,  conld  elsewhere  call  the  prudent  austerities 
of  Catholic  missionaries,  "  the  frantic  folly  of  Catholicism." 

In  spite  of  the  difficulties  of  his  position,  Anchieta  ceased  not 
to  preach  the  Gospel  to  his  hosts,  till  "many  of  them  were  so 
well  instructed,  that  he  would  have  admitted  them  to  the  Sacra 
ment  of  Baptism,  if  he  had  not  feared  their  want  of  constancy, 
and  deemed  it  prudent  to  leave  the  gathering  of  this  harvest 
to  his  companions."  But  the  more  violent  members  of  the 
tribe,  irritated  by  the  failure  of  the  negotiations,  and  disap 
pointed  in  their  hope  of  plunder,  resolved  to  put  him  to  death 
without  further  delay.  They  announced  to  him,  therefore,  that 
he  was  to  die  at  a  certain  hour,  and  that  afterwards  they  should 
feast  on  his  body.  "With  perfect  composure  of  soul  and  coun 
tenance  he  replied  that  they  would  certainly  not  kill  him  at 
the  time  appointed ;  and  when  they  asked  him  in  amazement 
how  he  could  display  such  assurance,  he  answered, — that  he 
had  learned  from  the  Mother  of  that  God  whom  he  had 
preached  to  them  that  he  was  not  yet  to  die.  His  confidence 
was  justified,  and  after  a  captivity  of  three  months,  a  treaty  of 
peace  was  established,  and  Anchieta  was  once  more  embraced 
by  his  fellow-missionaries  at  St.  Vincent. 

A  few  words  will  indicate  his  and  their  mode  of  life.  They 
had  not  often  a  house  to  live  in,  and  when  they  had,  it  was  such 
as  Anchieta  describes  in  a  letter  to  St.  Ignatius,  written  from 
Piratininga,  while  he  acted  as  professor  under  Manuel  de  Paiva. 
"  Our  house  is  composed  of  a  number  of  long  poles,  of  which  the 
interstices  are  filled  up  with  clay.  The  principal  apartment, 
which  is  fourteen  feet  in  length  by  ten  in  width,  is  at  once  our 
school,  infirmary,  dormitory,  refectory,  kitchen,  and  store-room." 
In  fact,  it  was  a  cabin  writh  one  room,  in  which  twenty-six 
inmates  were  lodged.  "  Yet  all  our  brothers  are  delighted  with 
it,  nor  would  they  exchange  this  hut  for  the  most  magnificent 
palace.  They  remember  that  the  Son  of  God  was  born  in  a 
stable,  where  there  was  but  little  space,  and  died  on  a  cross, 
where  there  was  still  less."  Even  Mr,  Southey  acknowledges 


14:0  CHAPTER  IX. 

that  the  only  food  they  had  was  "  what  the  Indians  gave  them," 
which  was  chiefly  mandioc  flour;  and  Anchieta  liimself,  a  man 
of  noble  birth,  alluding  to  their  rude  manner  of  life,  says 
jestingly,  "  We  may  be  pardoned  for  not  using  napkins  at  a 
table  on  which  there  is  nothing  to  eat." 

It  was  in  the  midst  of  privations  which  they  hardly  deemed 
worthy  of  notice  that  these  first  apostles  of  Brazil  prosecuted 
their  work.  Anchieta  was  one  of  them,  and  here  is  a  descrip 
tion  of  his  life.  "  Barefooted,  with  no  other  garment  than  his 
cassock,  his  crucifix  and  rosary  round  his  neck,  the  pilgrim's 
staff  and  his  breviary  in  his  hand,  and  his  shoulders  laden  with 
the  furniture  requisite  for  an  altar,  Anchieta  advanced  into  the 
interior  of  the  country.  He  penetrated  virgin  forests,  swam 
across  streams,  climbed  the  roughest  mountains,  plunged  into 
the  solitude  of  the  plains,  confronted  savage  beasts,  and 
abandoned  himself  entirely  to  the  care  of  Providence.  All  these 
fatigues,  and  all  these  dangers,  had  God  alone  for  witness ;  he 
braved  them  for  no  other  motive  than  to  conquer  souls.  As  soon 
as  he  caught  sight  of  a  man,  Anchieta  quickened  his  pace ;  his 
bleeding  feet  stain  the  rocks  and  sands  of  the  desert,  but  he  still 
walks  onwards.  As  he  approached  the  savage,  he  stretched  out 
his  arms  towards  him,  and  with  words  of  gentleness  strove  to 
retain  him  beneath  the  shadow  of  the  cross,  which  to  him  was 
the  standard  of  peace.  Sometimes,  when  the  savages  rejected 
his  first  overtures,  he  threw  himself  at  their  knees,  bathing  them 
with  his  tears,  pressing  them  to  his  heart,  and  striving  to  gain 
their  confidence  by  every  demonstration  of  love.  At  first  the 
savages  made  small  account  of  this  abnegation,  but  the  Jesuit 
was  not  discouraged.  He  made  himself  their  servant,  and 
studied  their  caprices  like  a  slave;  he  accompanied  them  in  their 
wanderings,  entered  into  their  familiarity,  shared  their  suffer 
ings,  their  labors,  their  pleasures."  And  the  result  of  such  a 
ministry,  in  which  thousands  were  engaged  at  the  same  moment, 
from  Lake  Huron  to  Paraguay,  and  from  Brazil  to  California, 
was  this:  " By  degrees  he  taught  them  to  know  God,  revealed 
to  them  the  laws  of  universal  morality,  and  prepared  them  for 
civilization  after  he  had  formed  them  to  Christianity.  The 
whole  country  of  Brazil  was  the  theatre  of  Father  Anchieta's 
ardent  zeal ;  but  amidst  those  vast  solitudes,  that  of  Itannia,  the 
land  of  stones,  was  his  spot  of  predilection.  It  was  so  unculti 
vated,  so  rocky,  that  the  very  animals  seemed  to  shun  it;  yet  it 
was  here  that  Anchieta,  while  toiling  for  the  salvation  of  this 
ill-fortuned  country,  sought  repose  from  the  other  dangers  of  his 
apostleship."*  We  might  refuse  to  believe  that  a  man  like  our- 

*  Life  of  Anchieta,  p.  175. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  14:1 

selves  could  sustain  such  a  life,  and  such  labors  during  more 
than  forty  years,  but  that  every  other  land  presents  to  us, 
during  the  last  three  centuries,  a  thousand  examples  of  the  same 
virtues  and  the  same  victories. 

In  1597  Anchieta  died.  The  six  Jesuits  who  landed  with 
Nobrega  had  already  increased  to  one  hundred  and  twenty  in 
Brazil  alone,  and  a  hundred  more  now  hastened  to  fill  the 
place  of  Anchieta,  and  to  continue  the  work  which  he  had 
begun.  Before  we  pursue  the  history  of  their  labors,  let  us 
notice  briefly,  as  we  have  done  in  former  cases,  what  Protest 
ant  writers  relate  of  the  men  who  had  now  departed. 

Of  Emanuel  de  Nobrega,  even  Mr.  Southey  says,  that  he 
died,  "  worn  out  with  a  life  of  incessant  fatigue.  The  day  be 
fore  his  death,  he  went  abroad,  and  took  leave  of  all  his  friends, 
as  if  about  to  undertake  a  journey.  They  asked  him  whither 
he  was  going,  and  his  reply  was,  ''Home  to  my  own  country? 
No  life  could  be -more  actively,  more  piously,  or  more  usefully 
employed  :"* — and  then  Mr.  Southey,  who,  like  all  his  class, 
would  undertake  to  pronounce  judgment  at  any  moment  on 
saints  and  angels,  on  principalities  and  powers,  adds  conde 
scendingly,  "  the  triumphant  hope  with  which  it  terminated 
was  not  the  less  sure  and  certain,  because  of  the  errors  of  his 
belief."  Singular  belief,  to  which  alone  God  imparts  the  vir 
tues  and  the  victories  of  the  apostolic  life,  while  he  unaccount 
ably  forgets  to  purify  it  from  its  "  errors ;"  singular  con 
tradiction,  which  makes  God,  in  every  age,  the  unintelligible 
ally  of  a  "  corrupt"  religion, — so  corrupt,  in  the  judgments  of 
its  adversaries,  that  if,  as  an  American  Protestant  ingenuously 
observes,  their  estimate  of  it  were  true,  "  decomposition  and 
the  last  stages  of  decay  had  long  ago  been  passed. "f 

Yet  this  Anglican  historian  adds,  under  an  impulse  which 
even  he  could  not  resist,  uSo  well  had  JSTobrega's  system  been 
followed  by  Anchieta  and  his  disciples,  that,  in  the  course  of 
half  a  century,  all  the  nations  along  the  coast  of  Brazil,  as  far 
as  the  Portuguese  settlements  extended," — that  is,  through  a 
range  of  more  than  two  thousand  miles, — "  were  collected  in 
villages  under  their  superintendence."^:  Never  in  the  history 
of  missions  had  so  marvellous  a  triumph  been  obtained,  except 
by  the  same  class  of  men  in  the  other  provinces  of  America 
which  we  are  still  to  visit.  It  is  from  Protestant  writers  alone 
that  we  can  receive  the  evidence  of  that  unparalleled  triumph, 
since  only  by  their  testimony  will  it  appear  credible  to  their 


*  Ch.  x,  p.  310. 

f  North  American  Renew,  July,  1858,  p.  283. 
xiii  ,  p.  389. 


142  CHAPTER  IX. 

co-religionists.  Nobrega  died  at  the  close  of  the  sixteenth 
century,  and  "in  the  beginning  of  the  seventeenth,"  as  Ranke 
observes,  "  we  find  the  proud  edifice  of  the  Catholic  Church 
completely  reared  in  South  America.  There  were  five  arch 
bishoprics,  twenty-seven  bishoprics,  four  hundred  monasteries, 
and  innumerable  parish  churches."  And  even  this  does  not 
represent  the  whole  work  accomplished  in  a  land  which  had 
been  tenanted,  only  a  century  earlier,  by  savages  who  had  little 
more  of  the  nature  of  man  than  his  external  form.  "  Mag 
nificent  cathedrals  had  sprung  up,  of  which  the  most  splendid 
of  all  was,  perhaps,  that  of  Los  Angeles.  The  Jesuits  taught 
grammar  and  the  liberal  arts ;  a  complete  system  of  theologi 
cal  discipline  was  taught  in  the  universities  of  Mexico  and 

Lima, Conquests  gave  place  to  missions,  and  missions 

gave  birth  to  civilization.  The  monks,  who  taught  the  natives 
to  read  and  to  sing,  taught  them  also  how  to  sow  and  to  reap, 
to  plant  trees  and  to  build  houses  ;  and,  of  course,  inspired  the 
protbundest  veneration  and  attachment."  So  that  Ranke  might 
well  exclaim,  "  Catholicism  produced  a  mighty  effect  in  these 
countries."* 

It  was  the  contemplation  of  the  same  almost  unexampled 
work,  of  which  we  shall  better  appreciate  the  character  and 
extent  when  we  have  traced  it  in  many  provinces,  which  led 
Lord  Macaulay  to  observe,  in  more  emphatic  phraseology, 
"  The  acquisitions  of  the  Catholic  Church  in  the  New  World 
have  more  than  compensated  her  for  what  she  has  lost  in  the 

Old."t 

Of  Anchieta,  the  companion  of  Nobrega,  and  partner  of  his 
apostolic  toils, — whose  supernatural  life  has  occasioned  still 
greater  perplexity  to  Protestant  historians,  they  speak  in  such 
words  as  the  following  :  "  His  self-denial  as  a  missionary,"  we 
are  told  by  two  American  preachers,  who  vainly  endeavored  to 
persuade  even  a  solitary  Brazilian  to  exchange  a  Divine  religion 
for  a  human  one,  "his  labor  in  acquiring  and  methodizing  a 
barbarous  language,  and  his  services  to  the  State,  were  sufficient 
to  secure  to  him  an  honest  fame  and  a  precious  memory."  And 
then  they  exhaust  all  the  resources  of  invective  upon  his  biog 
raphers,  by  whom,  they  are  not  ashamed  to  say,  "  his  real  vir 
tues  were  made  to  pass  for  little,"  that  they  might  magnify 
"  his  pretended  miracles."}  If  they  had  really  read  any  history 
of  the  Saint,  they  would  have  found  that  his  miracles  are 
noticed  simply  as  incidents  in  the  life  of  one  whose  virtues  were 


*  Book  vii.,  vol.  ii.,  p.  91. 

\  Essay  on  Ranke' s  History  of  the  Popt 

%  Kidder  and  Fletcher,  ch.  vii.,  p.  115. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  143 

more  wonderful  than  his  miracles,  and  perhaps  more  difficult 
to  imitate. 

Mr.  Southey,  as  might  be  expected,  uses  similar  language. 
"  That  Anchieta  could  work  miracles,"  he  says,  "  was  undoubt 
edly  believed  both  by  the  Portuguese  and  by  the  natives,  each 
according  to  their  own  superstition.  The  former  sent  volumes 

of  attestations  to  Rome  after  his  death the  Tarnuyas 

said  there  was  a  power  in  him  which  withheld  the  hands  of 
men,  and  this  opinion  saved  his  life"  In  other  words,  both 
Pagans  and  Christians  were  constrained  to  acknowledge  a 
power  of  which  they  continually  witnessed  the  exercise,  and 
which  multitudes,  of  all  ranks  and  classes,  solemnly  attested  on 
oath.  It  is  Protestants  alone,  of  all  mankind,  who  deride  the 
supernatural  as  the  dream  of  superstition  or  the  trick  of  the 
impostor ;  because  they  alone  refuse  to  believe  in  the  sanctity 
which  they  know  to  be  unattainable  by  themselves,  and  believe 
to  be  impossible  to  others.  When  Dr.  Horsley,  a  Protestant 
bishop  of  no  mean  repute,  exhorted  the  English  House  of  Lords 
to  discourage  all  attempts  to  convert  the  Hindoos,  because  "the 
religion  of  a  country  is  connected  with  its  government,"  this 
Anglican  prelate  consistently  added,  that  the  apostolic  power 
of  working  miracles  having  ceased,  "  he  .doubted  whether  the 
commission  had  not  ceased  also."  And  most  of  his  co-religionists 
appear  to  agree  with  him.  "  One  circumstance,"  say  their  re 
presentatives,  "  which  must  make  all  sensible  and  unprejudiced 
persons  suspect  very  much  the  veracity  of  the  Jesuits  in  general, 
is  the  account  they  give  of  miracles  pretended  to  be  wrought 
in  the  scenes  of  their  several  missions."*  Yet  these  men  pro 
fess  to  worship  Him  who  said  to  the  first  missionaries,  "  Ye 
shall  do  greater  things  than  these  /"  When  did  He  who  gave 
that  promise  recall  it,  or  when  did  He  first  begin  to  send  forth 
apostles  without  the  gifts  of  apostles  ?  And  what  new  God 
is  this,  who  has  neither  the  will  nor  the  power  to  interfere  in 
human  affairs,  and  who  is  as  hopelessly  fettered  by  the  "  laws 
of  nature"  as  a  plant  or  an  insect?  Is  He,  like 'the  God  of 
Baal,  "  asleep,"  or  is  he  "  on  a  journey,"  that  he  should  forget 
to  take  note  of  man  and  his  works?  Or  have  Protestants 
agreed  to  accept  the  definition  of  the  Creator  which  Kolbcn 
says  was  current  among  the  Hottentots,  who  considered  Him 
"  an  excellent  man,  who  dwells  far  beyond  the  moon,  and  does 
no  harm  to  any  one  ?" 

One  thing  is  worthy  of  remark, — that  a  religion  which  pro 
fesses  to  be  founded  on  reason  should  despise  all  the  laws  of 
evidence ;  and  that  students  of  the  Bible  should  scoff  at  miracles 

*  Lockman's  Travels  of  the  Jesuits,  preface,  p.  xiv. 


144  CHAPTER  IX. 

of  which  the  sacred  pages  contain,  according  to  human  belief, 
some  of  the  least  credible  examples.  If  Elias,  "  a  man  passible 
like  unto  us,"  forbid  dew  or  rain  to  descend  on  the  earth  save 
at  his  word,  in  order  to  admonish  a  guilty  king,  the  tale  is 
venerable  and  true;  if  St.  Francis  Solano  bring  forth  water  in 
the  deserts  of  Chili  to  save  a  perishing  multitude,  and  to  this 
hour  the  miraculous  stream  is  called  "the  fountain  of  St. 
Solano,"  it  is  an  execrable  imposture.  If  the  Eternal  "  stopped 
the  mouths  of  lions"  lest  they  should  harm  his  prophet,  let  us 
marvel  and  adore ;  if  the  panther  crouched  by  the  side  of  His 
servant  Anchieta  as  he  prayed  at  midnight  in  the  forest,  or 
the  viper  dared  not  sting  his  naked  foot  when  he  trod  upon  it 
in  the  noonday,  it  is  an  impudent  invention.  If  iron  float  at 
the  bidding  of  Eliseus,  though  only  to  save  a  woodman's  axe, 
let  us  fall  down  and  magnify  the  Lord  ;  if  Anchieta  is  upheld 
on  the  waters  of  the  San  Francisco,  that  an  apostle  might 
not  perish  out  of  the  earth,  we  should  scorn  the  superstition 
which  believes  the  fact,  and  the  impostor  who  relates  it.  If 
a  dead  man  spring  to  life  again,  as  the  Scripture  affirms,  be 
cause  his  corpse  touched  the  bones  of  a  Saint  whom  it  was  the 
will  of  God  to  honor,*  who  will  refuse  to  praise  and  admire  ? 
If  St.  Augustine  record  the  same  fact  of  the  bones  of  St. 
Stephen,  in  his  own  church,  and  before  the  very  congregation 
who  witnessed  it,  let  us  smile  at  the  despicable  fraud.  If 
Agabus  foretell  a  famine  over  the  whole  earth,  "  which  came 
to  pass  in  the  days  of  Claudius,"f  we  should  honor  the 
prophet,  though  only  a  man  like  ourselves;  if  the  Blessed 
Anchieta  predict  a  coming  storm  when  the  sky  had  been  cloud 
less  for  six  months,  and  a  vast  multitude  witness  the  miraculous 
rain-fall  which  ensued,  let  us  be  sure  it  was  only  the  crafty 
jugglery  of  a  priest,  or  the  gross  credulity  of  a  besotted  crowd. 
If  Divine  wisdom  employ  the  voice  of  an  ass  to  convey  a  warn 
ing  to  the  rebellious  prophet,  let  us  accept  without  surprise 
both  the  messenger  and  his  message ;  if  Divine  power  command 
the  jaguar  to  stop  in  full  career  at  the  feet  of  St.  Francis  Solano, 
and  humbly  kneel  before  the  servant  of  the  Most  High,  let 
us  welcome  the  improbable  tale  with  a  shout  of  derision.  If 
Elias  raise  the  dead  from  corruption,  though  only  to  comfort  a 
sorrowing  widow,  it  shall  be  the  text  of  our  songs  and  our 
meditations ;  if  St.  Francis  Xavier  open  a  grave,  in  the  presence 
of  thousands,  to  show  a  whole  nation  what  the  God  of 
Chris! ians  can  do,  it  is  a  pitiable  fiction.  If  Elias  is  fed  by 
ravens  or  by  angels,  and  then  fast  forty  days  and  nights,  let  no 

*  4  Kings  xiii.  21. 
f  Acts  xi.  28. 


MISSIONS  IN  AMERICA.  145 

man  donbt  either  his  eating  or  his  abstinence  ;  if  de'  ISTobili  or 
de  Britto  instruct  thousands  unto  righteousness  by  a  whole  life 
of  austerity  and  mortification,  it  is  only  "  the  frantic  folly  of 
Catholicism."  If  the  face  of  St.  Stephen  shone  with  glory,  so 
that  all  who  stood  by  "  saw  his  face  as  it  had  been  the  face  of 
an  angel,"  let  us  acknowledge  that  grace  can  illuminate  even 
this  mortal  body  ;  if  the  blessed  Peter  Claver  was  transfigured 
before  the  eyes  of  a  hundred  witnesses,  who  saw  the  light  play 
round  his  head,  and  covered  their  eyes  with  their  hands,  let  us 
pity  the  degrading  superstition  which  can  accept  the  wretched 
tale.  If  a  "  handkerchief"  or  an  "  apron,"  which  had  only 
touched  the  body  of  St.  Paul,  could  heal  diseases  and  put 
demons  to  flight,*  what  more  natural  than  that  the  Most  High 
should  thus  sanction,  before  men  and  angels,  the  Catholic  use 
of  relics  ?  If  the  same  thing  be  told  of  St.  Bernard  or  St. 
Philip  Neri,  of  Anchieta,  or  St.  Francis  Regis,  let  us  rend  the 
heavens  with  our  cry  of  anger,  or  stop  our  ears  in  indignant 
scorn. 

Perhaps  the  true  explanation  of  the  inconsistency  which  ac 
cepts  the  one  class  of  miracles  without  question,  and  rejects  the 
other  without  inquiry,  is  found  in  the  fact  that  very  few  Prot 
estants  have  any  more  real  faith  in  the  one  than  in  the  other. 
They  would  deal  in  precisely  the  same  manner  with  both,  but 
that  they  have  no  pressing  reason  to  reject  the  first,  while  they 
have  an  urgent  personal  motive  for  denying  the  last.  Yet  even 
the  Hindoo  and  the  Mahometan,  witnesses  against  the  credu 
lous  incredulity  of  modern  sects,  have  manifested,  with  all  their 
faults,  a  deeper  insight  than  they  into  the  mystery  of  holiness, 
and  have  confessed,  in  every  age,  that  a  god  who  ceased  to 
display  the  power  which  he  had  once  exerted,  or  to  bestow  the 
gifts  which  he  had  once  conferred,  would  be  only  an  impotent' 
divinity,  unworthy  to  reign  over  immortal  men,  and  from  whose 
palsied  hand  it  would  be  lawful  to  pluck  the  feeble  and  useless 
sceptre.  The  instincts  of  the  human  heart,  of  the  Pagan  as  well 
as  of  the  Christian,  reject  such  a  god  as  Protestantism  has  in 
vented ;  and  the  only  race  of  men  on  earth  who  deny  the  won 
der-working  might  of  the  True  and  Holy  One  in  His  saints  and 
apostles,  are  they  who  acknowledge  in  their  inmost  soul,  with 
out  shame  arid  without  regret,  tlxat  it  never  has  been  and  never 
can  be  manifested  in  themselves.  Who  dreams  of  an  Anglican 
miracle,  or  a  Wesleyan  prophet,  or  a  Presbyterian  saint?'  Who 
can  imagine  Middleton  bidding  a  stream'  spring  forth  in  the 
plains  of  Bengal?  or  Buchanan  respected  by  panthers?  or  Jud- 
son  transfigured?  or  Heber  raising  the  dead? 

*  Acts  xix.  12. 
VOL.  n  11  , 


146  CHAPTER   IX. 

This  is  no  place  to  discuss  at  large  the  credibility  of  miracles. 
To  the  Christian,  who  is  wisely  familiar  with  Holy  Scripture, 
and  comprehends  that  the  miracles  of  the  New  Testament  are 
not  isolated  and  abnormal,  but  typical  and  characteristic  facts, 
proper  to  the  whole  dispensation  which  they ^ adorn  and  illus 
trate,  their  cessation  would  be  more  inexplicable  than  their 
continuance.  If  they  are  rejected,  it  is  by  men  who  know 
neither  God  nor  themselves;  who,  in  spite  of  their  profession 
of  religion,  have  an  instinctive  fear  and  hatred  of  the  super 
natural,  and  who  would  rather  believe  that  God  is  eternally 
silent  than  confess  that  it  is  in  the  Church  alone  that  He 
deigns  to  speak.  They  would  not,  indeed,  believe  a  miracle, 
even  if  they  saw  one;  but  what  they  fear  in  them  is  their  ex 
hibition  of  Divine  power,  what  they  hate  is  their  testimony  to 
the  Catholic  faith.* 

Yet  modern  science,  not  always  hostile  to  revealed  truth,  has 
lately  protested,  by  the  voice  of  one  of  its  greatest  adepts, 
against  this  irrational  skepticism.  A  well-known  English 
mathematician,  refuting  by  a  scientific  process  the  infidel  for 
mula  of  Hume,  has  declared,  and  elaborately  proved,  that 
however  that  formula  be  applied,  it  will  always  be  false.  Hume 
had  said  that  no  amount  of  evidence  can  prove  the  truth  of  a 
miracle.  Mr.  Babbage,  testing  the  proposition  by  a  purely 
analytical  method,  arrives  at  exactly  the  opposite  conclusion. 
4%  If  independent  witnesses  can  be  found,"  he  says,  "  who  speak 
truth  more  frequently  than  falsehood," — surely  no  intolerable 
postulate, — "  it  is  always  possible  to  assign  a  number  of  inde 
pendent  witnesses,  the  improbability  of  the  falsehood  of  whose 
concurring  testimony  shall  be  greater  than  that  of  the  miracle 
itself."f  Yet  the  shallow  incredulity  of  the  Sects,  though  it 
^annuls  all  the  laws  of  evidence,  and  sets  aside  the  most  rigorous 
conclusions  of  science,  affects  to  be  a  protest  on  behalf  of  the 
human  intellect  against  the  thraldom  of  superstition ! \ 

"  Image  parfaite  de  Notre  Seigneur  Jesus-Christ,  TEglise  est  en  butte  aux 
]>ersecutions  du  monde,  non  pas  parce  que  le  monde  oublie  les  prodiges  qu'elle 
opyre, . .  mais  tout  au  contraire  parce  que  le  monde  a  en  ho-rreur  ces  temoignages, 
.  .  .  ces  miracles  qui  le  condamnent."  Donoso  Cortes,  (Enures,  tome  iii.,  p.  128  ; 
ed.  Veuillot.  "  The  Church  owes  her  very  existence  to  miracles,  and  without 
them  cannot  at  all  conceive  herself.  .  .  .  Our  idealists  and  spiritualists  have  no 
need  of  miracles  for  the  confirmation 'of  their  faith.  No,  truly,  for  their  faith  is 
one  of  their  own  making,  and  not  the  faith  in  Christ ;  and  it  would  indeed  be 
HI  ngular  if  God  were  to  confirm  a  faith  fabricated  by  man."  Moehler,  Symbolism, 

\  Ninth  Bridgewater  Treatise,  app.,  p.  202,  note  E. 

;  "  Miracles  are  evidently  not  only  not  impossibilities,  but  even  not  improba 
bilities.  .  .  .  Whatever  is  possible  may  occur,  and  whatever  occurs  ought,  on  the 
proper  evidence,  to  be  believed."  Hugh  Miller,  Footprint*  of  the  Creator, 
p.  242. 


MISSIONS   IN  AMERICA. 

If  now  we  continue  the  history  of  missions  in  Brazil,  and  take 
Mr.  Southey  once  more  as  our  guide,  we  shall  come  to  a  new 
order  of  events.  Hitherto  we  have  seen  men  gradually  con 
verting  the  savages  of  half  a  continent  by  the  display  of  super 
natural  virtues  ;  and,  except  in  a  few  instances  which  we  have 
not  stayed  to  notice,  as  in  the  case  of  the  martyrs  Soza  and 
Correa,  who  fell  in  the  very  beginning  of  this  apostolic  warfare, 
accomplishing  their  work  without  even  the  customary  tribute 
of  blood.  But  that  sacred  debt  was  sure  to  be  paid  sooner  or 
later,  and  we  are  about  to  witness  the  martyrdom  of  sixty-eight 
missionaries  at  once,  massacred,  not  by  pagan  savages,  but  by 
more  merciless  heretics,  whose  fury  110  virtues  could  disarm, 
and  who,  in  many  a  land,  have  made  a  compact  with  the 
heathen  to  slay  the  missionaries  of  the  Cross. 

In  1570,  Father  Ignatius  Azevedo,  by  the  nomination  of  St. 
Francis  Borgia,  conducted  thirty-nine  Fathers  of  the  Society 
of  Jesus  from  Madeira  to  Brazil.  Thirty  more  started  at  the 
same  moment  from  Lisbon,  in  two  other  vessels,  as  well  as  a 
number  of  postulants  who  had  still  to  prove  the  strength  of 
their  vocation.  The  day  after  the  ship  which  carried  Azevedo 
sailed  from  Madeira,  four  French  vessels,  under  the  command 
of  the  Huguenot  Jacques  Sourie,  bore  down  upon  it.  Sourie, 
says  Mr.  Southey,  "  was  a  man  as  little  disposed  to  show  mercy 
to  any  Catholic  priests,  as  they  would  have  been  to  show  it 
towards  him.  .  .  .  and  he  did  by  the  Jesuits  as  they  would 
have  done  by  him  and  all  of  his  sect — put  them  to  death.  One 
of  the  novices  escaped,  being  in  a  lay  habit,  the  rest  were 
thrown  overboard,  some  living,  some  dying,  some  dead."  So 
smoothly  does  this  English  historian  relate  a  tale  which  does 
not  even  provoke  from  him  any  other  comment  than  this,  that 
"  when  the  tidings  reached  Madeira,  the  remaining  missionaries 
celebrated  the  triumph  of  their  comrades,  a  triumph  which 
many  of  them  were  yet  to  partake."  But  this  singular  festival 
only  inspired  the  mirth  of  Mr.  Southey,  who  considers  that  the 
Te  Deum  chanted  in  honor  of  martyrs  by  men  who  in  a  few 
days  were  to  be  martyrs  themselves,  "  was  as  much  the  lan 
guage  of  policy  as  of  fanaticism."  St.  Philip  Neri  would 
rather  have  said,  as  he  was  wont  to  say  to  the  priests  depart 
ing  from  Rome  for  the  English  mission,  "  Salvete  florcs  mar- 
tyrum  /"  St.  Paul  would  have  added,  in  his  solemn  accents, 
ik  Quibus  dignus  nan  erat  mundus  /" 

•  A  few  days  later,  "  one  English  and  four  French  cruisers," 
according  to  the  tranquil  narrative  of  Mr,  Southey,  who  does 
not  mention  that  this  time  it  was  the  Calvinist  Capdeville  who 
commanded,  fell  upon  the  remainder  of  the  missionary  fleet,  and 
did  their  work  so  effectually,  that  "  of  sixty-nine  missionaries 


148  CHAPTER   IX. 

whom  Azevedo  took  out  from  Lisbon,  only  one,  who  was  left 
behind  at  one  of  the  ports  where  they  touched,  arrived  at 
Brazil." 

The  blood  of  sixty-eight  martyrs  could  hardly  fail  to  win 
new  graces  for  Brazil,  and  from  that  hour  the  work  of  conver 
sion  advanced  with  tenfold  success.  It  was  said,  as  Mr. 
Southey  records  with  indignation,  that  supernatural  incidents 
accompanied  this  holocaust  of  martyrs,  whose  fires  the  waves 
of  the  deep  sea  could  not  extinguish.  "  After  Azevedo  was 
killed,  the  heretics,*'  Mr.  Southey  merrily  observes,  "  could  not 
force  out  of  his  hand  a  picture  of  the  Virgin, "  which  the  mar 
tyr  held  in  his  dying  grasp,  and  which,  the  English  historian 
adds,  with  an  appropriate  and  well-timed  jest,  "  was  a  copy 
more  miraculous  than  its  miraculous  original."  This  picture, 
found  still  in  his  embrace  by  the  crew  of  another  ship  which 
sailed  over  the  spot  where  the  body  had  been  flung  into  the 
ocean,  "  was  shown,"  adds  Mr.  Southey,  "  by  the  Jesuits  at  St. 
Salvador,  with  heroic  impudence,  with  the  print  of  Azevedo's 
bloody  fingers  upon  it ;"  but  "  ecclesiastical  historians,"  he  re 
marks,  "  enlarge  as  they  go  on,  because  every  one  adds  his  lie 
to  the  heap."  If  a  martyrology  were  composed  by  demons,  it 
is  perhaps  thus  that  they  would  write  it. 

Sixty  years  after  the  martyrdom  of  Azevedo  and  his  com 
panions,  when  their  successors  had  reaped  the  full  harvest  of 
which  the  early  seeds  had  been  fertilized  by  their  blood,  a  second 
drama  of  the  same  kind  was  enacted,  and  once  more  the  knife 
and  the  axe  were  wielded  by  Protestants.  This  time  it  was  the 
Dutch  Calvinists  who  made  war  on  defenceless  missionaries, 
and  here  is  Mr.  Southey's  narrative  of  their  operations. 

The  unconverted  natives  of  the  district  of  Rio  Grande  had 
carried  devastation  into  the  territory  of  Pernambuco,  and  though 
chastised  by  the  troops  under  the  command  of  Manuel  Masca- 
renhas,  were  still  planning  in  their  forests  new  expeditions. 
Soldiers  could  riot  reach  these  swift-footed  marauders,  but  there 
were  men  in  Brazil  of  the  school  of  de  Nobrega  and  Azevedo 
who  could.  Mr.  Southey  will  tell  us  who  they  were.  With  no 
armor  but  prayer,  and  no  weapon  but  the  cross  which  they 
bore  on  their  bosom,  they  advanced  without  fear  into  the 
retreats  of  the  barbarians.  "  The  Jesuits  pacified  them,"  says 
the  Protestant  annalist,  "and  brought  a  hundred  and  fifty- 
hordes  into  alliance  with  the  Portuguese."  So  true  is  that 
saying  of  Sir  Woodbine  Parish,  who  lived  long  in  South 
America,  that  "  the  labors  of  the  Jesuits  were  eventually 
more  successful  than  all  the  military  forces,"  and  that,  in 
every  province  of  the  land,  on  both  sides  of  the  Andes,  and  by 
the  banks  of  all  the  rivers  which  flow  from  them,  "  these  inde- 


MISSION'S  IN  AMERICA.  149 

fatigable  missionaries  reduced  one  tribe  after  another  to  a  state 
of  comparative  civilization." 

But  the  savage  of  the  northeastern  provinces  was  now  to  find 
an  ally  more  tierce  and  cruel  than  himself,  and  by  whose 
example  he  was  to  learn,  that  if  there  were  Christians  who 
were  valiant  only  to  suffer,  to  labor,  and  to  bless,  there  were 
others  who  made  religion  itself  the  pretext  of  crimes  from  which 
even  the  savages  would  have  shrunk.  It  was  on  Good  Friday, 
in  the  year  1633,  that  the  Dutch  Protestants,  passing  at 
midnight  through  the  smoking  ruins  of  Olinda,  attacked 
Garassu  in  the  early  morn,  while  the  inhabitants  were  assem 
bled  at  the  celebration,  proper  to  that  sorrowful  day,  of  the 
Mass  of  the  Presanctified.  The  moment  was  skilfully  chosen. 
No  ignorant  Tamuya  or  Chiquito,  no  blundering  Mohawk  or 
Oneida,  could  have  matched  the  Calvinist  in  his  craft;  no 
bloodhound  could  have  torn  his  prey  with  more  pitiless  cruelty, 
when  once  he  had  fastened  his  fangs  upon  it.  "  The  men  who 
came  in  their  way,"  says  Mr.  Southey,  "  were  slaughtered ;  the 
women  were  stripped,  and  the  plunderers  with  brutal  cruelty 
tore  away  ear-rings  through  the  ear-flap,  and  cut  off  fingers  for 
the  sake  of  the  rings  which  were  upon  them.  Having  plun 
dered  and  burnt  the  town,  they  set  out  on  their  return,  taking 
with  them  as  prisoners  some  Franciscans,  whom  for  their  pro 
fession  they  especially  hated,  and  driving  in  mockery  before 
them  the  priest  in  his  vestments,  just  as  they  had  forced  him 
from  the  altar."*  It  was  thus  they  celebrated  Good  Friday. 

The  next  year  they  attacked  Paraiba,  apparently  because 
"it  contained  a  Misericordia,  a  Benedictine  Convent,  a  Carme 
lite,  and  a  Capuchin."  The  inhabitants  had  capitulated,  after 
a  gallant  defence,  on  the  promise  of  "free  exercise  of  the  Cath 
olic  religion  and  the  peaceable  enjoyment  of  their  property." 
"The  most  atrocious  cruelties,"  says  Mr.  Southey,  for  once 
taking  part  with  the  victims,  "  were  exercised  upon  these 
brave  people  by  the  conquerors,  and  they  who  possessed  any 
property  were  tortured  till  they  paid  the  full  sum  which  was 
demanded  as  a  life-ransom.  By  these  means  the  Dutch  raised 
twenty-eight  thousand  crowns,  and  it  is  by  such  means  that 
they  have  rendered  their  history  as  infamous,  and  their  names 
as  detestable,  in  the  East  arid  in  the  West,  as  in  their  own 
country  their  deeds  have  been  glorious."f 

Yet  these  men  professed  to  be  exponents  of  the  "  reformed 
religion,"  and  missionaries  of  the  Gospel.  It  is  true  that  even 
Mr.  Southey  admits,  that  it  was  only  "  for  the  sake  of  raising 

*  Vol.  i.,  ch.  xv.,  p.  486. 
f  P.  509. 


150  CHAPTER   IX. 

sugar  and  tobacco"  that  they  invaded  Brazil ;  but  they  carried 
their  religions  ideas  with  them,  and  so,  in  the  words  of  another 
historian,  "from  assassins  they  transformed  themselves  into 
missionaries."  They  were  more  successful  in  the  first  character 
than  in  the  last.  "'They  sent  out  preachers,  and  controversial 
books  in  the  Spanish  language  were  circulated;"  but  Mr. 
South ey  shrewdly  adds,  "  if  the  Brazilians  hated  their  conquerors 
as  heretics,  they  hated  heresy  still  more  because  it  was  the 
religion  of  their  oppressors.  The  Dutch  have  always  been  a 
cruel  people,  ....  and  there  is  no  nation  whose  colonial  history 
is  so  inexcusable  and  inexpiably  disgraceful  to  human  nature." 
lie  had  perhaps  read  their  history  in  Japan  and  Ceylon. 

The  Dutch  were  not  destined  to  triumph  in  Brazil,  either  as 
soldiers  or  missionaries,  but  they  were  not  finally  ejected  till  a 
later  period.  Meanwhile,  they  continued  to  exhibit  a  new 
example  of  the  nature  and  influence  of  Protestant  missions,  a 
new  proof  that  they  are  everywhere,  as  we  have  said,  the  worst 
impediment  to  the  conversion  of  the  heathen,  not  only  because 
they  obstruct  the  ministry  of  the  true  apostles,  but  because  their 
agents  teach  the  barbarian  to  despise  a  religion  of  which  they 
are  the  professors.  In  1637,  in  all  the  districts  under  their 
rule,  "  the  Catholics  were  ordered  to  confine  their  processions 
within  the  walls  of  the  churches ;  no  new  church  was  to  be  built 
without  permission  from  the  senate ;  no  marriages  celebrated 
until  the  banns  had  been  published  after  the  Dutch  manner,"  &c. 
There  was  even  a  certain  refinement  of  ingenuity  in  some 
of  their  cruelties.  Taking  advantage  of  well-known  customs 
which  piety  had  consecrated  in  Brazil,  they  ordered,  "  that 
those  persons  who,  when  they  created  new  sugar-works,  chose 
to  have  them  blessed,  were  to  have  the  office  performed" — by 
a  Protestant  minister !  The  Count  of  Nassau,  who  was  their 
supreme  ruler,  "  received  orders  to  restrict  toleration  within  the 
narrowest  bounds,  and  the  reformed  clergy  were  calling  upon 
him  to  enforce  these  imprudent  orders." 

In  1639,  "Dutch  missionaries  labored,"  we  are  still  quoting 
Mr.  Southey,  "  to  teach  a  Lutheran  instead  of  a  Popish  creed." 
They  failed  indeed,  but  this  was  only,  Mr.  Southey  considers, 
because  "implements  of  conversion  were  wanting;"  that  is, 
"Lutheran  theology  had  nothing  wherewith  to  supply  the 
deficiency  of  saints,  images,  beads,  crosses,  &c."  The  expla 
nation  seems  to  fall  below  the  gravity  of  history.  Lutheran 
theology,  which  the  Brazilians  rejected  so  decisively,  does  not 
appear  to  produce  happy  results  even  among  those  who  profess 
to  admire  it.  In  Lutheran  Prussia,  where  there  is  no  deficiency 
of  crosses  and  other  symbols,  it  has  all  but  extirpated  Chris 
tianity  ;  in  Brazil,  as  we  learn  from  two  Protestant  ministers  in 


MISSIONS   IN  AMERICA.  151 

185T,  its  results  have  been  of  the  same  unpleasant  character. 
In  "  the  Lutheran  community  at  Nova  Fribourgo,"  a  colony  of 
German  settlers,  they  report  that  "  there  was  but  little  Chris 
tian  vitality ;  Lutherans  of  the  old  Church  and  State  school 
are  among  the  very  last  men  to  propagate  the  Gospel."*  We 
need  not  wonder,  then,  that  the  Dutch  failed  to  propagate  such 
a  gospel  in  Brazil. 

But  if  they  could  not  convert,  they  could  destroy.  In  spite 
of  every  menace,  and  of  unceasing  cruelty  and  exactions,  the 
people  still  clung  to  their  old  pastors.  There  was  only  one 
remedy  for  this  obstinacy,  and  the  Dutch  adopted  it.  "  The 
members  of  every  monastic  order  were  commanded  within  the 
space  of  a  month  to  quit  the  Dutch  possessions  on  the  continent. 
The  needful  measure,"  it  is  Mr.  Southey  who  speaks,  "  was 
carried  into  effect  with  brutal  cruelty.  The  Dutch  stripped 
them  of  their  habits,  and  turned  them  ashore  in  their  shirts  and 
drawers,  in  such  remote  situations  that  most  of  them  perished."f 

When,  in  1642,  the  Portuguese  rose  at  last  against  the  assas 
sins,  and  recaptured  Maranham,  "  those  who  were  spared  owed 
their  lives,"  says  our  historian,  "  to  the  interference  of  a  priest." 
He  had  asserted  not  long  before  that  any  priest  "  would  have 
put  all  the  sect  to  death,"  but  now  he  relates  that  "  he  had 
borne  the  crucifix  before  his  comrades  as  a  standard  beneath 
whicli  they  were  to  march  to  victory,  and  he  stretched  out  that 
crucifix  to  protect  his  enemies  now  when  the  victory  was  won." 
But  with  all  his  efforts  he  could  only  save  the  other  foreigners, 
because  "  a  Catholic  feeling  incensed  the  conquerors  against 
the  Dutch,  more  hated  for  their  heretical  opinions  than  for 
their  cruelty  and  perfidiousness."  But  we  have  heard  enough 
of  the  Dutch,  and  it  is  time  to  return  to  the  labors  of  a  differ 
ent  order  of  missionaries. 

In  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth  century,  when  the  triumph 
of  Christianity  was  already  assured  in  Brazil,  Portugal  gave  to 
this  favored  mission  another  of  those  apostolic  workmen  of 
whom  in  that  age  she  produced  so  many.  Father  Antonio 
Vieyra,  the  friend  of  kings  and  the  counsellor  of  statesmen, 
who  had  rejected  all  the  honors  of  the  world,  and  had  told  his 
admiring  sovereign,  when  he  entreated  him  to  accept  a  bishopric 
in  Europe,  that  he  would  not  exchange  the  lowly  habit  of  a 
missionary  "for  all  the  mitres  in  the  Portuguese  monarchy," 
had  now  entered  Brazil.  During  many  years  this  accomplished 
gentleman  "ministered  among  the  Indians  and  Negroes,  for 
which  purpose  he  made  himself  master,  not  only  of  the  Tupi, 

*  Kiddcr  and  Fletcher,  ch.  xv.,  p.  29. 
t  Vol.  ii.,  ch.  xx.,  p.  Go. 


152  CHAPTER  IX. 

but  also  of  the  Angolan  tongue."  He  was  one,  as  Mr.  Southey 
confesses,  who  "must  ever  hold  a  place,  not  only  amongst  the 
greatest  writers,  but  amongst  the  greatest  statesmen  of  his 
country."  It  is  nothing  new  in  the  history  of  apostles  that 
such  a  man  should  choose  to  devote  his  life  to  Indians  and 
Negroes.  The  Catholic  religion,  in  every  age,  has  been  able 
both  to  inspire  and  to  reward  such  sacrifices.  Once  he  wrote 
to  the  young  prince  of  Portugal,  who  loved  and  honored  him 
as  a  father,  to  send  fresh  laborers  to  Brazil ;  and  he  added,  "  I 
ask  no  provision  for  those  who  come,  God  will  provide ;  what 
I  ask  is,  that  they  may  come,  and  that  they  may  be  many,  and 
filled  with  zeal." 

It  is  curious  to  see  what  the  malice  of  heresy  could  force 
even  a  scholar  and  a  poet  to  say  of  such  a  man  as  this — who 
was  not  only  scholar  and  poet,  but  philosopher,  orator,  and 
statesman.  "  His  devotion,"  says  Mr.  Southey,  "  had  its  root  in 
superstition  and  madness."  Festus  estimated  in  the  same  man 
ner  the  devotion  of  St.  Paul,  because  he,  like  the  English 
writer,  could  not  understand  an  apostle.  Yet  he  adds  imme 
diately,  contradicting  himself  at  every  page,  "Yieyra  proceeded 
diligently  with  projects  worthy  of  his  order  and  of  himself." 
Fifty  Indian  villages  were  organized  by  his  labors  to  the  north 
of  Maranham,  "  along  an  extent  of  four  hundred  leagues  of 
coast."  So  wonderful  was  the  success  of  his  labors,  that  on  the 
15th  of  August,  1658,  he  celebrated  a  solemn  Mass  of  thanks 
giving  in  commemoration  of  a  treaty  then  concluded,  "  in  the 
name  of  Jesus  Christ,"  with  the  chiefs  and  representatives  of 
more  than  one  hundred  thousand  natives* 

Such  a  victory  might  have  contented  even  apostolic  ambition, 
but  for  Yieyra  it  was  only  a  motive  for  fresh  exertions.  He 
now  resolved,  therefore,  says  our  historian,  "  to  pursue  the  same 
system  of  civilization  up  the  great  rivers,  and  in  the  islands  in 
the  mouth  of  the  Orellana."  Two  Jesuits  were  sent  up  the 
river  of  the  Tocantins,  a  perilous  journey  of  nine  hundred  miles, 
"  to  reduce  a  tribe  of  Topinambazes,"  famous  for  their  courage 
and  ferocity.  "  They  were  old  enemies  of  the  Para  settlers," 
which  increased  tenfold  the  perils  of  the  mission,  but  this  did 
not  daunt  the  companions  of  Yieyra,  animated  with  his  own 
spirit ;  and  the  Protestant  historian  is  obliged  to  confess,  that 
"  these  very  enemies  followed  the  missionaries,  and  agreed  to 
send  deputies  back  with  them,  who  should  treat  concerning 
peace,  and  arrange  measures  for  their  conversion."  More  than  a 
thousand  of  these  hitherto  irreclaimable  barbarians,  "of  whom 
three  hundred  were  warriors,"  returned  with  the  Fathers  to  the 

*  Cr6tineau  Joly,  tome  v.,  p.  114. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  153 

camp  of  their  hated  foes ;  and  when  the  governor,  Yidal — a 
man  of  such  qualities  that  Vieyra  wrote  to  the  king,  "  if  he 
had  been  in  India,  it  would  never  have  been  lost  to  Portugal," 
— saw  this  multitude  of  neophytes  approaching,  "  stern  and 
inexorable  as  he  was  in  war,  he  is  said  to  have  wept  for  joy  at 
beholding  this  wild  flock  brought  within  the  fold  of  Christ." 
Vieyra  himself,  though  he  might  have  been  sitting  in  the 
courts  of  princes,  started  immediately  to  bring  in  the  remainder 
of  the  tribe. 

In  every  direction  similar  expeditions  were  undertaken,  and 
always  with  the  same  results.  No  river  was  so  broad  or  swift 
as  to  check  their  rapid  march,  no  forest  so  dark  or  impenetra 
ble  as  to  bar  their  way.  Whatever  man,  aided  by  the  might 
of  God,  could  do,  they  did.  And  the  Indians,  dazzled  by  their 
fortitude  and  valor,  could  resist  neither  the  heroic  courage 
which  far  surpassed  their  own,  nor  the  patience  which  sub 
dued  and  wore  out  their  frowardness,  nor  the  charity  which 
they  admired  before  they  understood  it.  Everywhere  and  al 
ways,  even  by  Protestant  testimony,  these  apostles  were  the 
same.  Take  a  few  examples  out  of  thousands.  When  the 
military  expedition  of  Coelho  against  the  people  of  the  Sierra 
do  Ibiapaba  had  completely  failed,  "  and  led  to  his  own  dis 
grace,"  the  missionaries,  says  Mr.  Southey,  "  prepared  a  peace 
able  expedition  in  the  hope  of  reducing  and  civilizing  its  in 
habitants.  These  mountains  extended  about  eighty  leagues  in 
length,  and  twenty  in  breadth ;  they  rise  in  waves,  one  tower 
ing  above  another.  .  .  .  To  ascend  them  is  the  hard  labor  of 
four  hours,  in  which  hands  and  knees,  as  well  as  feet,  must 
frequently  be  exerted."  And  when  the  missionaries,  often  men 
delicately  nurtured,  and  of  gentle  lineage^ had  surmounted  these 
first  difficulties,  they  found  themselves  in  presence  of  the  Ta- 
puyas,  "  the  oldest  race  in  Brazil,"  and  so  inconceivably  barba 
rous,  that  '*  they  ate  their  own  dead  as  the  last  demonstration 
of  love."*  They  had  repulsed  the  soldiers  of  Portugal,  but 
were  vanquished  by  a  few  unarmed  Jesuits. 

In  1603,  Father  Rodriguez  conducted  another  apostolic  band 
to  the  territory  of  the  cannibal  Aymores.  "  The  people  ridi 
culed  his  project,"  says  the  Protestant  historian,  "thinking  it 
impossible  that  the  Aymores,  fleshed  as  they  were  with  human 
meat,  could  be  reclaimed  from  their  habits  of  cannibalism." 
Yet  the  savages  themselves  said  of  him  arid  his  companions, 
when  they  afterwards  recounted  their  own  submission,  "The 
Fathers  were  good  men  who  had  neither  bows  nor  arrows,  nor 
ever  did  wrong  to  any  one,  and  nothing  which  they  requested 


•  Southey,  ch.  xiii.,  p.  377. 


CHAPTER   IX. 

was  to  be  denied."  And  so  "  two  villages  were  soon  formed, 
the  one  containing  twelve  hundred  Aymores,  the  other  four ; 
and  the  captaincy,  which  had  hitherto  with  difficulty  been 
preserved  from  utter  destruction  by  the  help  of  frequent  suc 
cors  from  Bahia,  was  effectually  delivered  from  its  enemies."* 

In  1657,  Fathers  Emanuel  Fires  and  Francis  Gonsalvez  were 
the  first  to  ascend  the  Rio  Negro,  as  Father  Samuel  Fritz  was 
the  first  to  trace  the  course  of  the  Orellana,  converting  the 
Omaguas  on  the  way — "  a  people,"  as  Southey  observes,  "so 
famous  in  the  age  of  adventure,  and  still,  in  his  day,  the  most 
numerous  of  all  the  river  tribes:  thirty  of  their  villages  are 
marked  upon  his  map."  Before  him,  Fathers  Christoval  d'Acuna 
and  Andres  de  Artieda,  the  one  rector  of  a  college,  the  other 
professor  of  theology  at  Quito,  had  accomplished  an  equally 
perilous  mission  at  the  request  of  the  viceroy ;  for  even  the 
military  adventurers  of  that  age  dared  not  accept,  and  refused 
to  attempt,  undertakings  which  the  missionaries  alone,  in  the 
interests  of  religion  and  science,  could  be  persuaded  to  embrace, 
since  they  "  were  not  merely  fearless  of  martyrdom,  but  am 
bitious  of  it."  We  shall  see  hereafter  how  many  found  the 
crown  which  they  sought.  After  a  voyage  of  fifteen  months, 
amid  privations  which  we  need  not  attempt  to  describe,  Pires 
and  Gonsalvez  returned,  bringing  with  them  between  six  and 
seven  hundred  disciples ;  but  Gonsalvez  died  of  his  fatigues. 
A  little  later,  two  others,  who  had  taken  another  route,  came  back 
in  their  turn,  "followed  by  more  than  two  thousand  Indians," 
who  had  consented  to  accept  Christianity  and  civilization.f 

In  every  province,  and  in  each  successive  year,  the  same 
arduous  apostolate  continued.  In  1662,  Father  Raymond  de 
Santa  Cruz  perished  by  violence  in  the  waters  of  the  Pastaza. 
"  His  was  truly  a  noble  and  well-spent  life,"  says  an  English 
Protestant.  "  His  usual  dress  consisted  of  an  old  battered  hat, 
a  coarse  cotton  shirt,  and  a  pair  of  sandals ;" — this  was  the 
" gorgeous  ceremonial"  by  which  Catholic  missionaries,  we  are 
told,  gain  their  converts ! — "  and  his  mode  of  life  was  more 
simple  than  that  of  the  Indians  who  surrounded  him  .  .  .  but 
it  should  be  remembered  that  there  were  many  other  intrepid 
and  devoted  men  on  the  banks  of  these  rivers,  at  the  same  time, 
who  were  equally  zealous  in  preaching  to  the  Indians,  and  who 
generally,  like  Father  Raymond,  met  with  a  violent  death,  as 
the  welcome  reward  of  their  exertions.";): 

As  early  as  1663,  the  fruits  of  these  patient  toils  were  so 

*  P.  388. 

f  Southey,  p.  517. 

±  Expeditions  into  the  VcMey  of  the  Amazons,  by  Clements  R.  Markham, 
F.R.U.S.,  introd.,  p.  xxx. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  155 

abundant,  that,  as  Mr.  Markham  notices,  even  on  the  banks  of 
the  upper  Maranon  "  there  were  fifty-six  thousand  baptized 
Indians;"  and  from  1640  to  1682,  no  less  than  thirty-three 
different  Christian  settlements  had  been  established  in  that 
region  by  this  company  of  martyrs  and  apostles.* 

In  1695,  Henry  Richler  obtained  the  crown  of  martyrdom. 
"The  most  heroic  devotion,"  says  Mr.  Markham,  "  could  alone 
have  enabled  him  to  face  the  difficulties  which  surrounded  him. 
During  twelve  years,  lie  performed  forty  difficult  journeys, 
through  dense  forests,  or  in  canoes  on  rapid  and  dangerous 
rivers.  He  never  took  any  provisions  with  him,  but  wandered 
bare-footed  and  half-naked  through  the  tangled  underwood, 
trusting  wholly  to  Providence  for  support.  His  efforts  were 
rewarded  with  success,  and  having  learnt  some  of  the  Indian 
languages,  he  at  last  surrounded  himself  with  followers." 

Such  were  the  men  and  such  the  toils  which  won  all  South 
America  to  the  Cross.  If  sometimes  they  failed,  or  seemed  to 
fail,  it  was  only  for  a  brief  space.  When  Soto  Mayor,  one  of 
the  most  valiant  of  this  band  of  heroes,  was  rejected  by  a  tribe 
which  refused  to  be  converted,  he  left  with  them  his  crucifix, 
assuring  them  with  accents  of  patient  love,  that  the  God  whom 
it  represented  would  yet  incline  their  hearts  to  truth.  And  when 
he  was  gone,  their  souls  were  stirred  within  them  by  the  memory 
of  his  apostolic  words  ;  and  one  day  they  arrived  in  solemn 
procession,  asking  to  be  admitted  to  baptism,  and  bringing  back 
with  all  reverence  the  crucifix,  of  which  Mr.  Southey,  true  to 
his  instincts,  observes,  "This  idol  was  deposited  in  the  church 
of  the  Jesuits'  college,  where  it  was  long  venerated  with  es 
pecial  devotion." 

In  1661,  the  corrupt  Portuguese  traders,  whose  traffic  in 
slaves  had  been  well-nigh  ruined  by  Yieyra  and  his  companions, 
stirred  up  an  insurrection,  and  cast  the  Fathers  into  prison. 
Yieyra  himself,  says  the  Protestant  historian,  "  though  treated 
more  cruelly  than  any  of  his  companions,  betrayed  not  the 

slightest  mark  of  irritation  or  impatience An  heroic 

mind,  a  clear  conscience,  and  an  enthusiastic  sense  of  duty, 
produced  in  him  that  peace  which  passeth  all  understanding." 
They  were  dragged  on  board  ship,  and  dispatched  to  Portugal, 
with  a  memorial  to  the  king,  setting  forth  their  misdemeanors, 
and  charging  them  with  having  ruined  the  prosperity  of  the 
colony.  They  were  reinstated  by  a  royal  edict  in  the  following 
year,  with  a  sharp  admonition  to  their  accusers,  but  from  that 
hour  their  enemies  took  counsel  together  to  accomplish  their 
destruction. 

*  Expeditions,  &c.,  introd,  p.  xxx. 


156  CHAPTER  IX. 

In  1676,  Brazil  being  now  divided  into  the  three  dioceses  of 
Bahia,  Pernambnco,  and  Rio  de  Janeiro,  the  first  colony  of 
Franciscan  nuns  arrived.  "  Such  institutions,"  observes  Mr. 
Southey,  who  records  the  arrival  of  these  ladies  and  the  estab 
lishment  of  their  convent,  "are  better  receptacles  than  Bedlam 
for  the  largest  class  of  maniacs."41  Presently,  as  if  the  ex 
pression  pleased  his  taste,  he  calls  even  Anchieta,  D' Almeida, 
and  Yieyra — men  adorned  with  every  highest  gift,  both  of 
nature  and  grace,  which  the  Creator  bestows  on  His  creature 
— "  harmless  maniacs."  If  we  quote  such  language,  it  is  only 
to  show  how  educated  Protestants  judge  the  men  whom  they 
cannot  comprehend,  and  the  works  which  they  dare  not 
imitate. 

In  reading  words  now  almost  habitual  with  Protestant  critics, 
and  of  which  we  have  seen  too  many  examples  in  these  pages, 
we  are  involuntarily  reminded  of  the  formidable  sentence  of 
Holy  Writ,  which  announces  the  final  lot  both  of  the  accused 
and  their  accusers.  When  the  former,  we  are  told,  shall  have 
received  their  crown,  the  latter,  "  seeing  it,  shall  be  troubled 
with  terrible  fear,  and  shall  say  within  themselves,  repenting, 
and  groaning  for  anguish  of  spirit,  These  are  they  whom  we 
had  sometime  in  derision,  and  for  a  parable  of  reproach.  We 
fools  esteemed  their  life  madness,  and  their  end  without  honor. 
Behold,  how  they  are  numbered  with  the  children  of  God,  and 
their  lot  is  among  the  saints."f 

In  1696,  Yieyra  died,  at  the  age  of  ninety.  He  had  been 
seventy-five  years  a  Jesuit,  and  Mr.  Southey  remarks,  with  real 
or  affected  surprise,  that  "his  vows  were  never  repented."  He 
adds  also,  that  "  he  had  outlived  the  vexations  as  well  as  the 
joys  of  life;  his  enemies  were  gone  before  him  to  their  account, 
and  his  virtues  and  talents  were  acknowledged  and  respected  as 
they  deserved.":}: 

We  must  hasten  to  an  end.  Twenty  provinces  still  claim 
our  attention,  and  we  have  barely  glanced  at  the  history  of  one. 
A  hundred  names  might  be  added  to  those  of  Nobrega  and 
Anchieta,  of  D' Almeida  and  Yieyra,  but  we  have  no  space  to 
recount  them.  They  will  pardon  our  silence.  They  are  our 
fathers  and  kinsmen,  but  who  can  number  all  the  links  in  such 
a  genealogy?  We  have  spoken  only  of  the  Fathers  of  the 
Society  of  Jesus,  yet  the  children  of  St.  Francis  and  St.  Dominic, 
to  whom  America  owes  so  much,  might  well  have  claimed  the 
tribute  of  our  respectful  homage.  "The  Franciscans,"  says  Mr. 


*  Vol.  ii.,  ch.  xxviii.,  p.  571. 

f  Wisdom  v.,  2-5. 

J  Vol.  iii.,  ch.  xxxi.,  p.  34. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMEKICA.  157 

Clements  Markham,  thongli  he  appreciates  their  courage  rather 
than  the  religion  which  inspired  it,  "continued  during  a  century 
and  a  half  to  send  devoted  men  into  the  forests,  who  preached 
fearlessly,  explored  vast  tracts  of  previously  unknown  land,  and 
usually  ended  their  days  by  being  murdered  by  the  very  savages 
whom  they  had  come  to  humanize."*  In  1701,  two  Franciscan 
Fathers  were  martyred  by  the  Aruans.  Mr.  Sou  they  relates 
what  befell  their  mutilated  bodies.  "  They  found  them  in  a 
state  of  perfect  preservation,  although  they  had  lain  six  months 
upon  the  ground,  exposed  to  animals,  insects,  and  all  accidents 
of  weather,  and  although  their  habits  were  rotten."  It  was  no 
miracle,  he  adds,  for  he  did  not  believe  in  miracles,  "  but  fraud 
cannot  be  suspected."  The  evidence  was  so  conclusive,  that 
even  he  could  not  venture  to  reject  it.  "The  whole  city  of 
Belem,"  he  says,  saw  the  bodies,  which  were  ultimately  interred 
in  the  Franciscan  church  in  that  town. 

Finally,  if  we  ask  what  signs  there  are  at  this  hour  in  Brazil 
of  the  presence  of  the  apostolic  workmen  of  whose  toils  we  may 
not  offer  here  a  more  minute  account ;  if  we  inquire  how  far, 
in  this  case,  the  promise  has  been  fulfilled  which  declared  of 
old,  "  They  shall  know  their  seed  among  the  Gentiles,  and  their 
offspring  in  the  midst  of  peoples ;"  it  is  an  American  Protestant 
who  informs  us,  in  1856,  that  there  are  still,  after  all  the  calam 
ities  which  have  befallen  that  empire,  "eight  hundred  thousand 
domesticated  Indians"  who  call  upon  the  name  of  Jesus,  and 
invoke  the  protection  of  His  Mother.f 

Before  we  add  a  few  words,  in  order  to  complete  the  narrative, 
upon  the  present  state  of  Brazil,  the  fate  of  her  earlier  apostles 
claims  a  moment's  attention.  For  two  centuries  they  had 
toiled,  with  results  which  perhaps  none  but  the  Franciscans 
had  ever  rivalled,  and  having  won  the  approval  of  God  were 
now  to  receive  their  usual  reward  from  man.  St.  Ignatius  had 
dared  to  ask,  it  was  his  latest  prayer,  that  his  children  "  might 
be  always  persecuted."  The  petition,  we  know,  has  been 
heard.  In  1753,  the  brother  of  the  Marquis  de  Pombal  was 
made  Captain-general  of  Para  and  Maranham,  and  from  that 
hour  the  fate  of  the  Jesuits  was  sealed.  By  this  man  the 
requisite  pleadings  were  prepared,  and  they  were  accepted  with 
eagerness  by  the  conspirators  at  Lisbon,  as  even  Mr.  Southey 
observes,  "  notwithstanding  their  falsehood  and  palpable  incon 
sistency  ."J  "A  true  statesman,"  says  the  same  writer,  singular 
witness  in  such  a  cause,  "  would  assuredly  have  thought  that 

y 

*  Valley  of  the  Amazons,  introd.,  p.  xxi. 
f  Life  in  Brazil,  by  Thomas  Ewbank,  ch.  xxxviii.,  p.  432. 
i  Vol.  iii.,  ch.  xl.,  p.  510. 


158  CHAPTER  IX. 

the  Jesuits  in  America  were  worthy  of  his  especial  favor, 
protection,  and  encouragement."  But  Pombal,  envious  of  a 
greatness  which  lie  could  not  share,  had  resolved  to  crush 
them.  lie  knew  that  the  Brazilian  merchants  would  approve 
his  design,  for  the  Jesuits,  as  Mr.  Sonthey  remarks,  "  were  the 
only  unpopular  order,  because  they  were  the  only  missionaries 
who  uniformly  opposed  the  'tyranny  of  the  Portuguese."  Of 
the  charges  brought  against  them,  the  same  unsuspicious 
witness  says,  "All  that  are  not  absolutely  false,  are  merely 
frivolous."*  But  Pombal  was  willing  to  suborn  false  witnesses, 
and  if  these  had  not  been  forthcoming,  would  have  done  without 
them.  And  so  the  decree  went  forth  that  the  Jesuits  should  be 
banished. 

Twice  already  they  had  been  expelled  from  Brazil,  and  twice 
they  had  been  restored  amid  the  acclamations  of  the  people. 
This  time  their  exile  was  to  last  nearly  a  century.  From  Para 
one  hundred  and  fifteen  Fathers  were  deported,  from  Bahia  one 
hundred  and  sixty-eight,  from  Rio  Janeiro  one  hundred  and 
forty-five  ;  in  all  five  hundred  and  twenty-eight,  from  this 
province  alone.  "The  number  expelled  from  all  the  Spanish 
Indies  amounted  to  five  thousand  six  hundred  and  seventy- 
seven.'^  We  shall  see  hereafter  what  befell  the  Fathers  in  the 
other  provinces.  And  this  was  the  manner  of  their  deportation  : 
"They  were  stowed  as  closely  as  negro  slaves,"  says  Mr.  Southey, 
whom  we  will  quote  to  the  last,  "  and  confined  below  decks  on 
the  voyage  to  S.  Luiz."  Yet,  as  even  he  observes,  "  they  were 
men  whose  innocence  and  virtue  must  most  certainly  have  been 
known."  And  then  he  adds,  his  better  nature  triumphing  for 
once  over  the  instincts  of  heresy  and  unbelief,  "  They  were 
treated  with  extreme  cruelty  upon  the  voyage ;  when  they  wTere 
suffering  the  most  painful  thirst,  the  captain  would  not  allow, 
even  to  the  dying,  an  additional  drop  of  water,  to  moisten  their 
lips,  nor  would  he  permit  them  the  consolation  of  receiving  the 
last  sacrament  in  death.  Five  of  them  died  (in  one  ship)  under 
this  unhuman  usage." 

And  when  at  last  this  company  of  apostles  reached  Europe, 
followed  by  the  sighs  and  tears  of  a  whole  continent,  for 
eighteen  weary  years  they  languished  in  prison,  till  M.  cu 
Pombal  passed  to  his  account,  with  the  horrible  jest  on  his 
lips,  "  that  the  Jesuits  were  the  longest  lived  body  of  men 
he  ever  knew."  But  they  followed  him  to  the  judgment 
for,  as  the  historian  relates,  "in  a  few  years  thev  were  almo?( 
extinguished." 

*  P.  518. 

f  Southey,  vol.  iii.,  di.  xlii.,  p.  614. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  159 

Pombal  had  disappeared  forever,  but  not  so  the  Society  of 
Jesus.  In  1817,  the  revolted  Spanish  colonies  of  South  Amer- 
ica,  justifying  their  separation,  reproached  their  former  mis 
tress,  in  these  earnest  words :  "  You  arbitrarily  deprived  us  of 
the  Jesuits,  to  whom  we  owe  our  social  state,  our  civilization, 
all  our  instruction,  and  services  with  which  we  can  never  dis 
pense."  In  1834,  the  Argentine  Republic  recalled  them  with 
acclamation;  in  1842,  Columbia  solicited  their  return ;  in  1843, 
they  were  re-established  in  Mexico ;  in  Chili,  they  are  once 
more  the  model  and  the  admiration  of  their  brethren.  And 
where  are  their  persecutors  ?  When  the  Jesuits  returned  to 
the  province  of  Coimbra,  in  1832,  more  than  one  of  them 
hastened  to  the  town  of  Pombal,  in  order  to  offer  in  secret  the 
suffrages  of  charity  over  the  grave  of  the  Marquis.  To  their 
amazement  they  found  "that  the  once  imperious  statesman  had 
been  so  completely  forgotten  by  all  but  them,  that  his  body, 
covered  with  a  ragged  cloth,  had  remained  without  sepulture 
from  1782 !  But  there  is  nothing  in  this  fact  to  surprise  us. 
The  world,  which  pursues  them  with  its  heartless  applause, 
abandons  its  heroes  when  the  sword  or  the  staff  falls  from  their 
nerveless  hands;  and  the  Church  alone,  more  tender  than 
friends,  more  compassionate  than  kinsfolk,  is  found  weeping 
over  the  tombs  of  her  enemies,  and  praying  for  the  pardon  of 
their  sins.* 

And  now  let  us  see  what  were  the  results  of  their  expulsion. 
Only  twenty-five  years  after  their  departure,  the  noblest  colony 
which  Portugal  had  ever  possessed  was  in  ruins.  " Decay  and 
desolation,"  as  Mr.  Southey  confesses,  had  succeeded  "  the 
prosperity  which  had  prevailed  in  the  time  of  the  missionaries; 
houses  falling  to  pieces;  fields  overgrown  with  wood;  grass  in 
the  market-places  ;  the  lime-kilns,  the  potteries,  the  manufac 
tories  of  calico5' — for  the  Jesuits  had  introduced  all  these — "in 
ruins." 

Pombal,  says  the  same  writer  whom  we  have  so  often  quoted, 
while  affecting  to  care  for  the  welfare  of  the  Indians,  "removed 
the  only  persons  who  could  have  co-operated  with  him  for  this 
end ;  the  only  persons  who  would  have  exerted  themselves  dis 
interestedly  to  promote  the  improvement  and  happiness  of  the 
Indians  ;  the  only  persons  who  for  the  love  of  God  would 
have  devoted  themselves  dutifully,  cheerfully,  and  zealously  to 
the  service  of  their  fellow-creatures.  In  their  place  such  men 
as  would  undertake  the  office  for  the  love  of  gain,  were  substi- 

*  A  modern  traveller  relates  of  Joseph.  II.,  the  Julian  of  Austria,  "  Nowhere 
is  his  name  breathed  ;  it  is  as  if  he  had  never  existed,  or  as  if  a  curse  lay  on 
his  memory."  Austria,  by  J.  GK  Kohl,  p.  233  (1843). 


160  CHAPTER  IX. 

tuted,  and  the  immediate  consequences  were  injurious  in  every 
way.  The  laws  in  favor  of  the  Indians"— the  missionaries  had 
procured  the  abolition  of  slavery— "  were  infringed  more 
daringly ;  the  directors  themselves  had  an  interest  in  oppressing 
them,  because  their  profits  were  in  proportion  to  the  work  per 
formed;  they  had  the  power  of  compelling  them  to  work,  and 
they  had  neither  authority,  influence,  nor  inclination  to  check 
those  vices  which  certainly  were  not  practised  under  the  moral 
discipline  of  the  Aldeas" — the  Jesuit  Reductions.  "  That  pro 
cess  of  civilization  which  had  been  going  on  so  rapidly  and 
with  such  excellent  effect" — in  an  earlier  volume  Mr.  Southey 
had  scoifed  at  this  civilization — "  was  stopped  at  once  and  for 
ever  ;  and  a  rapid  depopulation  began,  because  free  scope  was 
now  given  to  drunkenness  and  to  every,  other  vice,  and  because 
many  of  the  Indians  fled  into  the  wilderness,  when  they  found 
that 'their  state  of  filial  subjection  was  exchanged  for  a  servitude 
which  had  nothing  either  to  sanctify  or  to  soften  it."*  And  it 
is  Mr.  Southey  who  writes  this  undesigned  panegyric  of  Catholic 
missionaries ! 

But  Mr.  Southey  is  not  the  only  writer  of  his  class  who  makes 
these  confessions.  Dr.  Kidder  and  Mr.  Fletcher,  two  Prot 
estant  ministers,  whose  eager  libels  on  the  Catholic  religion 
would  perhaps  excite  our  indignation  if  it  were  possible  to  treat 
them  seriously,  admit  that  the  virtues  of  the  Jesuits  proved 
their  ruin.  "  Their  benevolence  and  their  philanthropic  devoted- 
ness  to  the  Indians  brought  down  upon  them  the  hatred  of 
their  countrymen,  the  Portuguese."f  "  Centuries  will  not 
repair  the  evil  done  by  their  sudden  expulsion,"  says  a  candid 
English  traveller.  .  .  .  "They  had  been  the  protectors  of  a 
persecuted  race,  the  advocates  of  mercy,  the  founders  of  civiliza 
tion,  and  their  patience  under  their  unmerited  sufferings  forms 
not  the  least  honorable  trait  in  their  character. "J  Prince 
Adalbert  of  Prussia,  though  apparently  insensible  to  apostolic 
virtues,  which  he  seems  to  have  only  contemplated  with  dull 
apathy  or  peevish  dislike,  confesses  that  "  decay  commenced 
with  the  expulsion  of  the  Jesuits."§  Prince  Maximilian  of 
Wied-Nenwied,  another  modern  traveller  in  Brazil,  who  observes 
that  at  Villa  Nova,  which  he  visited,  "the  Jesuits  had  collected 
six  thousand  Indians,"  adds  "but  most  of  them  were  driven 
away  by  the  hard  service  exacted  by  the  crown,  and  by  the 


*  P.  534. 
f  Ch.  xx.,  p.  368. 

\  Journal  of  a  Voyage  to  Brazil,  by  Lady  Calcott,  pp.  13,  36  (1824). 
§  Travels  in  Brazil,  &c.,  by  H.  R.  H.  Prince  Adalbert  of  Prussia,  vol.  ii.,  p. 
149,  ed.  Schomburgh. 


MISSIONS  IN  AMERICA.  161 

slavish  manner  in  which  they  were  treated."*  Mr.  Gardner 
also,  who  speaks,  like  these  German  princes,  from  actual  ob 
servation,  says  :  "  It  is  handed  down  from  father  to  son,  par 
ticularly  among  the  middle  and  lower  classes  of  Brazil,  that 
the  destruction  of  the  Jesuitical  power  was  a  severe  loss  to  the 
well-being  of  the  country.  There  are  of  course  but  few  alive 
now  (1846)  who  have  personal  recollection  of  the  excellent  men 
who  formed  the  Company  of  Jesus,  but  the  memory  of  them 
will  long  remain ;  I  have  always  heard  them  spoken  of  with 
respect  and  with  regret."f  Lastly,  for  we  need  not  multiply 
testimonies  which  we  shall  find  to  be  identical  for  every  province 
of  America,  another  vehement  Protestant  goes  a  step  further, 
and  contrasts  the  Jesuits,  as  Lord  Macaulay  was  wont  to  do, 
with  the  worldly  and  covetous  missionaries  of  his  own  creed. 
"  The  early  missionaries  who  ventured  into  the  prairies  and 
savannahs  of  America  gave  many  indications  of  being  animated 
by  an  apostolic  spirit.  .  .  .  Destitute  themselves,  they  had  no 
lucrative  employments  to  offer  in  the  shape  of  subaltern  offices 
in  a  richly  endowed  missionary  establishment,  to  tempt  the 
natives  to  enlist  as  retainers  in  the  household  of  Christianity. 
They  did  not  practise  the  simony  of  buying  converts."^:  "  They," 
says  another  English  traveller,  "  have  brought  nearly  the  whole 
of  the  Indian  population  of  South  America  into  the  bosom  of 
their  Church.  Notwithstanding  the  numerous  Church  and 
Sectarian  missionaries  sent  from  England,  I  never  met  with  one 
Indian  converted  by  them."§  Thus,  according  to  the  words  of 
our  Lord,  when  He  noticed  the  judgments  of  men  upon  Him 
self  and  His  disciples,  "  is  wisdom  justified  of  all  her  children." 

Before  we  finally  quit  Brazil,  to  pursue  elsewhere  the  same 
inquiry,  let  us  add,  according  to  our  custom,  a  brief  account 
of  the  character  and  fortunes  of  Protestantism  in  that  empire. 
The  Huguenots  of  France,  the  Calvinists  of  Holland,  and  the 
Episcopalians  of  England,  have  all  made  attempts  to  acquire 
influence  in  Brazil.  It  would  be  impossible  to  say  which  class 
has  failed  most  signally.  It  has  often  been  observed,  that 
heresy  always  presents  itself  under  one  of  two  aspects  ;  when 
it  does  not  act  a  tragedy,  it  performs  a  comedy  ;  when  it  is 
not  ferocious,  it  is  ludicrous.  The  Dutch  made  the  Brazilians 
groan  ;  the  English  only  made  them  smile. 

Of  the  Dutch  Protestants,   "  whose   colonial  history  is  so 

*  Travels  in  Brazil,  by  Prince  Maximilian  of  Wied-Neuwied,  cb.  vi.,  p.  150 
(1820). 

f  Travels  in  the  Interior  of  Brazil,  by  George  Gardner,  F.L.S.,  ch.  iii.,  p.  81 
(1846). 

\  Asiatic  Journal,  vol.  ix.,  p.  3. 

§  Nine  Months'  Residence  in  New  Zealand,  by  Augustus  Earle,  p.  171. 

VOL.  II.  12 


162  CHAPTER  IX. 

inexpiably  disgraceful  to  human  nature."  we  have  heard  more 
than  enough.  They  were  driven  out,  and  went  home  to  re 
ceive  the  condolence  of  their  friends.  The  French  Huguenots 
had  scarcely  a  more  brilliant  destiny.  Here  is,  their  sorrowful 
history,  narrated  by  Protestant  writers. 

"  Rio  Janeiro,"  we  are  told  by  Messrs.  Kidder  and  Fletcher, 
who  always  affect  this  florid  style,  "  is  fraught  with  interest  to 
the  Protestant  Christian,  as  that  portion  of  the  New  World 
where  the  banner  of  the  reformed  religion  was  first  unfurled." 
As  it  was  torn  from  its  staff  as  soon  as  it  was  unfurled,  these 
gentlemen  were  hardly  prudent  in  calling  public  attention  to 
this  ill-starred  banner.  It  was  in  1556  that  Villegagnon,  him 
self  an  apostate,  and  who  had  once  conducted  Mary  Stuart 
in  safety  through  the  English  cruisers  from  Leith  to  France, 
landed  at  Rio  with  an  avant  corps  of  fourteen  Calvinists,  who 
seem  to  have  been  too  much  compromised  in  their  own  country 
to  regret  their  forced  emigration  to  another.  It  was  their  ob 
ject,  as  Prince  Adalbert  sympathizingly  observes,  to  form  "  the 
establishment  of  an  asylum  for  Huguenots  beyond  the  seas." 
This  "  interesting  band,"  as  the  English  historian  of  the  Lon 
don  Missionary  Society  calls  them,  tried  to  introduce  Calvinism 
among  "  the  benighted  savages ;"  but  "  it  does  not  appear," 
Dr.  Morrison  adds,  "  that  any  of  them  were  savingly  wrought 
upon  by  the  truth  ;"*  indeed  he  presently  confesses  that  they 
were  bent  chiefly  on  finding  an  "  asylum,"  and  that  "  the  con 
version  of  the  heathen  was  a  secondary  object."  Attacked  by 
the  Portuguese,  who  wisely  objected  to  the  presence  of  these 
seditious  adventurers,  their  "  banner"  was  speedily  lowered. 
Villegagnon,  recanting  his  errors,  was  reconciled  to  the  Church, 
and  left  his  companions  to  their  fate.  It  was  not  likely  that 
thirteen  Protestant  preachers  would  long  "  dwell  together  in 
unity;"  and  accordingly,  as  the  Rev.  Dr.  Walsh  relates, 
"  weakened  by  their  intestine  dissensions,"f  they  became  an 
easy  prey.  "  Their  squabbles,"  says  Mr.  Ewbank,  "  and  the 
bitterness  of  spirit  accompanying  them,  ruined  all."^  And  so 
they  came  to  a  bad  end ;  French  Protestantism  finally  col 
lapsed,  and  Brazil  declined,  once  for  all,  to  become  "an  asylum 
for  Huguenots  beyond  the  seas." 

The  English  have  hardly  been  more  successful.  Dr.  Walsh, 
a  minister  of  their  Established  Church,  a  gentleman  whose 
integrity  and  kindly  temper  it  is  impossible  not  to  admire,  was 
honored  by  the  friendship  of  the  Bishop  of  Rio,  "  the  excellent 

i 

The  Fathers  of  tlie  London  Missionary  Society,  vol.  i.,  p.  60. 
t  Notices  of  Brazil,  by  Rev.  R.  Walsh,  LL.D.,  vol.  i.,  p.  153  (1830). 
\  Life  in  Brazil,  ch.  viii.,  p.  83. 


MISSIONS  IN"  AMERICA.  163 

Jose  Caetano  da  Silva-Coutinho,  than  whom  a  more  learned  or, 
I  believe,  a  more  amiable  man  does  not  exist."  This  prelate, 
Dr.  Walsh  says,  "  fasts  all  the  year  on  one  meal  a  day ;"  and 
he  adds,  perhaps  with  unintentional  exaggeration,  "  he  studies 
all  night."  In  1810,  this  excellent  bishop  was  consulted  by 
the  civil  authorities  about  a  demand  which  the  English  res 
idents  in  Rio  had  made  for  a  public  chapel  in  that  city.  He 
advised  that  it  should  be  conceded,  and  for  this  reason  :  "  The 
English  have  really  no  religion,  but  they  are  a  proud  and 
obstinate  people ;  if  you  oppose  them,  they  will  persist,  and 
make  it  an  affair  of  infinite  importance ;  but  if  you  concede  to 
their  wishes,  the  chapel  will  be  built  and  nobody  will  ever  go 
near  it."  "The  Brazilians  say  he  was  right,"  adds  Dr.  Walsh, 
1830,  "  for  the  event  has  verified  the  prediction."  The  chapel, 
whose  history  the  bishop  had  so  sagaciously  predicted,  "  had  an 
air  of  dirt  and  neglect,"  says  this  clergyman,  "quite  painful  to 
contemplate,  and  the  congregation  seemed  to  take  no  interest 
in  it  when  it  was  built,  notwithstanding  their  zeal  to  have  it 
established."*  Twenty-six  years  later,  in  1856,  to  bring  the 
history  down  to  the  present  hour,  Mr.  Ewbank  relates,  that 
"the  British  chapel  never  received  a  native  convert,  while 
monks  have  drawn  members  from  it."f 

One  more  anecdote  may  close  the  history  of  Anglicanism  in 
Brazil.  Dr.  Walsh  had  observed  during  his  residence  "the 
deep  impression  of  rational  piety"  among  the  Brazilians,  and 
that  "  the  great  body  of  the  people  are  zealously  attached  to 
their  religion ;"  and  then  he  attests,  with  surprising  candor, 
the  supreme  but  good-humored  contempt  which  they  mani 
fested  for  Protestantism.  "An  English  merchant  and  his 
wife,"  he  says,  "  had  incurred  the  wrath  of  the  Brazilians"  by 
sneering  at  their  processions  in  Passion  Week,  which  these 
fervent  islanders  loudly  condemned  as  "  Popish  idolatry."  The 
people  of  Eio  only  replied,  says  Dr.  Walsh,  by  adding  to  the 
images  of  Pilate,  Judas  Iscariot,  and  other  malefactors,  "  two 
figures  that  exactly  resembled  the  merchant  and  his  wife — 
nothing  could  be  more  correct  than  the  likeness." J 

Finally,  in  1S56,  an  American  Protestant — evidently  an 
amiable  man,  though  he  calls  St.  Francis  of  Assisi  "an  Italian 
devotee  of  the  twelfth  century,"  and  looks  upon  the  Catholic 
religion  only  as  an  incomprehensible  mystery  which  defies 
analysis  and  baffles  criticism — thus  announces  his  view  of  the 
actual  prospects  of  Protestantism  in  Brazil:  "The  more  I  see 


*  Vol.  i.,  p.  328. 
f  Cli.  xx.,  p.  238. 
;  Vol.  ii.,  p.  398. 


164:  CHAPTER  IX. 

of  this  people,"— whom  he  lauds  as  "hospitable,  affectionate, 
intelligent,  and  aspiring," — "the  more  distant  appears  the 
success  of  any  Protestant  missions  among  them.  .  .  .  .  The 
people  avoid  a  missionary  as  one  with  whom  association  is 
disreputable,  and  they  entertain  a  feeling  towards  him  border 
ing  on  contempt,  arising  from  a  rooted  belief  in  his  ignorance 
and  presumption."* 


'  GUYANA. 

If  we  now  quit  for  a  time  the  empire  of  Brazil  at  its  northern 
frontier,  we  shall  find,  between  the  Amazon  and  the  Oronoco, 
on  the  eastern  coast,  three  narrow  territories,  which  acknowledge 
respectively  the  dominion  of  England,  France,  and  Holland.  Of 
the  Dutch  proceedings  we  have  already  heard  more  than 
enough,  but  a  few  words  may  be  allowed  with  respect  to  the 
English  and  French. 

British  Guyana  has  found  a  capable  historian  in  Dr.  Dalton. 
Two  or  three  sentences  from  that  candid  writer  will  suffice  to 
prove  the  contrast  which  we  might  have  confidently  anticipated, 
and  which  is  not  less  conspicuous  in  this  obscure  region  than 
in  the  wider  fields  which  we  have  already  visited.  Of  the 
negroes  under  the  patronage  of  English  missionary  societies, 
he  says,  "Puritans  in  profession,  they  are  liberals  in  practice," — 
that  is,  as  he  explains,  "  they  appeared  to  think  that  faith 
alone  was  necessary,  and  that  good  works  were  superfluous." 
And  then  he  gives  one  more  example  of  the  real  influence  of 
Protestant  Bibles.  "The  lazy,  the  dissolute,  and  the  disaf 
fected  met  every  rebuke  and  remonstrance  by  some  scriptural 
phrase  or  religious  expression."  Of  the  natives,  he  says, 
"After  all,"  that  is,  after  the  usual  enormous  and  perfectly 
useless  expenditure,  "  the  native  Indian  afforded  but  poor  en 
couragement  in  the  arduous  task  of  Christianization."t 

The  negro  appears  to  have  profited  as  little  by  the  presence  of 
the  English  emissaries.  His  teachers  have  been  aided  during 
many  years  by  the  power  and  wealth  of  England,  but  with  so 
little  fruit,  as  an  English  writer  notices  in  1860,  that  though  he 
considers  the  Guyana  Protestant  negro  "  somewhat  superior  to 
his  brother  in  Jamaica,"  he  thus  describes  the  final  influence  of 
the  teaching  which  he  has  received  :  "  It  seems  to  me  that  he 

*  Ewbank,  ubi  supra. 

\  History  of  British  Guiana,  by  Henry  G.  Dalton,  M.D.,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  iv , 
pp.  146-8. 


MISSIONS  IN  AMERICA.  165 

never  connects  his  religion  with  his  life,  never  reflects  that  his 
religion  should  bear  upon  his  conduct."  Mr.  Trollope  adds, 
that  his  information  was  mainly  derived  "  from  clergymen  of 
the  Church  of  England,"  whose  unusual  candor  is  perhaps  due 
to  the  fact  that  most  of  these  singular  "converts"  had  rejected 
their  more  tranquil  ceremonies  for  the  exciting  harangues  of 
the  Baptist  or  Wesleyan  preacher — whose  sects  have,  as  usual, 
accompanied  the  Church  of  England  to  Guyana.  "They  sing 
and  halloa,  and  scream,  and  have  revivals.  They  talk  of  their 
i  dear  brothers'  and  '  dear  sisters,'  and  in  their  ecstatic  howl- 
ings  get  some  fun  for  their  money."*  And  this  is  all  which 
the  English  have  done  in  Guyana. 

"The  implements  of  conversion,"  as  Mr.  Southey  speaks, 
appear  to  have  been  wanting  ;  and  Dr.  Dalton  does  not  conceal 
that  all  the  English  efforts  were  only  cost.y  failures.  On  the 
other  hand,  this  Protestant  writer  generously  observes  of  the 
Catholic  missionaries  in  British  Guyana,  who  do  not  receive 
much  aid  from  patrons  of  any  sort,  and  least  of  all  from  the 
government,  "  All  are  respected  for  their  piety  and  zeal.  The 
number  of  Eoman  Catholics  in  the  colony  is  about  ten  thousand." 

In  speaking  of  the  French  mission  in  Guyana,  we  are  obliged, 
for  the  first  time,  to  use  Catholic  evidence,  in  default  of  any 
other.  In  1560,  the  Spanish  missionary,  Sala,  in  company 
with  another  Dominican  Father,  entered  this  province,  but  both 
were  immediately  martyred.  In  1643,  the  French  Capuchins 
repeated  the  attempt,  with  the  same  result.  Four  years  earlier, 
the  Jesuits  entered  the  country  at  another  point,  under  Fathers 
Meland  and  Pelleprat,  and  evangelized  the  savage  tribe  of  the 
Galibis,  whose  ferocity  they  appear  to  have  disarmed  by  their 
contempt  of  suffering  and  danger,  and  whose  obedience  they 
won  by  patient  wisdom  and  charity.  In  1653,  Father  Pelleprat 
published  a  Grammar  and  Dictionary  of  their  language.  In. 
1654,  Fathers  Aubergeon  and  Gueimu,  after  converting  many 
pagans,  were  martyred,  the  one  after  twenty,  the  other  after 
fifteen  years  of  religious  life.  At  this  time  the  Dutch  seized 
Cayenne,  and  when  they  were  cast  out  it  was  found  that  "  Jews 
and  Protestants  had  everywhere  thrown  down  the  crosses,  the 
emblem  of  our  salvation. "f  This  was  the  only  effect  of  their 
presence.  At  length,  after  the  due  proportions  of  martyrdoms, 
the  work  of  conversion  in  French  Guyana  was  so  effectually 
accomplished,  in  spite  of  the  peculiar  difficulties  of  such  a  mis 
sion,  and  the  impracticable  character  of  the  natives,  that  in 

*  The  West  Indies  and  the  Spanish  Main,  by  Anthony  Trollope,  ch.  xii., 
p.  199. 

f  Mission  de  Cayenne  et  de  la  Guyane  Frangaise,  par  M.  F.  de  Montezou,  do 
la  Compagnie  de  Jesus,  introd.,  p.  x.  (1857). 


166  CHAPTER  IX. 

1674,  Fathers  Grillet  and  Bechamel  started  from  Cayenne  for 
the  interior,  with  the  intention  of  renewing  in  its  distant  soli 
tudes  the  same  patient  apostolate.  Here,  after  fifteen  years  of 
prodigious  toil,  surmounting  a  thousand  disgusts  and  disap 
pointments  occasioned  by  the  inconstancy  or  the  brutality  of  the 
savages,  the  celebrated  Father  Aime  Lombard  was  able  to  erect 
the  first  Christian  Church  at  the  mouth  of  the  river  Kourou. 
For  twenty-three  years  he  had  labored  among  these  barbarians, 
and  at  last  could  report  to  his  friend  de  la  Iseuville,  in  1733,  in 
these  words  :  "  Acquainted  as  you  are  with  the  levity  of  our 
Indians,  you  will  no  doubt  have  been  surprised  that  their 
natural  inconstancy  should  at  length  have  been  overcome.  It  is 
religion  which  has  effected  this  prodigy,  and  which  every  day 
fixes  its  roots  deeper  in  their  hearts.  The  horror  with  which 
they  now  regard  their  former  superstitions,  their  regularity  in 
frequently  approaching  the  sacraments,  their  assiduity  in  assist 
ing  at  the  Divine  office,  the  profound  sentiments  of  piety  which 
they  manifest  at  the  hour  of  death,  these  are  indeed  effectual 
proofs  of  a  sincere  and  lasting  conversion."* 

Such  were  the  fruits  of  the  blood  and  the  toil  of  men  in  whom 
even  the  most  degraded  races  of  the  earth,  hitherto  unconscious 
of  either  truth  or  virtue,  detected  the  presence  of  God.  And 
this  was  only  a  part  of  their  work.  Along  both  banks  of  the 
Oyapoch,  throughout  its  course,  missions  were  established  by 
apostles  who  seemed  to  have  been  almost  exempt  from  human 
infirmity  ;  and  who,  as  a  French  historian  relates,  "  formed  the 
gigantic  project,  which  had  no  terrors  for  the  courage  of  these 
intrepid  missionaries,  of  uniting  by  a  chain  of  evangelical 
posts,  both  extremities  of  Guyana." 

Already,  in  1711,  M.  de  la  Motte-Aigron,  lieutenant  of  the 
king,  could  report :  "  It  has  at  length  pleased  God  to  reward  by 
a  success  almost  incredible  the  constancy  of  His  servants." 
Fourteen  years  later,  Father  Arnaud  d'Ayma,  conspicuous  for 
dauntless  valor  even  among  the  one  hundred  and  eleven 
Jesuits  who  labored  in  this  difficult  field,  had  fought  his  way 
to  the  remotest  of  all  the  known  tribes  ;  and  in  that  distant 
spot,  amongst  the  nation  of  the  Pirioux, — "lodged  in  a 
miserable  cabin,  living  like  the  savages,  spending  his  day  in 
prayer,  in  the  study  of  their  language,  or  the  instruction  of 
their  children," — he  so  won  the  hearts  of  the  barbarians,  that  at 
length  "  they  resolved  to  follow  him  whithersoever  he  wished  to 
lead  them."  And  then  he  founded  the  mission  of  St.  Paul,  on 
the  Oyapoch,  where  he  collected  the  Pirioux  and  the  whole 
nation  of  the  Caranes ;  as  a  little  later  Fathet  d'Ausillac  gathered 

*  P.  328. 


MISSIONS  IN  AMERICA.  167 

by  the  banks  of  the  Ouanari  the  tribes  of  the  Tocoyenes,  the 
Maourioux,  and  the  Maraones;  and  Father  Creulli  performed 
those  miracles  of  apostolic  wisdom  and  charity  which  made 
Chateaubriand  exclaim,  "  What  he  accomplished  seems  to 
surpass  the  powers  of  human  nature." 

In  1762,  the  evil  day  arrived  for  Guyana,  as  for  every  other 
land,  and  the  madness  of  an  hour  put  back  the  conversion  of 
the  heathen  world  to  a  future  and  unknown  period.  Once  more 
the  enemy  triumphed ;  and  there  was  a  sound  of  mourning  by 
the  banks  of  the  Oyapoch  and  the  Ouanari,  as  by  those  of  the 
Parana  and  the  Paraguay. 

In  1763,  the  Due  de  Choisenl,  imitating  his  compeer  the 
Marquis  de  Pombal,  formed  the  project  of  a  grand  scheme  of 
colonization  in  Guyana,  perhaps  in  order  to  show  that  he  also 
could  do  without  the  missionaries  of  the  Cross.  Fourteen 
thousand  persons  were  persuaded  by  magnificent  promises  to 
emigrate  to  this  province,  where  Choiseul  bade  them  surpass, 
by  the  aid  of  a  sounder  political  economy,  the  triumphs  of  the 
Jesuits.  They  began  by  expelling  the  venerable  Father 
O'Reilly,  the  last  survivor  and  sole  representative  of  the  Com 
pany  of  Jesus,  and  the  Christian  Indians  fled  before  them. 
Two  years  later,  the  Chevalier  de  Balzac  could  report  to 
Europe,  occupied  in  admiring  its  own  wisdom  and  enlighten 
ment,  that  only  nine  hundred  and  eighteen  of  the  colonists 
remained  alive.  More  than  thirteen  thousand  dupes  of  M.  de 
Choiseul,  who  proposed  to  eclipse  the  Jesuits  in  their  own 
triumphs  had  perished  in  two  years !  In  the  following  year, 
1766,  M.  de  Fiedrnond,  governor  of  Cayenne,  wrote  thus  to  the 
Due  de  Praslin,  who  was  probably  as  indifferent  to  this  catas 
trophe  as  to  the  acts  of  which  it  was  a  natural  sequel :  "  I  have 
already  informed  the  Due  de  Choiseul  how  necessary  it  is  to 
send  priests  to  this  colony."  And  then  he  describes  the 
destruction  of  the  once  flourishing  missions,  the  flight  of  the 
Indians,  the  growth  of  crime  amongst  the  negroes  deprived  of 
their  pastors,  and  the  rapid  ruin  of  the  colony.  Finally,  this 
officer  adds,  "Heligion  is  dying  out  among  the  whites,  as  well 
as  amongst  the  colored  races."* 

For  ten  years  he  reiterated  the  complaint,  but  always  in  vain. 
How  should  "philosophers"  condescend  to  entreat  hum  bio 
missionaries  to  repair  the  evils  of  which  they  had  been  them 
selves  the  authors?  How  should  men  in  whom  the  light  of 
faith  had  gone  out,  and  whose  intelligence  wTas  enfeebled  by 
arrogant  self-love,  confess  that  the  wide-spread  ruin  was  the 
work  of  their  own  hands  ?  At  length  the  good  King  Louis  XVI., 

*  P.  335. 


168  CHAPTER  IX. 

himself  destined  to  be  a  sacrifice  to  the  impiety  which  had 
already  devoured  so  many  victims,  sent  three  Jesuits — Fathers 
Padilla,  Mathos,  and  Ferreira — who  had  been  banished  with  the 
others  from  Brazil;  and  then  was  seen  a  touching  spectacle, 
which  has  been  described  in  the  Journal  of  Christophe  de 
Murr.  "The  poor  savages,  beholding  once  again  men  clothed 
in  the  habit  which  they  had  learned  to  venerate,  and  hearing 
them  speak  their  own  language,  fell  at  their  feet,  bathing  them 
with  tears,  and  promised  to  live  once  more  as  good  Christians, 
since  they  had  restored  to  them  the  Fathers  who  had  begotten 
them  to  Jesus  Christ." 

In  1852,  the  Jesuits  were  once  more  in  Cayenne.  It  was  not 
the  first  time  that  a  member  of  the  family  of  Napoleon  had 
understood  that  if  the  impossible  was  to  be  accomplished,  it 
was  the  Fathers  of  the  Society  of  Jesus  who  must  be  asked  to 
attempt  it.  Between  June,  1853,  and  September,  1856,  eleven 
Jesuits  died  in  the  swamps  of  Cayenne  of  yellow  fever.  "  Oh ! 
how  many  souls  has  he  delivered  from  hell !"  was  the  exclama 
tion  of  a  poor  French  outcast  over  the  body  of  one  of  them. 
But  they  have  cheerfully  accepted  this  "  crucifying  mission,"  as 
Father  D'Abbadie  called  it;  there  were  broken  hearts  to  be 
comforted,  and  they  asked  no  more.  "  Why  do  you  weep  ?"  said 
D'Abbadie  to  his  brethren  as  they  stood  round  his  death-bed,  in 
1856  ;  "  I  am  going  to  heaven !"  And  it  was  always  by  the  aid 
of  the  glorious  and  all-powerful  mother  of  God  that  he  and  his 
companions  recovered  the  unhappy  souls  committed  to  their 
care.  "What  led  you,"  said  one  of  the  Fathers  to  an  aged 
criminal  who  had  obtained  the  grace  of  a  happy  death,  uto 
seek  at  last  the  succors  of  religion?"  "I  have  done  nothing 
but  evil  during  my  whole  life,"  he  replied  ;  "  one  thing  only  I 
have  never  failed  to  do,  and  that  I  owe  to  the  councils  of  my 
mother:  every  day  I  have  said  the  Salve  Regina,  in  honor  of 
the  Holy  Yirgin."  And  that  Blessed  One,  by  her  mighty 
protection,  had  saved  him  at  last. 

It  is  time  to  leave  Guyana,  where  the  same  works  are  in 
progress  at  this  hour,  and  where  missionaries  who  have  sacrificed 
all  for  the  love  of  God,  and  do  not  repent  the  sacrifice,  still 
display  the  apostolic  virtues  which  forced  not  long  ago  from 
the  French  governor  of  Cayenne  this  cry  of  admiration,  "  You 
are  happier  than  we ;  death  itself  has  no  terrors  for  such  as 
you."* 

*  P.  460. 


MISSIONS  IN  AMERICA.  169 


CAKTHAGENA    AND   THE   BLESSED   PETEK   CLAVER. 

If  now  we  continue  onr  hasty  journey  through  the  provinces 
of  South  America,  and  traverse  Venezuela,  without  halting 
by  the  banks  of  the  Cayuni  or  the  Apure,  so  often  trodden  by 
the  messengers  of  peace,  we  shall  enter  New  Grenada,  and  at 
Garth ageria  we  shall  lind  the  traces  of  one  whom  the  Church 
has  already  presented  to  the  homage  of  the  faithful,  under  the 
title  of  the  Blessed  Peter  Claver. 

Born  towards  the  close  of  the  sixteenth  century,  an  age  in 
which  the  most  prodigious  graces  of  heaven  were  poured  out  on 
every  side,  as  if  to  counterpoise  the  irreparable  calamities  to 
which  it  also  gave  birth,  this  offspring  of  an  illustrious  Catalonian 
race  displayed  even  in  infancy  the  gifts  with  which  he  was  to  be 
more  abundantly  favored  in  his  after  career.  In  1602,  he  was 
admitted  as  a  postulant  into  the  Society  of  Jesus,  at  Tarragona. 
In  1610,  he  left  Seville,  at  the  bidding  of  Claude  Aquaviva,  for 
the  land  in  which  he  was  to  spend  thirty-nine  years  of  what 
has  been  truly  called  "a  perpetual  martyrdom."  In  1615,  he 
celebrated  his  first  Mass  at  Carthagena,  of  which  it  was  the 
will  of  God  that  he  should  become  the  apostle. 

"  Do  every  thing  for  the  greater  glory  of  God,"  was  one  of  the 
rules  found  in  a  book  containing  his  secret  thoughts ;  and  a 
second  was  this,  "Seek  nothing  in  this  world  but  what  Jesus 
Himself  sought — to  sanctify  souls,  to  labor,  to  suffer,  and  if 
necessary  to  die  for  their  salvation,  and  all  for  the  sake  of 
Jesus !"  In  these  two  rules,  as  Fleuriau  observes,  "  his  whole 
life  was  comprised." 

At  his  solemn  profession,  he  added  to  the  customary  engage 
ments  the  special  vow,  "  to  be  until  death  the  slave  of  the 
negroes."  How  well  he  kept  it,  they  know  who  have  read  the 
story  of  his  life.  As  soon  as  a  ship-load  of  negroes  arrived 
from  the  coast  of  Africa, — from  Congo,  Guinea,  or  Angola, — 
"  his  pale  emaciated  face  assumed  a  hue  of  health  quite  unusual 
to  it."  It  was  he  who  first  hurried  to  the  shore  to  greet  the 
captives,  astonished  to  receive  such  a  welcome ;  who  consoled 
them  with  loving  words  of  peace,  and  poured  into  their  seared 
hearts  the  balm  of  hope.  It  was  he  who  followed  them  with  a 
father's  love  to  their  wretched  homes,  that  by  sharing  their 
sufferings  he  might  teach  them  how  to  bear  them,  how  to  unite 
them  with  the  sufferings  of  Christ.  And  then,  in  wrords  of 
more  than  human  wisdom,  he  spoke  to  them  of  Him  whose 
name  he  could  rarely  mention  without  shedding  tears.  But 
who  can  describe  that  angelic  ministry,  unless  filled  with  his 
own  spirit  ?  Who  can  bear  to  contemplate  the  terrible  austerities 


170  CHAPTER   IX. 

with  which  it  was  accompanied,  and  of  which,  in  an  age  like 
this,  one  can  hardly  venture  even  to  speak? 

Clothed  in  a  hair  shirt  from  his  neck  to  his  feet,  and  present 
ing  such  an  aspect  as  St.  John  the  Baptist  when  he  came  out 
of  the  desert  to  preach  by  his  own  example  the  doctrine  of 
mortification,  the  man  of  God  would  sit  during  the  long  hours 
of  the  tropical  day  in  the  tribunal  of  penance,  fainting  with 
heat  and  with  the  fetid  stench  of  the  poor  Africans  who 
thronged  round  this  physician  of  souls ;  and  when  evening 
came  "at  last,  and,  nature  having  given  way,  they  were  obliged 
to  carry  him  home  in  their  arms,  his  only  refreshment,  we  are 
told,  was  to  spend  hours  in  mental  prayer.  Even  some  of  his 
companions,  though  members  of  that  Society  which  has  faced 
all  trials  and  braved  all  dangers,  sometimes  lost  their  conscious 
ness  in  the  presence  of  sights  upon  which  he  calmly  looked, 
both  in  the  huts  of  the  negroes,  and  in  the  hospitals  of  St. 
Sebastian  and  St.  Lazarus.  It  was  he  who  ministered  to  the 
most  loathsome  diseases,  and  even  kissed  the  hideous  wounds 
which  they  had  traced  in  bodies  half-devoured  by  scrofula  or 
gangrene.  .  .  *  And  in  the  midst  of  such  scenes,  at  which 
angels  are  daily  present  in  their  invisible  ministry,  the  spirit  of 
God  within  him  would  sometimes  break  forth,  so  that  the 
reflected  glory  of  his  Master  shone  around  him.  Once,  at  St. 
Sebastian's,  the  Archdeacon  of  Carthagena,  who  had  gone  to 
the  hospital  to  distribute  alms,  "  found  him  in  the  midst  of  the 
sick,  wi£h  the  look  of  a  Seraph,  his  face  shining  like  the  sun, 
and  a  circle  of  light  round  his  head."  More  than  once,  a 
company  returning  home  in  the  darkness  of  the  night  thought 
the  house  of  the  Saint  was  on  fire,  but  discovered  on  approach 
ing,  as  they  afterwards  attested  on  oath,  that  it  was  tilled,  like 
the  temple  of  old,  "  with  the  glory  of  the  Lord,"  and  saw  him 
suspended  in  the  air,  and  as  it  were  transfigured  before  them. 
Maralnlis  est  Deus  in  sanctis  ejus!  \ 

There  is  no  need  to  describe  at  length  the  works  of  this 
apostle,  nor  their  marvellous  fruits.  Row  should  such  a  mis 
sionary  not  succeed  ?  It  was  the  Mahometan  negroes  from 
Guinea  who  gave  him  the  greatest  trouble.  Yet  he  never  ceased 
to  pursue  them  with  his  cheerful  pleasant  speech,  or  sometimes 
with  terrible  menaces;  as  once  when  he  held  up  his  crucifix 
before  a  dying  and  obstinate  unbeliever,  and  exclaimed  in  accents 
which  reached  even  that  obdurate  soul,  "  Behold  the  God  who 

"Malattia  ordinaria   e  una  certa    specie  di  lebbra,   clie  loro  impiaga 
ornbilmento  la  bocca  e  le  gingive ;  indisi  stcnde  a  comprendere  tutte  le  mem 
bra  e  fame  una  sola  piaga  putrida  e  verminosa."     Compendia  delta  Vita  del 
B.  Pit-tro  Claver,  p.  25. 
f  Fleuriau,  livre  iii. 


MISSIONS    IN   AMERICA.  171 

is  about  to  judge  you  !"  Multitudes  of  Turks  and  Moors  owed 
their  salvation  to  his  ministry,  for  there  was  in  him  a  power 
which  few  could  resist.  Once  a  ship  containing  more  than  six 
hundred  English  prisoners  was  captured  in  the  bay  of  Carthagena. 
Among  the  captives  was  an  Anglican  dignitary,  with  his  wife 
and  family.  Fleuriau  calls  him  an  "  archdeacon,"  and  Boero  a 
"  bishop."  Touched,  as  the  latter  relates,  by  the  "  squisita 
affabilita  e  amorevolezza"  of  Claver,  and  rejecting  the  Catholic 
faith,  like  many  of  his  sect,  rather  through  ignorance  and 
prejudice  than  from  the  malice  of  a  disobedient  heart,  he  strove 
in  vain  to  resist  the  Saint ;  then  he  would  promise  to  abandon 
his  errors  at  some  future  period,  declare  "  that  he  was  in  heart 
a  Catholic,"  that  there  was  no  need  for  precipitation,  "  that  if 
he  were  reconciled  to  the  Roman  Church  he  would  be  deprived 
of  his  revenues  and  his  numerous  family  of  their  subsistence." 
But  grace  was  too  strong  for  him,  and  he  died  not  long  after  in 
Father  Claver's  arms,  rejoicing  that  he  had  escaped  from 
delusions  which  still  darken  in  our  own  day  many  a  generous 
heart,  and  exulting  in  the  light  of  that  truth  which  had  first 
dawned  upon  him  in  captivity.  Almost  all  the  other  prisoners 
were  converted  in  their  turn,  including  one  who  had  been 
accustomed  to  revile  the  Saint,  and  had  called  him  to  his  face 
"  a  hypocrite  and  an  impostor." 

Such  was  the  servant  of  God,  and  such  his  work.  It  was 
especially  among  the  negroes  that  he  labored,  and  with  results 
which  have  disposed  forever  of  the  popular  notion  that  this  race 
is  incapable  of  true  conversion.  "  The  authority  he  had  gained 
over  their  minds,"  says  one  of  his  autobiographers,  "  and  their 
affection  for  him,  made  them  obey  without  reply  or  hesitation  ; 
the  mere  sight  of  him  would  check  the  most  unruly,  and  even 
the  vicious,  when  they  met  him,  knelt  down  to  ask  his  blessing." 
Finally,  the  number  whom  he  gathered  into  the  fold  of  Christ, 
either  from  Paganism  or  Mahometanism,  was  so  great  as  to  bo 
incredible,  if  it  were  not  certified  by  competent  witnesses.  "A 
religious  questioned  him  on  this  subject  shortly  before  he  died, 
to  whom  he  answered,  that  he  thought  he  had  baptized  more 
than  three  hundred  thousand ;  but  as  humility  always  led  him 
to  diminish  the  number  of  his  good  works,  it  has  been  asserted 
by  persons  likely  to  be  well  informed,  that  he  had  baptized  at 
least  four  hundred  thousand." 

In  his  last  mission,  Father  Claver  penetrated  for  the  first 
time  to  the  dangerous  country  between  the  Magdalena  and  the 
Cordilleras,  "  where  the  ferocity  of  the  Indians  had  hitherto 
prevented  the  entrance  of  Christianity."  In  1654,  he  died. 
Three  years  later,  his  tornb  was  reopened;  when  Dr.  Barthol 
omew  Torrez,  an  experienced  physician,  affirmed  on  oath— 


172  CHAPTER  IX. 

that  although  the  very  coffin,  and  every  thing  in  it^was  com 
pletely  rotten  and  decayed,  "  the  body,  with  all  its  skin,  nerves, 
and  other  parts,  was  sound  and  healthy,  notwithstanding  the 
quantity  of  lime  which  had  covered  it." 


PEEU    AND   CHILI. 

It  is  not  a  formal  history  of  missions  which  we  are  writing, 
and  for  this  reason  we  have  not  attempted  to  exhaust  the  facts 
which  illustrate  that  history,  even  in  a  single  ^province  of  the 
earth.  Our  purpose  has  been  only  to  trace,  in  all  lands,  the 
contrast  between  the  work  of  the  Church  and  the  work  of  the 
Sects  ;  to  show  that  God  and  His  gifts  have  been  ever  with  the 
first,  never  with  the  last ;  and  to  prove  by  testimony  so  various, 
impartial,  and  harmonious,  that  neither  pride  nor  anger  shall 
be  able  to  gainsay  it,  that  Catholic  and  Protestant  missions  have 
differed  so  enormously,  both  in  their  agents  and  their  results, 
as  to  exclude  all  doubt  in  the  mind  of  even  the  least  thoughtful 
observer,  of  every  man  in  whom  the  instincts  of  a  Christian 
still  survive,  which  were  Divine  and  which  human.  We  are 
not  obliged,  therefore,  to  trace  with  minute  detail  the  missions 
of  Peru  and  Chili,  which  exactly  resemble,  in  every  feature, 
those  which  have  been  already  reviewed. 

A  few  words  will  suffice  with  reference  to  the  two  famous 
provinces  which  lie  between  the  Andes  and  the  Ocean.  In 
1590, — fifty-seven  years  after  the  last  Inca  perished  in  the  city 
of  Cassamarca,  by  the  order  of  Pizarro, — Fathers  Antony  Lopez 
and  Michael  IJrrea  were  martyred  in  Peru.  In  1593,  eight 
Jesuits  entered  Chili.  Aranda  and  Yaldiva  won  to  the  faith 
the  fierce  and  cruel  Araucanians,  but  a  little  later,  continuing 
their  intrepid  apostolate,  Yecchi,  Aranda,  and  Montalban  were 
martyred ;  and  when  the  Spaniards  proposed  to  revenge  their 
death,  it  was  Yaldiva  who  dissuaded  them  from  this  act  of 
human  justice,  and  afterwards  established,  by  his  own  unaided 
ministry,  four  new  missions  in  Chili.  Yainly  the  trained  soldiers 
of  Spain  tried  to  penetrate  into  the  interior,  where  every  forest 
concealed  a  hostile  army,  and  every  river  must  be  forded  in  the 
tnidst  of  a  storm  of  darts  and  arrows.  And  then  these  men  of 
war  had  recourse  to  another  order  of  warriors,  bolder  than  them 
selves,  because  fighting  in  a  nobler  cause,  and  "  missionaries 
were  employed,"  as  an  English  writer  observes,  "  to  penetrate 
into  the  retreats  of  the  Indians,  in  order  to  civilize  them  by 
converting  them  to  Christianity.  In  these  attempts,  rendered 
doubly  hazardous  by  the  exasperation  of  the  Indians,  many  of 


MISSIONS  IN  AMERICA.  173 

the  ministers  of  religion  fell  victims  to  their  zeal."  *  But  the 
work  was  never  suspended.  In  1598,  de  Medrano  and  de 
Figueroa  had  already  penetrated  the  recesses  of  the  Cordilleras. 
In  1604,  a  college  had  been  founded  at  Santa  Fe.  Imperial i, 
D'Ossat,  de  Gregorio,  and  others  carried  the  faith  to  one  tribe 
after  another,  sometimes  falling  under  the  clubs  or  the  arrows  of 
the  savages,  but  never  crying  in  vain  for  new  apostles  to  complete 
the  work  which  they  had  left  unfinished.  In  the  single  year 
1614,  fifty-six  Fathers  of  the  Society  of  Jesus  arrived  in  Peru, 
to  replace  those  who  had  fallen.  At  a  still  later  date,  Father 
Stanislas  Arlet  had  traversed  the  most  inaccessible  forests  and 
mountains  of  Western  America,  and  gathered  six  nations  into 
one  family.  Tucurnan  had  become  a  Catholic  province.  The 
Dominicans  were  spread  chiefly  through  the  northern  districts, 
the  Franciscans  were  scattered  at  one  time  from  Bogota  to 
Buenos  Ayres.  The  Jesuits  were  everywhere. 

"  From  a  corner  of  this  department  of  Peru,"  says  Dr. 
Archibald  Smith, — candid  and  generous  in  spite  of  the  preju 
dices  of  country  and  education, — "  the  voice  of  Christianity  has 
penetrated  into  vast  regions  of  heathen  and  savage  tribes,  and 
reached  the  unsettled  wanderers  among  the  thickest  entangle 
ments  of  the  woods,  which  occupy  a  great  portion  of  the  widely 
extended  missionary  territory  of  Peru.  From  Ocopa  issued 
forth  those  zealous,  persevering,  self  denying  and  enduring  men, 
the  great  object  of  whose  lives  it  has  been,  in  the  midst  of  danger, 
and  in  the  name  of  the  Saviour,  to  add  to  the  faith  of  the  Church, 
and  to  civilized  society,  beings  whose  spirits  were  as  dark  as 
the  woods  they  occupied."  f  "All  South  America,"  observes  Mr. 
Walpole,  recording  the  same  facts,  "  was  explored  under  their 
direction.  Overcoming  every  difficulty,  surmounting  toils, 
braving  unheard-of  and  unknown  dangers,  smiling  at  and 
glorying  in  wounds,  hardships,  death  itself,  these  zealous  men 
spoke  of  Jesus  and  His  love  and  mercy  in  the  remotest  nook  of 
this  vast  continent."  J  Yet  neither  of  these  Protestant  travel 
lers,  nor  any  of  their  class, — differing  in  this  respect  from  the 
more  discerning  savages,  who  were  converted  by  such  apostles, 
because  even  they  could  recognize  the  presence  of  God  in  them, 
—appear  to  have  been  in  any  degree  impressed  by  the  truths 
which  they  eloquently  narrate,  or  to  have  derived  the  slightest 
admonition  from  them. 

We  may  not  stay  to  notice  one  by  one  the  men  who  evan 
gelized  the  Peruvian  races,  redeeming  the  violence  and  cupidity 

*  Stuart  Cochrane,  vol.  i.,  ch.  iii.,  p.  219. 

j  Peru  as  it  is,  by  Archibald  Smith,  M.  D.,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  iv.,  p.  114. 

;  Four  Years  in  Jie  Pacific,  by  the  Hon.  F.  Walpole,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  i.,  p.  25. 


174:  CHAPTER   IX. 

of  the  soldiers  of  Spain,  and  winning  the  love  and  reverence 
of  the  native  tribes  m  spite  of  the  injuries  which  they  had 
received  from  Europeans ;  but  there  is  one  of  their  number 
whom  it  is  impossible  not  to  mention,  because  to  him  was  given, 
in  a  special  manner,  the  title  of  Apostle  of  Peru.  It  was  in 
1589  that  Francis  de  Solano  sailed  for  America,  designing  to 
labor  in  the  province  of  Tucuman,  which  lies  between  the 
Cordilleras  and  Paraguay,  "  because  there  he  might  hope  to 
find  the  greatest  dangers,  and  to  suffer  most  for  the  glory  of 
God."  Father  Louis  Bolanos,  also  a  Franciscan,  had  preceded 
him,  and  having  set  out  from  Lima  had  travelled  many  a 
weary  league  on  both  banks  of  the  Plata ;  but  a  greater  than 
he  was  now  to  enter  the  same  regions. 

Perfectly  conversant,  like  most  of  his  order,  with  the  dialects 
of  the  barbarous  tribes  whom  he  resolved  to  win,  St.  Francis 
Solano  threw  himself  into  the  combat  with  all  the  ardor  of  an 
apostle.  Already  he  had  gathered  thousands  into  the  fold  of 
Christ,  when  the  remoter  eastern  tribes,  who  wandered  through 
the  country  between  the  Dulce  and  the  St.  Tome,  came  down 
in  vast  numbers,  breathing  fury  and  slaughter  against  their 
converted  brethren,  and  threatening  the  most  cruel  torments 
to  all  who  had  become  Christians.  The  neophytes  began  ^to 
fly  in  terror,  and  the  new  mission  seemed  to  be  menaced  with 
swift  and  hopeless  destruction.  Then  Solano  went  forth  alone, 
confiding  in  the  protection  of  the  Mother  of  God,  to  meet  the 
advancing  multitude.  He  was  a  servant  of  Him  who  had  said, 
"  The  good  shepherd  giveth  his  life  for  the  sheep."  The  hour 
was  come  to  die,  and  he  would  die  as  becomes  an  apostle.  But 
he  was  only  to  be  a  martyr  in  desire ;  and  "  having  by  super 
natural  power  arrested  the  advance  of  the  barbarians,  he 
addressed  to  them  so  moving  a  discourse  on  the  Passion  of 
our  Divine  Lord,  and  exhorted  them  with  such  burning  words 
to  embrace  His  holy  religion,  that  in  that  single  day  more  than 
nine  thousand  were  converted."* 

After  this  he  went  through  the  land,  preaching  everywhere 
"  Jesus  Christ  crucified  ;"  and  everywhere  he  was  accompanied, 
like  the  primitive  missionaries,  by  "  signs  following."  Even 
the  wild  beasts,  as  multitudes  were  able  to  testify,  rendered  him 
homage  after  their  kind.  And  no  marvel, — for  as  one  of  his 
biographers  observes,  "It  is  a  principle  of  theology,  that  the 
revolt  of  irrational  creatures  against  man  is  only  a  consequence 
of  man's  rebellion  against  his  Maker."  "  The  pre-eminence  of 
the  Blessed  Lord  over  inanimate  matter,  and  much  more  over 
the  animal  creation,"  says  a  living  authority,  is  the  true  cause 

*  Seo  his  Life  l>y  Courtot,  cli-  viii. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  175 

that  "  as  His  Saints  advance  in  holiness  and  in  likeness  to 
Himself,  the  animals  obey  their  words,  revere  their  sanctity, 
and  minister  to  their  wants."  * 

In  1610,  St.  Francis  Solano  died.  Three  hundred  and  four 
witnesses,  of  all  ranks  and  classes,  were  examined  on  oath,  and 
attested  the  prodigies  which  they  had  witnessed,  and  the 
heroicity  of  the  virtues  which  had  transformed  a  desert  into 
a  garden.  Through  a  tract  of  two  thousand  miles  he  was 
numbered  among  the  patrons  and  defenders  of  the  faithful,  and 
a  hundred  tribes  burned  lamps  day  and  night  in  his  honor, 
and  called  upon  him  to  advocate  their  cause  in  heaven.  Then 
Urban  YIIL,  by  his  famous  decree  of  1631,  peremptorily  for 
bade  all  public  devotion  till  the  claims  of  the  Saint  had  been 
further  examined,  and  refused  even  to  allow  the  process  to 
continue  until  the  apostolic  edict  was  obeyed.  For  twenty 
years,  the  grateful  Indians,  who  had  loved  their  Father  with  all 
their  hearts,  refused  to  submit;  till  they  comprehended  at 
length  that  it  was  not  by  disobeying  the  Vicar  of  Christ  that 
they  could  honor  one  of  His  apostles.  And  so,  with  heavy 
hearts,  they  brought  in  all  the  lamps  which  they  had  kindled 
in  his  honor ;  and  in  1656,  his  body  was  removed  from  its 
shrine,  and  carefully  hidden  from  their  sight.  Nineteen  years 
later,  the  decree  of  Beatification  was  pronounced,  and  in  1726 
he  was  canonized. 

The  faith  which  St.  Francis  Solano  preached  is  still,  in  spite 
of  many  disasters,  and  of  the  crimes  and  follies  of  successive 
rulers,  the  light  and  the  glory  of  Peru.  Here,  as  in  every  other 
province  evangelized  by  the  sons  of  St.  Ignatius,  St.  Francis, 
and  St.  Dominic,  neither  neglect  nor  oppression  have  been  able 
to  undo  that  mighty  work,  unparalleled  since  the  first  ages  of 
Christianity,  by  which  it  was  the  will  of  God  to  replace  the 
apostate  millions  of  Sweden,  Germany,  and  Britain  by  a  mul 
titude  of  new  believers  in  China,  India,  and  America.  We 
have  seen  that  in  the  two  former  countries  persecution  and 
suffering  have  only  confirmed  the  faith  planted  in  other  days 
by  the  missionaries  of  the  Cross ;  and  it  is  time  to  show,  once 
more  by  Protestant  testimony,  that  in  Brazil  and  Colombia,  in 
Chili  and  Peru,  in  the  valley  of  the  Amazon  and  the  plains  of 
La  Plata,  the  same  astonishing  stability  attests  at  this  hour  by 
Whose  power  these  nations  were  won  to  the  service  of  Christ, 
by  Whose  protection  they  have  been  maintained  in  it. 

*  F.  Faber,  The  Blessed  Sacrament,  book  iv.,  sec.  ii.,  p.  483. 


176  CHAPTER  IX. 


PRESENT   STATE   OF   THE   SOUTH:   AMERICAN    PROVINCES. 

In  Brazil,  where  de  Nobrega  and  Anchieta  once  labored, 
eight  hundred  thousand  domesticated  Indians,  as  we  have  said, 
represent,  even  at  this  day,  the  fruits  of  their  toil.  Deprived 
during  sixty  years  of  their  Fathers  and  guides,  and  too  often 
scandalized  by  the  example  of  men  who  were  Christians  only  in 
name,  the  native  races  have  not  only  preserved  the  faith  through 
all  their  sorrows  and  trials,  but  have  everywhere  rejected  the 
bribes  and  the  caresses  of  heresy.  Even  Protestant  writers,  in 
spite  of  violent  and  incurable  prejudices,  do  justice  to  the 
generous  virtues  of  this  people.  Dr.  Walsh,  an  Anglican  min 
ister,  frankly  confesses,  as  we  have  seen,  the  "  deep  impression 
of  rational  piety,"  and  "  zealous  attachment  to  their  religion," 
which  he  noticed  during  his  long  residence  among  them. 
Drunkenness  and  blasphemy,  he  says,  were  unknown  ;  though 
once  he  heard,  "  on  Sunday  evening,  at  Rio,  a  desperate  riot  of 
drunken  blasphemers,  but  they  all  swore  in  English"*  Mr. 
Gardner  also  observes,  in  1846,  after  pursuing  during  some 
years  his  scientific  researches  in  these  tropical  climes,  "  It  was 
on  a  Sunday  morning  that  I  arrived  in  Liverpool  from  Brazil, 
and  during  the  course  of  that  day  I  saw  in  the  streets  a  greater 
number  of  cases  of  intoxication  than,  I  believe,  I  observed 
altogether  among  Brazilians,  whether  black  or  white,  during 
the  whole  period  of  my  residence  in  the  country."f 

Before  England  had  begun  to  educate  her  heathen  masses, 
Brazil  had  inaugurated  an  elaborate  system  of  public  instruc 
tion.  Dr.  Walsh  notices,  not  only  the  universality  of  primary 
education  in  Brazil,  but  the  still  more  remarkable  fact,  that 
many  of  the  colored  races  have  been  conspicuous  for  their 
success  in  various  branches  of  knowledge.  Speaking  of  the 
great  public  library  at  Rio,  and  the  affluence  of  students  of  all 
ranks,  he  asks,  "Is  it  not  most  unjust  to  accuse  the  Catholics 
as  enemies  to  knowledge?  Here  is  a  noble  and  public  literary 
institution,  filled  with  books  on  all  subjects," — and  with  Bible's 
in  almost  every  language, — "  founded  by  a  rigid  Catholic  mon 
arch,  and  superintended  and  conducted  by  Catholic  ecclesiastics, 
on  a  plan  even  more  liberal,  and  less  exclusive,  than  any  similar 
establishment  in  our  own  Protestant  country.":): 

It  would  be  too  long  to  quote  his  interesting  account  of  the 
irmandadeSj  or  religious  brotherhoods ;  which  "  consist  entirely 

*  Notices  of  Brazil,  vol.  i.,  p.  381. 

f  Travels  in  the  Interior  of  Brazil,  di.  i.,  p.  18. 

t  Vol.  i,  p.  438. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA. 

of  the  laity,"  and  whose  objects  are  to  build  and  repair 
churches,  found  and  maintain  hospitals,  bury  the  deceased 
poor,  and  to  do,  cheerfully  and  well,  whatsoever  else  Christian 
charity  can  suggest.  "It  is  quite  inconceivable,"  he  says, 
"  to  an  Englishman,  what  immense  sums  of  money  these  lay 
brothers  annually  expend  in  what  they  conceive  to  be  pious 
and  charitable  uses."  Even  Messrs.  Kidder  and  Fletcher, 
though  less  capable  than  most  of  their  countrymen  of  appre 
ciating  such  works,  and  despising  the  Brazilians  because  they 
refused  to  exchange  the  doctrine  of  St.  Paul  for  the  crude 
inventions  of  'New  England  Protestantism,  speak  with  reluctant 
admiration,  in  1857,  of  "the  philanthropy  and  practical  Chris 
tianity  embodied  in  the  hospitals  of  Rio  and  Janeiro  ;"  while 
they  are  obliged  to  confess  that  the  devoted  Italian  Capuchins 
seem  to  be  ever  on  errands  of  mercy,  through  tropic  heats 
and  rains."  *  And  then  they  console  themselves  with  coarse 
abuse  of  the  "  greasy  friars."  Yet  Dr.  Walsh,  a  man  of  purer 
instincts,  commends  the  virtues  even  of  the  native  clergy,  some 
of  whom,  owing  to  the  want  of  ecclesiastical  training,  and  the 
mistaken  policy  of  the  government  towards  the  seminaries,  are 
the  least  edifying  of  their  class.  "  I  really  cannot  find,"  he 
says,  "  that  the  Brazilian  clergy  deserve  the  character  imputed 
to  them.  From  what  I  have  seen  myself  and  heard  from 
others,  they  are,  generally  speaking,  temperate  in  their  diet, 
observant  of  the  rules  of  their  Church,  assiduous  in  attending 
the  sick,  and  charitable  as  far  as  their  limited  means  permit. "f 

"The  clergy,"  says  another  English  Protestant,  speaking 
of  the  order  generally  in  South  America,  "  are  everywhere 
respected  as  friends  worthy  of  double  honor.  Friendly,  indeed, 
I  have  ever  found  them,  in  this  and  every  other  country  where 
I  have  travelled ;  and  Englishmen  of  every  denomination 
must  in  gratitude  acknowledge  as  much.  They  must  own  also, 
that  our  own  prejudices,  whether  as  a  nation  or  a  sect,  soon 
appear  to  us  as  unworthy,  inveterate,  and  unjust,  as  those  of 
any  other  under  the  sun.  They  will  admit  that  no  set  of  men 
in  their  private  character  have  been  so  injuriously  aspersed 
by  the  cankered  tongue  of  slander  as  the  Roman  Catholic 
priesthood."  $ 

Lastly,  in  spite  of  the  gold  of  England  and  America,  not  a 
solitary  Brazilian,  white  or  black,  has  ever  been  induced  to 
profess  Protestantism ;  and  Mr.  Ewbank  has  informed  us,  no 
doubt  with  regret,  that  "  the  people  avoid  a  missionary  as  one 

*  Ch.  vii.,  p.  ill. 
f  P.  374. 

;  Travels  in  various  parts  of  Peru,  &c.,  by  Edmond  Temple,  vol.  L,  ch.  xix., 
p.  418. 

YOL.  II.  13 


ITS  CHAPTER   IX. 

with  whom  association  is  disreputable,"  and  regard  him  with 
sovereign  contempt  u  from  a  rooted  belief  in  his  ignorance  and 
presumption." 

In  that  vast  region  which  stretches  from  the  month  of  the 
San  Francisco  to  the  Isthmus  of  Panama,  watered  by  the 
mightiest  rivers  of  our  globe,  arid  including  the  district  of  the 
Amazon  with  its  u  forty-live  thousand  miles  of  navigable  water 
communication,"  the  natives,  who  still  find  shelter  in  its  forests 
or  ^uide  their  barks  over  its  myriad  streams,  "  push  their  pro 
fession  of  the  Catholic  religion,"  we  have  been  told,  "  even  to 
fanaticism."  Yet  it  is  a  kind  of  marvel,  considering  their  past 
history,  that  they  should  have  any  religion  at  all.  A  less 
grievous  trial  sufficed  utterly  to  destroy  the  apostolic  churches 
of  Asia ;  but  it  seems  to  have  been  the  special  privilege  of  those 
founded  in  the  sixteenth  century,  that  no  power  should  prevail 
against  them.  Of  the  modern  Indian  population  and  the  exist 
ing  missions  among  them,  many  Protestant  writers  speak  with 
admiration,  though  evidently  perplexed  by  their  obstinate 
adherence  to  the  faith,  in  spite  of  their  long  calamities.  Prince 
Maximilian  notices  the  new  mission  at  Belrnonte,  where  he 
found  "  a  race  of  civilized  Indians  converted  to  Christianity," 
who  "have  abandoned  entirely  their  ancient  mode  of  life,  and 
are  now  quite  reclaimed/'  *  Prince  Adalbert,  though  he  writes 
in  a  more  worldly  and  frivolous  tone,  speaks  of  meeting  canoes 
on  the  river  Xingu,  all  adorned  with  flags  "bearing  an  image 
of  the  Virgin  Mary," — sufficient  evidence  of  the  Christian 
instincts  of  this  people.  Where  She  is  honored,  how  should 
religion  perish?  What  marvel  if  piety  still  linger  in  tribes 
who  rejoice  to  be  Mary's  children,  and  confide  in  her  protec 
tion  whom  highest  angels  honor  with  lowly  reverence,  as  at 
once,  by  a  prodigy  of  election  and  grace,  the  Mother,  the 
Daughter,  and  the  Spouse,  of  the  Everlasting  God  ? 

From  other  Protestant  travellers  in  these  regions  we  learn 
that  respect  for  the  ministers  of  religion,  as  well  as  for  the 
mysteries  which  they  dispense,  is  also  a  characteristic  of  the 
same  race. 

Messrs.  Smyth  and  Lowe,  two  British  officers,  wrho  travelled 
by  water  from  Lima  to  Para,  from  the  Pacific  to  the  Atlantic, 
repeatedly  attest  the  powerful  influence  of  the  Franciscans  of 
the  present  day.  Thus,  at  Saposoa,  on  the  river  Huallaga, 
uthe  priest  is  treated  by  the  people  with  great  respect."  On 
the  banks  of  "  the  magnificent  Ucayali,"  the  only  Europeans 
they  met  were  "those  excellent  persons  whose  aim  had  been' 
to  rescue  its  inhabitants  from  the  most  miserable  and  horrid 

*  Trends  in  Brazil,  cli.  x.,  p.  277. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  179 

state  of  barbarism,"  in  spite  of  the  criminal  indifference  of 
"  what  is  pleased  to  call  itself  a  liberal  government."  At 
Sarayacu  they  are  hospitably  entertained  by  a  Spanish  mis 
sionary,  and  remark  "the  great  influence  his  paternal  care, 
during  the  long  space  of  thirty-four  years,  gave  him  over  the 
minds  of  all  the  civilized  Indians,  and  his  knowledge  of  their 
various  languages."  They  add  that,  "  during  the  long  interval 
of  nine  years,"  through  the  incuria  of  the  government,  "he 
had  not  received  any  salary."* 

Mr.  Wallace,  another  English  traveller,  notices,  in  1853, 
similar  facts.  Thus,  at  Javita,  on  the  Rio  Negro,  "the  girls 
and  boys  assemble  morning  and  evening  at  the  church  to  sing 
a  hymn  or  psalm,"  —  a  practice  which  is  not  usual  in  English 
villages.  On  the  Amazon  he  meets  negroes,  who  all  join  in 
the  responses  with  much  fervor,"  but,  unfortunately,  according 
to  Mr.  Wallace,  "  without  understanding  a  word."  He  does 
not  say  how  he  ascertained  the  fact,  but  he  relates  immediately 
that  some  of  them  had  just  returned  from  a  three  days'  journey 
to  have  a  child  baptized,  which  encourages  us  to  believe  that 
he  was  mistaken.  Elsewhere  he  shows  how  religion  enters  into 
and  colors  the  daily  life  of  the  Indians,  so  that  at  their  frequent 
festas,  "  which  are  always  on  a  Saint's  day  of  the  Roman 
Catholic  Church,"  they  will  make  a  long  tour  to  the  various 
Indian  villages,  "  carrying  the  image  of  the  saint."  Like  the 
•natives  of  China  and  Ceylon,  they  willingly  spend  their  sub 
stance  also  in  token  of  their  piety.  "The  live  animals  are 
frequently  promised  beforehand  for  a  particular  saint  ;  and 
often,  when  I  have  wanted  to  buy  some  provisions,  I  have  been 
assured  'that  this  is  St.  John's  pig,'  or  'that  is,'  &c."f  It  is 
evident  that,  in  spite  of  their  misfortunes,  their  religion  is  still 
a  reality.  The  English  peasant  does  not  refuse  to  sell  his  pig 
because  it  is  promised  to  St.  John,  and  would  probably  feel 
little  respect  for  such  self-denial,  even  if  he  knew  who  St.  John 
was. 

Mr.  Campbell  Scarlett  relates  the  same  characteristic  anec 
dotes,  and  displays  the  same  incapacity  to  appreciate  them.  "At 
least  four  nights  out  of  seven,"  he  says,  speaking  of  the  Indians 
of  Panama,  —  for  they  are  every  where  the  same,  —  "  I  am  indulged 
with  a  superstitious  if  not  idolatrous  ceremony."  It  was  one 
which  he  might  have  witnessed  in  many  a  hamlet  of  Austria, 
Bavaria,  or  Spain,  and  even  of  France  or  Belgium,  with  the 
approval  of  men  not  much  addicted  to  idolatry,  and  as  rernark- 


*  Narrative  of  a  Journey  .from  Lima  to  Para,  ch.  iv.,  p.  194. 
f  Travels  on  the  Amazon  and  Bio  Negro,  by  Alfred  R.  Wallace,  ch.  iv.,  p.  93 
ch.  ix.,  p.  270  (1853). 


180  CHAPTER   IX. 

able  for  intellectual  vigor  as  any  in  Europe ;  for  it  was  simply 
a  harmless  procession^which  disturbed  Mr.  Scarlett's  repose, 
wherein  Christian  Indians  marched,  "having  on  their  heads  a 
gorgeous  image  of  the  Virgin,  under  a  canopy."  ^  But  the  same 
obnoxious  spectacle,  in  which  simple  hearts  displayed  their 
filial  affection  towards  the  Mother  of  Jesus,  met  him  every 
where.  "  Mummeries,  disgraceful  to  Christianity,"  he  angrily 
observes,  "  occur  in  these  countries  so  frequently,  that  they 
appear  to  occupy  the  greater  part  of  everybody's  time  and 
attention,"* — good  proof  of  their  being  interested  in  Christian 
ity,  though  it  might  perhaps  be  offensive  to  an  English  gentle 
man  only  anxious  to  sleep  in  peace. 

In  every  region  of  the  continent,  the  same  spontaneous  piety 
seems  to  manifest  itself.  Mr.  Markham  goes  to  Canote,  in 
Peru,  and  in  that  tranquil  valley  meets  this  phenomenon  : 
"Early  in  the  morning  one  is  roused  by  the  voices  of  the 
young  girls  and  women,  when  they  all  repair  to  the  door  of  the 
chapel  before  going  to  work,  and  chant  a  hymn  of  praise  upon 
their  knees.  This  is  repeated  at  sunset,  when  the  day's  work 
is  concluded."  Presently  he  is  at  Cuzco,  where  he  finds  the 
devout  population  "  showering  scarlet  salvias"  over  a  crucifix 
which  was  being  borne  in  procession.  Like  Mr.  Scarlett,  he  is 
offended,  and  gravely  remarks,  with  the  self-possession  of  a 
learned  Englishman,  that  "  such  exhibitions  supply  the  place 
of  the  worship  of  the  Sun.  It  is  a  question  which  is  the  most; 
idolatrons."f  We  shall  not  do  justice  to  him  without  adding, 
that  he  is  indignant  with  the  Spaniards  for  having,  as  he  says, 
"polluted  the  altars  of  the  Sun  ! "  In  another  work  he  repeats 
the  sentiment  with  greater  emphasis.  "  The  Dominican  friars," 
he  observes,  "  succeeded  in  introducing  far  grosser  and  more 
degrading  superstitions  amongst  the  Indians  than  they  had  ever 
practised,"  and  were  particularly  culpable  in  having  set  up  "  a 
picture  of  the  Virgin,"  "which  was  to  replace  their  former 
simple  worship  of  the  Sun  and  Moon  !"J 

When  Mr.  Mansfield,  also  an  English  traveller,  sees  "  the 
Peons  and  Chinas  (the  Guarani  women)  all  fall  on  their  knees 
in  the  street"  at  Corrientes,  as  Mr.  Markham  saw  others  do  at 
Yanaoca,  he  exclaims  with  solemn  complacency,  "  It  is  sad  tn 
see  such  a  power  of  devotion  thrown  away ! "  §  It  is  true  that 
he  had  detected,  with  the  unerring  sagacity  of  his  countrymen, 

*  South  America  and  ilie  Pacific,  by  the  Hon.  P.  Campbell  Scarlett,  vol.  ii., 
cli.  ix.,  p.  204. 

f  Cuzco  and  Lima,  by  Clements  R.  Markham,  F.R.G.S.,  cli.  ii.,  p.  27 ;  ch.  v., 
p.  155. 

$  Travels  in  Peru  and  India,  cli.  vii.,  p.  115. 

§  Paraguay,  Brazil,  &c.,  by  C.  B.  Mansfield,  Esq.,  M.A.,  ch.  ix.,  p.  265. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  181 

that  these  apparently  devout  people  were  in  the  habit  of 
"  worshipping  a  doll."  When  educated  Englishmen  undertake 
to  criticize  Christian  devotion,  they  not  unfrequently  attain,  as 
in  these  cases,  the  uttermost  limits  of  unreason.  Yet  there 
are  many  of  them  who  seriously  marvel,  when  they  are  told 
that,  in  all  which  relates  to  religion,  they  are  a  proverb  and  a 
jest  among  all  races  of  men  ;  and  this,  as  Mr.  Ewbank  has 
candidly  informed  us,  "from  a  rooted  belief  in  their  ignorance 
and  presumption." 

Yet  they  seem  all  eager  to  prove  that  this  estimate  of  them 
is  perfectly  just.  Dr.  Hartwig,  a  Protestant  naturalist,  goes  to 
Pern,  and  having  to  speak,  of  the  vicuna,  breaks  out  after  this 
manner :  "  The  Church  manages  to  get  the  best  part  of  the 
animal,  for  the  priest  generally  appropriates  the  skin."  In  the 
next  page,  as  if  to  enable  his  readers  to  appreciate  his  truth 
fulness  and  charity,  he  relates  that,  after  a  great  chase  in  which 
one  hundred  and  twenty-two  vicunas  were  caught,  "  the  produce 
of  their  skins  served  for  the  building  of  a  new  altar  in  the 
village  church."* 

Another  English  traveller,  this  time  a  Protestant  mission 
ary,  far  surpasses  even  Mr.  Scarlett,  Mr.  Markham,  and  Mr. 
Mansfield,  in  his  repugnance  to  such  manifestations  of  religious 
feeling.  After  observing  that  "  the  name  of  God  is  seldom  long 
out  of  the  mouth  of  any  Central  American,"  and  sternly  rebuking 
. "  a  profane  imitation  of  the  Saviour  riding  upon  an  ass,"  he 
reveals  unconsciously  in  these  curious  words  the  temper  which 
makes  Protestants  shrink  from  such  exhibitions.  "  Who  can 
compute  the  amount  of  positive  evil  which  must  result  from 
familiarizing  the  eye  of  a  whole  people  with  such  objects  as 
these  ?"f  That  persons  whose  religion  is  not  Divine  faith,  but 
simply  emotion,  and  who,  like  the  Protestant  visitors  at  Jeru 
salem,  are  only  "  scandalized"  by  familiarity  with  holy  places 
and  things,  should  dread  any  shock  to  their  capricious  and 
sentimental  belief,  is  perhaps  natural;  but  Catholics  can  bear 
to  approach,  and  even  to  represent  by  sensible  signs,  the  Divine 
mysteries  which  God  has  taught  them  both  to  know  and  to 
love. 

Another  Protestant  Christian,  also  a  witness  to  the  devotion 
which  he  could  not  comprehend,  after  noticing  the  fervor 
displayed  at  a  similar  religious  ceremony  in  Mexico,  relates 
that  he  quitted  the  scene  in  disgust,  and  relieved  his  intelligent 
piety  by  an  immediate  visit  to  some  Aztec  ruins.  "I  contem 
plated  the  old  Aztec  god,"  he  says,  "  and  could  not  'but  regret 

*  The  Tropical  World,  by  Dr.  G.  Hartwig,  ch.  iii.,  p.  31. 
f  The  Gospel  in  Central  America,  by  liev.  F.  Crowe,  p.  278. 


182  CHAPTER   IX. 

the  change  that  had  been  imposed  upon  these  imbecile  Indians."* 
This  gentleman  is  at  least  perfectly  candid  in  the  exhibition  of 
his  sympathies. 

A  learned  Protestant  professor,  who  would  no  doubt  be 
shocked  if  any  one  doubted  that  he  was  a  Christian,  openly 
laments  the  conversion  both  of  Mexico  and  Peru,  but  for  other 
reasons.  It  was  "  not  of  such  value,"  he  says,  "  as  to  reconcile  the 
student  of  that  strange  old  native  civilization  of  the  votaries  of 
Quetzalcoatl  to  its  abrupt  arrestment,  at  a^stage  which  can  only 
be  paralleled  by  the  earliest  centuries  of  Egyptian  progress." 
And  he  repeats  the  sentiment  with  great  deliberation.  "  It  is 
difficult  to  realize  the  conviction  that  either  Mexico  or  Peru 
has  gained  any  equivalent  for  the  irreparable  loss  which  thus 
debarred  us  from  the  solution  of  some  of  the  most  profoundly 
interesting  problems  connected  with  the  progress  of  the  human 
race."f  It  is  impossible  to  conceive  a  display  of  impiety  more 
bold  or  more  unconscious.  If  a  single  act  of  supernatural  faith 
or  charity  does  more  to  promote  the  glory  of  God  than  the 
solution  of  many  scientific  problems,  and  tens  of  thousands  of 
such  acts  are  now  daily  made  in  Mexico  and  Peru,  thanks  to 
their  conversion,  Christians  may  venture  to  think  that  this  is 
some  "  equivalent"  for  that  "  old  native  civilization,"  which 
was  marked,  as  Dr.  Wilson  himself  observes,  by  "  cruel  rites," 
and  abominable  demon-worship,  involving  the  immolation  of 
human  victims,  "  in  some  cases  even  to  the  number  of  thou 
sands." 

On  the  river  Magdalena,  whose  banks  were  once  trodden 
by  the  Blessed  Peter  Claver,  Captain  Stuart  Cochrane,  who 
never  mentions  the  Catholic  religion  without  a  jest  or  a  curse, 
discovers  the  same  offensive  piety  which  his  co-religionists  deem 
an  imperfect  substitute  for  Aztec  and  Peruvian  civilization. 
"Every  time  (the  native  crew)  stopped  to  take  their  meals, 
one  of  them  uttered  a  prayer,  and  invoked  riot  only  the  Virgin 
and  all  the  Saints  in  the  calendar," — which  must  have  singularly 
protracted  the  repast, — but  some,  he  is  quite  sure,  "  of  their  own 
invention."  "This  is  a  practice,"  Captain  Cochrane  naively 
adds,  "  which  they  would  think  it  wrong  to  omit,  and 
which,  no  doubt,  originated  in  piety."  When  the  meal  was 
over,  before  they  resumed  their  journey,  they  always  "  recited 
a  prayer  for  the  prosperity  of  our  voyage,"  a  habit  which 
might  have  taught  this  English  gentleman  a  useful  lesson, 
but  which  he  only  found  "highly  diverting.''^  He  confesses, 

*  Mexico  and  Us  Religion,  by  Robert  A.  Wilson,  ch.  xxi ,  p.  231. 
f  Prehistoric  Man,  by  Daniel  Wilson,  LL.D.,  vol.  i.,  ch.  ix.,  pp.  302,  313.' 
ch.  xi.,  p.  3(>2. 
J  Journal  of  a  Residence  in  Colombia,  vol.  i.,  ch.  iii.,  pp.  143,  150. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  183 

however,  that  education  was  spreading  universally  in  Colom 
bia,  "not  only  in  the  capital,  but  in  the  most  remote  villages 
of  the  Republic."* 

This,  however,  it  must  be  confessed,  in  justice  ^  to  the 
Spaniards,  is  only  the  perpetuation  of  fruitful  traditions  be 
queathed  by  them.  "The  prudence  of  the  clergy,"  said  an 
earlier  traveller,  "and  the  education  which  the  people  have 
received  from  the  Spaniards,  have  inspired  all  the  Colombians 
with  a  profound  respect  for  the  exercises  of  religion,  .  .  .  the 
authority  of  the  parish  priests  is  absolute,  ....  the  greatest 
decorum  prevails  in  the  churches,  and  the  devotion  of  the 
faithful  is  no  less  striking."f 

Everywhere  the  same  facts,  illustrating  impressively  the  un 
dying  ministry  of  the  first  apostles  of  America,  are  recorded 
by  Protestant  travellers,  though  usually  without  any  compre 
hension  of  their  significance.  On  the  Lake  of  Nicaragua  and 
in  the  quicksilver  mines  of  southern  California,  two  of  the 
most  unpromising  places  in  the  world,  Mr.  Julius  Froebel  finds 
American  Indians  displaying  the  same  generous  and  trustful 
piety.  "I  shall  never  forget,"  he  says,  "the  impressions  of 
one  night  and  morning  on  the  San  Juan  river.  Our  boat  had 
anchored  in  the  midst  of  the  stream.  ...  In  the  morning,  a 
sonir  of  our  boatmen  addressed  to  the  Virgin  roused  me  from 
my^sleep.  It  was  a  strain  of  plaintive  notes  in  a  few  simple 
but  most  expressive  modulations.  The  sun  was  just  rising, 
and  as  the  first  rays,  gilding  the  glossy  leaves  of  the  forest, 
fell  upon  the  bronze-colored  bodies  of  our  men,  letting  the 
naked  forms  of  their  athletic  frame  appear  in  all  the  contrast 
of  light  and  shade,  while  accents,  plaintive  and  imploring, 
strained  forth  from  their  lips,  I  thought  to  hear  the  sacred  spell, 
by  which,  unconscious  of  its  power,  these  men  were  subduing 
their  own  half-savage  nature.  At  once  the  same  song  was 
repeated  from  behind  a  projecting  corner  of  the  bank,  and 
other  voices  joined  those  of  our  crew  in  the  sacred  notes.  Two 
canoes,  covered  from  our  view,  had  anchored  near  us  during 
the  night.  The  song  at  last  died  away  in  the  wilderness.  A 
silent  prayer,  our  anchor  was  raised,  and  with  a  wild  shout 
of  the  crew,  twelve  oars  simultaneously  struck  the  water.":f 
Can  any  one  imagine  such  a  scene  on  the  Thames  or  the 
Clyde  ? 

At  another  time,  it  is  in  the  mines  of  New  Almaden  that  he 
finds  "fifteen  or  twenty  men  calling  down  the  blessing  of 

*  Vol.  ii.,  cli.  ix.,  p.  15. 

f  Travels  in  the  Republic  of  Colombia,  by  GK  Mollien,  ch.  xix.,  p.  354. 
\  Seven  Years'  Travel  in  Central  America,  by  Julius  Froebel,  ch.  ii.,  p.  20 ; 
cli.  x.,  p.  585. 


184  CHAPTER   IX. 

Heaven  on  their  day's  work  in  the  interior  of  the  mountain, 
before  a  little  altar  cut  out  of  the  natural  rock  ;"  and  singing 
the  same  hymn  to  the  Mother  of  Jesus,  to  the  same  air,  at  a 
distance  of  nearly  two  thousand  miles.  In  both  cases  the  only 
"spell"  was  that  mysterious  gift  of  faith  which  can  illumine 
the  darkness  even  of  the  Negro  and  the  Indian,  and  both  fur 
nished  an  illustration  of  the  truth  imperfectly  avouched  by  a 
travelled  Protestant,  when  he  exclaimed,  "  Catholicism  has 
certainly  a  much  stronger  hold  over  the  human  mind  than 
Protestantism.  The  fact  is  visible  and  undeniable.""* 

It  is  the  universality  of  this  fact  which  gives  to  it  its  deep 
significance.  ]STo  race  of  men  to  whom  the  incomparable  gift 
has  once  been  imparted,  however  lowly  their  social  or  intel 
lectual  position,  fail  to  bear  witness  to  its  marvellous  power.f 
Millions  of  Englishmen,  Swedes,  and  Germans,  who  have  lost 
or  never  received  it,  have  sunk  almost  to  the  level  of  animals, 
have  less  apprehension  of  Divine  things  than  the  very  pagan, 
and  neither  know  nor  care  "  whether  there  be  any  Holy 
Ghost  ;"f  yet  the  whole  life  of  the  untutored  Indian  is  an  un 
ceasing  manifestation  of  the  supernatural  principle  within 
him.  Peru  is  no  exception  to  this  rule.  "The  devotion  of 
the  population  to  Catholicism,"  says  a  well-meaning  Protestant 
missionary  after  he  had  abandoned  his  hopeless  undertaking, 
"  is  manifested  in  almost  daily  processions."§  So  vehement  is 
the  repugnance  of  the  Peruvians  to  heresy,  a  sentiment  which 
could  have  no  existence  without  deep  religious  conviction,  that 
Dr.  Archibald  Smith  mildly  complains,  "  these  good  people 
believed  we  were  but  Jews."  And  then  he  relates  that  at 
Lima,  on  the  death  of  a  certain  Englishman,  "  the  good-natured 
bishop  yielded  his  sanction  to  let  the  corpse  have  Christian 
burial;  but  subsequently  to  this  permission,  a  mob  was  collected 
in  the  night,  and  the  body  was  cast  out  from  the  church  into 
the  middle  of  the  street."!  Such  facts,  even  if  they  be  deemed 

*  Laing,  Notes  of  a  Traveller,  ch.  xxi.,  p.  430. 

f  A  striking  illustration  is  found  in  a  well-known  work.  "  If  tlie  London 
COBtennongers,"  who  have  not  even  the  piety  of  heathens,  "  had  to  profess 
themselves  of  some  religion  to-morrow,"  says  a  competent  witness, "  they  would 
all  become  Roman  Catholics,  every  one  of  them."  Even  such  men  as  these 
have  noted  the  familiar  contrast  between  the  two  religions,  and  that  while  "  tho 
Irish  in  the  courts  will  die  for  the  priest,"  the  English  of  the  same  class  treat 
their  ministers  and  their  message  with  equal  derision.  "  It  is  strange,"  adds 
this  writer,  "  that  the  regular  costermongers,  who  are  nearly  all  Londoners, 
should  have  such  a  respect  for  the  Roman  Catholics,  when  they  have  such  a 
hatred  for  the  Irish,  whom  they  look  upon  as  intruders  and  underminers." 
London  Labor  and  the  London  Poor,  by  Henry  Mayhew,  p.  21.  Cf.  p.  107. 

\  Acts  xix.  2. 

§  A  Visit  to  the  South  Seas  in  the  U.  S.  Ship  Vincennes,  by  S.  Stewart,  A.M., 
vol.  i.,  p.  197. 

H  Peru,  as  it  is,  vol.  i.,  ch.  vii.,  p.  165. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  185 

to  indicate  excessive  zeal,  are  at  least  incontrovertible  evidence 
of  the  power  which  religion  exerts  over  the  hearts  of  these 
various  races,  and  afford  an  instructive  contrast  to  the  dull 
apathy,  or  cheerless  unbelief,  of  the  same  class  in  our  own 
country.  And  though  we  have  been  told  that  "  the  life  of  an 
Englishman  is  in  danger  among  the  peasantry,"  because  he 
has  made  himself  odious  by  his  shallow  and  presumptuous 
bigotry  ;  yet  even  Protestant  writers  confess  "  the  kindness  and 
hospitality"*  of  these  races  to  all  who  know  how  to  conduct 
themselves  with  modesty  and  good  sense.  Even  Captain 
Cochrane  says,  u  John  Bull  may  certainly  improve  his  manners 
by  imitating  those  of  the  peasants  of  South  America  ;"f  Mr. 
Kendall  and  Mr.  Olmsted  repeatedly  attest  the  universal 
charity  and  kindliness  of  the  Indians  of  Mexico ;  Mr.  Mark- 
ham  celebrates  the  unbounded  hospitality  of  the  Peruvians, 
and  not  only  acknowledges  that  the  upper  classes  are  "  highly 
educated,"  but  that  "many  Indians,  too,  have  distinguished 
themselves  as  men  of  literary  attainments ;"  while  Mr.  Iroebel, 
contrasting  "  the  unaffected  kindness,  good  breeding,  and  polite 
ness  of  the  Mexican  country  people"  with  the  manners  of  his 
own  nation,  declares,  uln  almost  every  respect  they  are  su 
perior  to  our  German  peasants." 

An  accomplished  English  writer,  who  would  think  it  no  re 
proach  to  be  called  a  vehement  Protestant,  thus  describes,  in 
1862,  the  effects  of  conversion  upon  this  once  heathen  race  :  "  I 
was  thrown  a  great  deal  amongst  the  Indians,  and  had  the 
most  excellent  opportunities  of  judging  their  character,  and  I 

was  certainly  most  favorably  impressed Crimes  of  any 

magnitude  are  hardly  ever  heard  of  amongst  them"  Their 
courtesy  was  equally  remarkable,  and  that  it  was  inspired  by 
religious  feeling  was  proved  by  the  fact  that  they  "always 
saluted  with  an  fc  Ave  JHfariaJ  and  a  touch  of  the  hat  in 
passing."  Travellers  ignorant  of  their  language  may  accuse 
them  of  want  of  intelligence,  but  "  never  was  there  a  greater 
mistake;  their  skill  in  carving,  and  all  carpenter's  work,  in 
painting  and  embroidery,  the  exquisite  fabrics  they  weave  from 
vicuna  wool,  the  really  touching  poetry  of  their  love-songs  and 
yaraviS)  the  traditional  histories  of  their  ayllus,  which  they 
preserve  with  religious  care,  surely  disprove  so  false  a  charge/^ 

Such,  by  Protestant  testimony,  have  been  the  lasting  frui.vs 
of  conversion  in  the  case  of  the  Peruvians.  And  even  this 
account,  which  contrasts  so  forcibly  with  that  which  a  thousand 

*  Gerstaecker,  vol.  i.,  cli.  x.,  p.  188. 
f  Vol.  ii.,  cli.  xii.,  p.  150. 

i  Travels  in  Peru  and  India,  by  C.  R.  Markham,  F.S.A.,  F.R.G.S.,  ch.  vi., 
p.  103  ;  ch.  ix.,  p.  178 ;  cli.  xiii.,  p.  221  ;  ch.  xviii.,  p.  811. 


186  CHAPTER   IX. 

pens  have  given  of  the  sottish  peasantry  of  England,  Holland, 
or  Prussia,  steeped  in  vice,  and  often  as  ignorant  of  religion, 
in  spite  of  myriads  of  Protestant  preachers,  as  the  brutes  of  the 
field,— does  not  reveal  all  that  St.  Francis  Solano  and  his 
successors  have  done  for  this  nation.  "  Many  Indians,"  says 
the  same  authority,  "  are  wealthy  enterprising  men,  while 
others  have  held  the  highest  offices  in  the  State."  General 
Oastilla,  a  native  Peruvian,  a  man  "of  great  military  talent 
ind  extraordinary  energy  and  intrepidity,"  became  President 
}f  the  Eepublic  in  1858,  and  still  held  the  office  in  1862. 
Greneral  San  Roman,  also  "a  pure  Indian,"  commanded  at  the 
same  date  the  Army  of  the  South.  And  wonderful  as  these 
facts  must  appear  to  men  acquainted  only  with  specimens  of 
Protestant  colonization,  always  attended  by  the  degradation 
and  destruction  of  the  aboriginal  races,  they  are  found  in  every 
part  of  the  continent.  "  Peru  is  far  from  being  the  best 
specimen  of  the  South  American  republics,  and  the  Chilians 
have  displayed  tenfold  the  ability,  in  governing,  in  commer 
cial  and  agricultural  pursuits,  and  in  literature." 

The  only  additional  fact,  in  illustration  of  the  enduring 
influence  of  religion  over  the  Peruvian  Indian,  which  we  need 
notice  here,  has  been  recorded  by  Mr.  Clements  Markham. 
Beyond  the  lofty  range  of  the  Yquicha  mountains  lies  the 
almost  inaccessible  home  of  the  tribe  of  Yquichanos.  "Dis 
tinguished  by  their  upright  gait,  independent  air,  and  hand 
some  features," — "true  lovers  of  liberty," — "an  honor  to  the 
Indian  races  of  South  America,"  in  the  words  of  Mr.  Markham, 
they  have  twice  vanquished  the  military  forces  of  the  Peruvian 
Kepublic,  and,  persisting  in  their  loyalty  to  the  Spanish  crown, 
have  defied  every  effort  to  subdue  their  independence.  "No 
tax-gatherer,"  he  says,  "  dares  to  enter  their  country."  But 
while  this  "  most  interesting  people,"  in  the  words  of  the  same 
Protestant  writer,  "  refuse  to  submit  to  the  capitation  or  any 
other  tax,  they  punctually  pay  their  tithes  to  the  priests  who 
come  amongst  them,  and  treat  a  single  stranger  with  courteous 
hospitality."* 

Perhaps  the  reader  may  be  disposed  to  ask  himself  at  this 
point,  in  the  presence  of  facts  at  once  so  uniform  and  so 
incapable  of  a  purely  human  explanation,  what  that  Power  can 
be,  everywhere  exerted  by  one  class  of  teachers,  and  by  one 
only,  which  even  in  the  souls  of  negroes  and  savages  has  pro 
duced  results  so  deep  and  so  enduring?  By  what  mysterious 
influence  have  they,  in  so  many  lands,  subdued  such  natures  to 
the  law  of  Christ '(  By  what  spell  have  they  engrafted  on  them 

*  Cuzco,  &c.,  ch.  iii.,  p.  71. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  187 

that  supernatural  faith  which  sixty  years  of  utter  abandonment 
could  not  weaken,  nor  evil  example  obliterate,  nor  bribes 
seduce,  nor  even  ignorance  corrupt,  and  which  is  as  full  of  life 
and  power  in  the  rugged  mountains  of  Peru  and  the  far- 
spreading  forests  of  Brazil,  as  in  the  mines  of  ISTew  Almaden 
and  California,  or  by  the  banks  of  the  Plata  and  the  Maranon, 
of  the  San  Juan,  the  Xingu,  and  the  Ucayali  ? 

In  Chili,  —  as  in  Brazil,  Colombia,  and  Peru,  —  a  hostile  wit 
ness  reports,  in  1840,  that  "  education  is  certainly  advancing;'1* 
and  he  fully  explains  the  progress  when  he  adds,  in  1847,  "the 
influence  of  the  Jesuits  is  gradually  increasing."f  Two  years 
later,  Mr.  "Walpole  praises  the  "  many  excellent  schools,"  and 
notices  that  those  u  attached  to  the  various  convents  teach  free 
of  expense."  There  is  even,  he  adds,  at  Santiago  a  normal 
school  for  the  training  of  teachers,  "who  are  afterwards  sent 
into  the  provinces."  "  The  priests,"  he  says,  "  mostly  taken 
from  the  higher  classes,  are  educated  at  the  university,  and  are 
a  well-informed  order  of 


Of  the  people  we  are  told,  by  various  Protestant  writers, 
that,  both  by  their  industry  and  piety,  they  are  worthy  of  their 
teachers.  Dr.  Smith  declares  that  "the  Christianized  Indians 
of  the  Inca  dynasty  are  truly  hard  laborers."  Major  Sutclifie 
relates  that  spiritual  retreats  for  this  class  "  are  held  yearly  on 
many  of  the  large  haciendas,"  at  which  they  practise  severe 
mortifications,  using  the  discipline  with  such  vigor  that  this 
gentleman,  who  judged  the  operation  with  the  feelings  of  an 
Englishman  and  a  Protestant,  observes,  "  I  frequently  heard 
them,  and  wondered  how  they  could  stand  such  a  self-flogging.  "§ 
They  must  at  all  events  have  been  in  earnest. 

Of  their  invincible  dislike  of  heresy  Mr.  Miers  offers  an  ex 
planation,  when  he  relates  the  answer  of  the  principal  author 
of  the  modern  constitution  of  Chili  to  the  objection,  apparently 
urged  by  an  Englishman,  that  religious  toleration  was  unknown 
in  Chili.  "Toleration  cannot  exist  in  Chili,"  he  replied,  in 
accounting  for  the  absence  of  that  word  from  the  civil  code, 
"  because  this  presupposes  a  necessity  for  permitting  it  ;  but 
here  we  neither  have  any  other,  nor  know  any  other  religion 
than  the  Catholic."!  Finally,  a  French  traveller,  busy  only 
with  economical  and  financial  questions,  but  filled  with  admi 
ration  of  the  resources  and  the  prosperity  of  this  profoundly 
Catholic  people,  exclaims,  "What  an  immense  future  is  in  store 

*  A  Visit  to  the  Indians  of  Chili,  by  Captain  Allen  F.  Gardiner,  ch.  vi.,p.  172. 

f  A  Voice  from  South  America,  ch.  i.,  p.  14. 

|t  Four  Tears  in  the  Pacific,  vol.  i.,  ch.  viii.,  p.  165  ;  ch.  x.,  p.  349. 

§  Sixteen  Years  in  Chili  and  Peru,  ch.  ix.,  p.  820  (1841). 

||  Travels  in  Chili  and  La  Plata,  vol.  ii.,  p.  219. 


183  CHAPTER   IX. 

for  this  nation,  which,  to  wise  institutions  and  a  prudent  liberty, 
adds  all  the  resources  of  an  incomparable  soil  !"* 

Yet  Protestant  missionaries,  chiefly  English  or  Scotch,  careless 
of  the  fact,  which  their  own  experience  has  so  often  attested, 
that  they  only  succeed  in  provoking  the  repugnance  of  these 
people  towards  themselves,  their  employers,  and  their  opinions, 
continue  to  waste,  year  after  year,  the  enormous  sums  impru 
dently  intrusted  to  them,  in  efforts  which  always  terminate  in 
failure,  and  in  operations  which  only  excite  ridicule.  We  have 
seen  that,  owing  to  such  proceedings,  the  life  of  an  Englishman 
is  precarious  in  these  regions,  while  his  dead  body  is  flung  into 
the  highway.  It  is  certainly  a  grave  question  for  the  inhab 
itants  of  the  British  Isles,  whether  the  annual  expenditure  of 
vast  revenues  in  all  parts  of  the  world,  with  no  other  result 
than  to  kindle  the  contempt  of  every  pagan,  the  disgust  and 
indignation  of  every  Christian  nation,  is  a  course  of  action 
likely  to  promote  their  own  interests,  or  worthy  of  their  pro 
verbial  sagacity.  If  England  is  abhorred,  as  is  unhappily  the 
case,  by  all  races  of  men,  from  the  White  Sea  to  the  Indian 
Ocean,  and  is  even  at  this  moment  in  considerable  peril  from 
the  gradual  accumulation  of  that  universal  hatred  which  may 
one  day  crush  her,  it  is  in  no  small  degree  to  her  foolish  and 
offensive  "  missions,"  and  especially  to  the  complacent  vanity 


and  ignorance  of  which  they  are  only  one  of  the  manifestations, 
that  the  evil  is  due. 

The  Argentine  Republic,  in  spite  of  the  crimes  of  its  rulers, 
and  the  perpetual  disorders  of  its  social  state,  still  remains  so 
immutably  Catholic,  that  all  the  overtures  of  opulent  mission 
aries,  whether  English  or  American,  have  only  been  greeted 
with  derision.  Dr.  Olin  has  told  us,  that  the  mission  to  Buenos 
Ayres  was  such  a  signal  failure,  that  it  suggested  even  to  his 
ardent  mind  only  motives  of  despair.  The  experiment,  he 
says,  "was  formally  given  up  in  1841-2,  after  an  unsuccessful 
attempt  to  make  some  impression  on  the  native  Catholic  popu 
lation  of  that  country."  "No  Protestant  missions,"  he  re 
marks,  "  have  hitherto  yielded  so  little  fruit  as  those  set  on  foot 
for  the  conversion  of  Roman  Catholics ;"  and  then  this  Wes- 
leyan  minister  adds  the  suggestion  already  quoted,  "We  will 
trust  that  it  will  inspire  the  Board  with  great  caution  in  enter- 
taming  new  projects  for  missions  among  Catholics." 

The  same  discouraging  conclusion  is  adopted  by  a  well- 
meaning  English  traveller,  who  endeavored  to  'introduce 
Protestantism  in  the  wide  plains  which  stretch  from  the 
shores  of  the  Plata  and  the  Uruguay  to  the  foot  of  the 

*  Notice  sur  le  Chili,  p,  42  (1844). 


MISSIONS  IN  AMERICA.  189 

Cordilleras,  but  with  such  disastrous  results,  that  he  also  was 
constrained  to  recognize  the  hopelessness  of  the  attempt.  "  The 
Protestant  missionary  under  the  present  arbitrary  system," — 
this  is  his  way  of  describing  the  good-humored  contempt  of 
the  people, — "  appears  to  have  little  prospect  of  extending  his 
ministerial  labors  beyond  the  members  of  his  own  Church, 
either  American  or  English."*  Yet  Mr.  Elwes  reports  in  1854-, 
that  "  there  is  one  English,  one  Scotch,  and  an  American  church, 
all  in  good  situations  in  the  main  streets  of  Buenos  Ayres,  an 
instance  of  liberality  towards  the  Protestant  religion  that  I 
never  before  saw  in  a  Catholic  country  ."f 

Such  are  the  testimonies  Protestants,  of  different  nations 
and  sects,  still  more  astonished  than  mortified  at  the  peremptory 
rejection  of  their  various  religions  by  all  the  South  American 
races  and  tribes.  Even  the  Carib  and  the  Araucanian,  the 
Peruvian  and  the  Chilian,  the  vigorous  Guacho  who  spurs  his 
wild  horse  over  the  Pampas,  and  the  milder  Indian  who  urges 
his  canoe  over  the  swift  waters  of  the  Guaviare  or  the  Ucayali, 
only  laughs  at  the  pretensions  of  a  doctrine  which  outrages  all 
his  instincts  of  the  holy  and  the  true;  which  has  banished 
every  mystery,  and,  as  far  as  the  exuberance  of  Divine  mercy 
will  permit,  suspended  every  grace;  which  displays  itself  only 
in  words  which  awaken  no  echo,  and  in  emotions  which  die 
away  with  the  words;  arid  whose  salaried  and  effeminate 
preachers,  all  contradicting  themselves  and  one  another,  so 
little  resemble  the  saints  and  martyrs  from  whom  his  fathers 
received  the  faith  which  he  still  prizes  more  than  life  itself,  that 
far  from  recognizing  them  as  teachers  of  a  Divine  religion,  he  is 
accustomed  to  ask  in  surprise,  like  his  fellows  in  other  lands, 
"  Whether  they  profess  any  religion  whatever?" 


MODERN    MISSIONARIES    IN    SOUTH  AMERICA. 


Ill 


Before  we  enter  the  last  province  which  remains  to  be  visited 
South  America,  let  us  notice  a  few  additional  examples,  not 

unworthy  of  a  moment's  attention,  of  the  language  in  which 

Protestant  travellers  speak  of  modern  missionaries  in  this  land. 

It  is  well  to   learn  from    such  witnesses   that  they  have   not 

degenerated  from  their  fathers. 

A  British  officer,  who  effected  a  few  years  ago  the  descent  of 

the  Amazon,  had  for  a  companion  during  a  part  of  his  voyage  a 

*  Captain  Gardiner,  Visit,  &c.,  p.  24. 

f  Tour  Hound  the  World,  by  Robert  Elwes,  Esq.,  cli.  viii.,  p.  107. 


190  CHAPTER  IX. 

Spanish  Franciscan,  who,  by  the  toils  of  thirty-four  years,  had 
"  founded1  many  new  missions,"  without  aid  from  ^any  human 
bein<r,  and  whose  career  included  the  following  incident: 

A  little  to  the  northeast  of  Sarayacu,  on  the  river  Ucayali, 
dwelt  the  Sencis,  a  fierce  and  warlike  tribe,  still  unconverted, 
whose  solitary  virtue  was  dauntless  courage.  With  a  courage 
greater  than  their  own,  Father  Plaza,  the  Franciscan  to  whom 
our  tale  refers,  resolved  to  enter  their  territory.  He  was  seized 
at  the  frontier,  as  he  had  anticipated  and  desired,  and  then  was 
enacted  the  following  drama.  "They  asked  him,"  says  the 
English  traveller,  "  whether  he  was  brave,  and  subjected  him  to 
the" following  trial:  Eight  or  ten  men,  armed  with  bows  and 
arrows,  placed  themselves  a  few  yards  in  front  of  him,  with 
their  bows  drawn  and  their  arrows  directed  to  his  breast;  they 
then,  with  a  shout,  let  go  the  strings,  but  retained  the  arrows  in 
their  left  hands,  which  he  at  iirst  did  not  perceive,  but  took  it 
for  granted  that  it  was  all  over  with  him,  and  was  astonished 
at  finding  himself  unhurt."  The  savages  had  taken  a  captive 
who  could  give  even  them  a  lesson  in  fortitude ;  but  they  had 
another  trial  in  store  for  him.  "  They  resumed  their  former  po 
sition,  and  approaching  somewhat  nearer,  they  aimed  their  ar 
rows  at  his  body,  but  discharged  them  close  to  his  feet."  The 
narrator  adds,  and  perhaps  no  other  comment  could  be  reason 
ably  expected  from  a  Protestant,  that  "if  he  had  shown  any 
signs  of  fear,  he  would  probably  have  been  dispatched ;"  but 
that  "  having,  in  his  capacity  of  missionary,  been  a  long  time 
subjected  to  the  caprices  of  the  Indians,  he  had  made  up  his 
mind  for  the  worst,  and  stood  quite  motionless  during  the 
proof."  Finally,  "  they  surrounded  him,  and  received  him  as  a 
welcome  guest."*  We  can  hardly  be  surprised  that  such  a 
missionary — whom  even  Mr.  Markham  calls  "a  great  and  good 
man,"  whose  "  deeds  of  heroism  and  endurance  throw  the  hard- 
earned  glories  of  the  soldier  far  into  the  shade" — should  be 
able  to  u  found  many  new  missions,"  even  in  this  nineteenth 
century. 

But  there  are  at  this  hour  many  such  as  Padre  Plaza  in  the 
South  American  missions,  as  even  the  most  prejudiced  travellers 
attest,  lie  himself,  having  recently  finished  his  apostolic  career 
as  Bishop  of  Ouenca,  was  succeeded  at  Sarayacu  by  Father 
Cimini  and  three  other  missionaries,  who  ruled  "  about  one 
thousand  three  hundred  and  fifty  souls,  consisting  chiefly  of 
Panos  Indians."t  "  The  brave  and  indefatigable  Father  Girbal" 
was  a  hero  of  the  same  order ;  and  through  every  Catholic 

*  Lieut.  Smyth,  ch.  xii.,  p.  227. 
f  Markham,  ch.  viii.,  p.  257. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  191 

pi  evince  of  America,  English  and  American  travellers  have 
discovered  apostles  who  are  ready  to  do  in  the  nineteenth 
century  what  their  predecessors  did  in  the  seventeenth  and 
eighteenth.  In  Colombia,  even  Captain  Cochrane  applauds 
"  the  excellent  Bishop  of  Merida."  Mr.  Gilliam,  a  consular 
agent  of  the  United  States,  names  "the  celebrated  and  beloved 
Bishop  of  Durango."*  Dr.  Walsh  has  assured  us  that  "a  more 
learned  or  a  more  amiable  man  than  the  Bishop  of  Rio  does  not 
exist."  Mr.  Temple  mentions  "the  Archbishop  of  La  Plata, 
whose  pious  and  benevolent  character  has  caused  him  to  be 
remembered  throughout  his  vast  diocese  with  every  sentiment 
of  veneration. "f  Mr.  Markham  celebrates, in  1859,  "  Don  Pedro 
Ruiz,  the  excellent  Bishop  of  Chachapoyas,"  in  Peru.  Sir 
George  Simpson  visits  Monterey,  and  says,  "  Father  Gonzalez  is 
a  truly  worthy  representative  of  the  early  missionaries."^  Mr. 
Stewart  is  at  Lima,  and  meets  Padre  Arrieta,  "in  extensive 
repute  for  piety  and  learning. "§  Mr.  Forbes  is  at  San  Luis 
Rey,  where  he  sees  Father  Antonio  Peyri,  who,  "after  thirty- 
four  years  of  incessant  labor,"  had  finished  his  career  by  "  vol 
untary  retirement  in  poverty  to  spend  his  remaining  days  in 
pious  exercises. "||  M.  de  Mofras  is  on  the  Pacific  shore,  and 
finds  Father  Estenega  "teaching  his  neophytes  how  to  make 
bricks;"  and  Father  Abella,  at  sixty  years  of  a«;e,  sleeping  on 
a  buffalo  skin,  and  drinking  out  of  a  horn,  refusing  to  retire,  and 
declaring  that  "he  will  die  at  his  post."!"  Mr.  Walpole  is  in 
Chili,  and  meets  one  of  whom  he  says,  "If  amenity  of  manners, 
great  power  of  conversation,  infinite  knowledge  of  men  and 
countries,  could  have  won,  his  must  have  been  a  successful 
ministry.  There  was  a  soft  persuasion,  a  seeming  deep  serenity 
in  his  words,  very  difficult  to  withstand."**  Mr.  Stephens  is  at 
Esquipnlas,  on  the  borders  of  Honduras,  and  says  of  the  Cura, 
Jesus  Maria  Guttierez,  already  worn  out  at  thirty  years  of  age, 
"  His  face  beamed  with  intelligence  and  refinement  of  thought 
arid  feeling,"  and  "the  whole  tone  of  his  thoughts  and  conver 
sation  was  so  good  and  pure  that,  when  he  retired  to  his  room, 
I  felt  as  if  a  good  spirit  had  flitted  away. "ft  Mr.  Markham 
hears  at  Andahuaylas  "  the  famous  Chilian  preacher,  Don 

*  Travels  in  Mexico,  by  Albert  M.  Gilliam,  ch.  xvi.,  p.  288  (1846). 

f  Travels  in  various  parts  of  Peru,  &c.,  by  Edmond  Temple,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  xii., 

\  Narrative  of  a  Journey  Round  the  World,  vol.  i.,  ch.  vii.,  p.  334. 
§  Vol.  i.,  p.  190.    Letter  v. 
I  California,  ch.  v.,  p.  229. 

*[  Exploration  du  territoire  de  I' Oregon,  par  M.  Duflot  de  Mofras,  tome  i., 
ch.  vii.,  pp.  352,  380. 
**  Ch.  x.,  p.  218. 
ft  Incidents  of  Travel  in  Central  America,  ch.  viii.,  p.  184. 


CHAPTER  IX. 

Francisco  de  Paula  Taforo,"  and  finds  ^him  escorted  by  "one 
continued  triumphal  procession;"  while  at  Lima-tambo  he 
makes  the  acquaintance  of  the  Franciscan  Father  Esquibias, 
"  whose  good  deeds  it  was  refreshing  to  hear  from  his  parish 
ioners ;"  and  at  San  Miguel  that  of  "the  excellent  Father 
Eevello,  the  true-hearted  and  devoted  missionary  of  the  Purus," 
the  body  of  whose  companion,  a  young  monk  from  Cuzco, 
Eevello  found  pierced  with  nine  arrows,  one  of  them  passing 
right  through  his  chest."*  At  El  Paso,  many  a  league  to  the 
north  of  Pern,  Mr.  Kendall,  an  American  Protestant,  encounters 
"the  incomparable  Kamon  Ortiz,"  whose  "charity  and  manly 
virtues  adorn  the  faith  which  he  professes  and  illustrates  by  his 
life.rf  At  Ures,  in  Mexico,  Mr.  Bartlett  commends  "the 
learned  and  venerable  Padre  Encinas,"  the  apostle  of  the 
Yaquis,  and  at  Parras,  "  the  courteous  and  intelligent  Juan 
Bobadilla."^:  Lieut.  Ilerndon  is  on  the  upper  course  of  the 
Amazon,  and  finds  in  that  remote  solitude  a  Franciscan  whom 
he  thus  describes :  "  Father  Calvo,  meek  and  humble  in  personal 
concerns,  yet  full  of  zeal  and  spirit  for  his  office,  was  my  beau 
ideal  of  a  missionary  monk."§  Mr.  Wallace  is  on  the  Rio 
Negro,  and  meets  Padre  Torquato,  "a  very  well  educated 
and  gentlemanly  man,  who  well  deserves  all  the  encomiums 
Prince  Adalbert  has  bestowed  on  him."[  Lieut.  Smyth  is  at 
Chasuta,  where  he  finds  Padre  Mariana  de  Jesus,  and  notes  in 
his  journal  not  only  "the  devotion  of  the  Indians,"  but  that 
"their  submissive  obedience  to  the  Padre,  and  the  attention 
they  show  to  the  worship  of  the  Church  to  which  they  have 
been  converted,  reflect  great  credit  on  their  worthy  pastor. "T 
And  this  docility,  he  says,  is  the  more  remarkable,  because 
"they  seem  to  consider  themselves  on  a  perfect  equality  with 
everybody,  showing  no  deference  to  any  one  but  the  Padre." 
Lastly,  Mr.  Cleveland  is  at  Guadaloupe,  in  the  Pacific,  and 
observes,  "  The  more  intimately  we  become  acquainted  with 
Padre  Mariano,  the  more  we  are  convinced  that  his  was  a 
character  to  love  and  respect.  He  appeared  to  us  of  that  rare 
class,  who,  for  piety  and  love  of  their  fellow-men,  might  justly 
rank  with  a  Fenelon  or  a  Cheverus."**  We  shall  hear  a  little 
later  exactly  the  same  language  applied,  by  the  same  class  of 


*  Cli.  iv.,  p.  92  ;  ch.  viii.,  p.  275. 

f  Narrative  of  the  Texan  Santa  Fe  Expedition,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  ii.,  p.  41. 
$  Personal  Narrative  of  Explorations,  &c.,  by  John  Russell  Bartlett,  U.  S. 
Commissioner,  vol.  i.,  ch.  xix.,  p.  444;  vol.  ii.,  ch.  xxxix.,  p.  488. 
§  Valley  of  the  Amazon,  ch.  x.,  p.  205. 
f  Ubi  supra,  ch.  vi.,  p.  1GO. 
II  llbi  supra,  ch.  xi.,  p.  213. 
e*  A  Narrative  of  Voyages,  by  Richard  J.  Cleveland,  ch.  xiv.,  p.  57  (1842). 


MISSIONS   IN  AMERICA.  193 

writers,  to  living  missionaries  in  North  America ;  let  us  close 
the  list  for  the  present  with  this  reflection, — that  everywhere 
Catholic  missionaries  are  found  having  the  graces  and  virtues 
of  their  calling,  and  everywhere  Providence  employs  Protest 
ant  travellers  to  bear  witness  to  both. 


PARAGUAY. 

One  province  only  remains  to  be  visited,  before  we  complete 
our  rapid  survey,  and  tumour  faces  towards  the  North.  Between 
the  Parana  and  the  Colorado,  and  stretching  from  Santa  Cruz 
de  la  Sierra  in  Upper  Peru  to  the  Straits  of  Magellan,  and  from 
the  frontier  of  Brazil  to  Chili,  lies  the  vast  region  which  gave 
a  name  to  perhaps  the  noblest  mission  which  the  Christian 
religion  ever  formed  since  the  days  of  the  Apostles.  Here  was 
accomplished,  amidst  races  so  barbarous  and  cruel  that  even 
the  fearless  warriors  of  Spain  considered  them  "  irreclaimable," 
one  of  those  rare  triumphs  of  grace  which  constitute  an  epoch 
in  the  history  of  religion.  Here  one  tribe  after  another,  each 
more  brutal  than  its  neighbor,  was  gathered  into  the  fold 
of  Christ,  and  fashioned  to  the  habits  of  civilized  life.  Here 
lived  and  died  an  army  of  apostles,  who  seem  to  have  been 
raised  up  at  that  special  moment,  when  whole  nations  were 
lapsing  into  apostasy,  as  if  to  show  that  the  very  hour  which 
they  chose  for  departing  from  the  Church  was  marked  in  heaven 
as  a  season  for  pouring  out  upon  her  a  flood  of  new  graces. 
Here,  as  Muratori  could  say  without  exaggeration,  amid  a 
people  so  lately  the  sport  of  demons,  "  the  sublimest  virtues  of 
Christians  are  become,  if  the  expression  may  be  used,  common 
virtues."*  Here,  as  even  Voltaire  confessed,  was  perfected  a 
work  which  "  seemed  to  be  in  some  respects  the  triumph  of 
humanity. "f  Here,  as  Sir  AVoodbine  Parish  declares  in  our 
own  day,  in  spite  of  the  prejudices  of  his  class,  "If  we  look 
at  the  good  which  (the  Catholic  missionaries)  did,  rather  than 
for  the  evil  which  they  did  not,  we  shall  find  that,  in  the  course 
of  about  a  century  and  a  half,  upwards  of  a  million  of  Indians 
were  converted  to  Christianity  by  them,  and  taught  to  be  happy 
and  contented  under  the  mild  and  peaceful  rule  of  their 
enlightened  and  paternal  pastors — a  blessed  lot  when  contrasted 
with  the  savage  condition  of  the  unreclaimed  tribes  around 
^:  Such  was  the  mission  of  Paraguay,  of  which  we  are 


*  Relat.  delle  Mmioni,  p.  3. 
f  Ap.  Cretineau  Joly. 
\.  Buenos  Ay  res,  &c.,  ch.  xvii.,  p.  260. 
VOL  ir.  14 


194:  CHAPTER   IX. 

now  to  attempt  to  speak,  though  when  we  have  said  all  which 
we  know  how  to  say,  not  the  hundredth  part  will  be  told. 

It  was  in  1586,  'as  Charlevoix  relates,  that  Don  Francisco 
Victoria,  the  first  Bishop  of  Tucuinan,  who  had  long  labored 
like  the  humblest  missionary,  but  hitherto  almost  alone  in  the 
formidable  diocese  committed  to  his  oversight,  implored  the 
Society  of  Jesus  to  come  to  his  aid.*  He  was  himself  a 
Dominican,  "  and  this  shows,"  observes  Mr.  Southey,  whose 
evidence  we  shall  once  more  use,  "  how  highly  the  Jesuits  were 
at  that  time  esteemed."  From  the  province  of  Peru,  Barsena 
and  Angulo  were  dispatched;  from- Brazil,  of  which  Anchieta 
was  at  that  moment  the  provincial,  five  Fathers  were  sent  to 
Tucuman  by  way  of  Buenos  Ayres,  of  whom  the  most  celebrated, 
Manuel  de  Ortega,  was  to  be  associated  with  Barsena  in  that 
famous  apostolate  with  which  the  names  of  these  two  heroes  of 
the  Cross  are  inseparably  connected.  The  ship  which  carried 
Ortega  and  his  companions  was  attacked  in  the  Bay  of  Rio  by 
the  English, — at  that  time  rivals  of  the  Dutch  in  the  war 
against  "Catholic  missionaries, — and  the  Fathers,  after  being 
treated  with  the  usual  indignities,  were  carried  out  to  sea,  and 
finally  flung  into  a  boat,  without  either  oars  or  provisions,  and 
abandoned  to  the  mercy  of  the  waves.  The  boat,  drifted  to 
Buenos  Ayres,  a  distance  of  more  than  seven  hundred  miles, 
and  when  her  passengers  had  returned  thanks  to  Him  who  had 
saved  them  by  so  wonderful  a  providence,  they  crossed  the 
Pampas  to  Tucuman,  where  they  met  the  Fathers  from  Peru.f 

It  was  Barsena  and  Ortega  who  commenced  the  celebrated 
Guarani  mission,  and  afterwards  that  of  the  Chiquitos,  a  nation 
composed  of  about  thirty  tribes,  speaking  more  than  twenty 
different  languages,  all  radically  different  from  the  primitive 
Guarani  dialect.  M.  d'Orbigny  observes  that,  at  the  present 
day,  the  Guarani  has  become  the  almost  universal  language  of 
the  natives  inhabiting  these  regions  ;  arid  an  English  historian  of 
Brazil  notices  "  the  perfection  with  which  the  Jesuits  spoke  the 
Guaranitic  idiom,";):  of  which  they  published  Grammars  and 
Dictionaries,  and  which  perhaps  owes  its  prevalence  to  their 
influence.  Barsena  spoke  also  the  Tupi,  a  cognate  dialect  of 
the  Guarani,  and  the  Toconote,  of  which  he  composed  a  Gram 
mar.  Among  the  innumerable  works,  of  which  M.  Cretineau 
Joly  says  ''it  would  be  impossible  to  number  even  the  titles," 
which  the  Jesuits  produced  in  the  department  of  philology,  was 
a  Dictionary  of  the  language  of  the  Chiquitos,  in  three  volumes ; 

*  Charlevoix,  Histoire  du  Paraguay,  tome  i.,  liv.  iv.,  p.  278. 

t  Ibid.,  p.  287. 

\  Henderson's  History  of  Brazil,  ch.  vi.,  p.  135. 


MISSIONS  IN  AMERICA.  195 

of  which  M.  d'Orbigny,  "  the  chief  authority,"  as  Dr.  Latham 
allows,  has  lately  declared,  "  nothing  more  complete  exists  in 
any  American  language."  But  such  works  were  hardly  more 
than  relaxations  amid  their  other  toils. 

We  do  not  propose  to  follow  Barsena,  Ortega,  and  their 
companions  through  all  the  incidents  of  their  apostolic  career, 
which  a  few  examples  will  sufficiently  illustrate.  They  find  a 
pestilence  raging  in  the  country  around  Asumpcion,  and  fling 
themselves  at  once,  according  to  their  custom,  into  the  midst  of 
the  danger.  Six  thousand  Indians  are  baptized,  and  even  Mr. 
Southey  pauses  to  acknowledge  "  the  zeal  and  the  intrepid 
charity  with  which  they  sought  out  the  infected,  and  ministered 
to  the  dying."  Barsena,  worn  out  by  labor  as  much  as  by 
age,  died  at  Cuzco  in  1596,  his  last  missionary  work  being  to 
convert  the  sole  remaining  prince  of  the  family  of  the  Incas  of 
Peru,  with  whom  he  shortly  after  departed  to  his  true  home. 

For  Ortega,  many  a  year  of  toil,  many  an  hour  of  danger  and 
Buffering,  were  still  in  store.  Some  of  the  incidents  of  his 
laborious  life  may  be  compared  with  any  thing  which  history 
records,  or  romance  has  invented,  in  the  field  of  perilous  adven 
ture.  On  one  occasion,  travelling  in  a  plain  between  the 
Parana  and  the  Paraguay,  with  a  company  of  neophytes,  they 
were  overtaken  by  one  of  those  sudden  floods  with  which  the 
lowlands  of  South  America  are  sometimes  devastated.  They 
climbed  into  trees,  but  the  flood  rose  higher  and  higher.  They 
were  without  food ;  wild  beasts  and  monstrous  serpents,  sur 
prised  by  the  deluge,  disputed  with  them  their  retreat.  For  two 
days  they  remained  between  life  and  death.  In  the  middle  of 
the  second  night,  Ortega  perceived  an  Indian  swimming  towards 
him.  He  had  volunteered  to  carry  tidings  to  the  Father  that 
three  of  his  catechumens  and  three  Christians,  lodged  in  the 
branches  of  a  neighboring  tree,  were  at  their  last  gasp ;  the 
first  implored  baptism,  the  others  absolution.  Binding  his 
catechist,  who  shared  his  own  refuge,  more  tightly  to  the  branch 
which  he  had  no  longer  strength  to  embrace,  and  having 
received  his  confession,  Ortega  leaped  into  the  flood.  A  branch 
pierced  through  his  thigh,  inflicting  a  wound  from  which  he 
never  recovered,  and  which  remained  open  for  twenty-two 
years  ;  but  he  swam  on,  baptized  the  three  Indians,  and  saw 
them  fall  one  after  another  into  the  gulf.  Their  struggle  was 
over,  but  the  three  Christians  still  remained.  Exhorting  them, 
amidst  the  darkness  of  the  night  and  the  rushing  of  the  waters, 
to  fervent  acts  of  contrition,  which  he  recited  with  them,  he 
saw  two  of  them  devoured  in  their  turn  by  the  flood.  He  had 
done  all  that  charity  could  inspire  or  heroism  perform,  and 
returned  to  his  own  tree,  in  time  to  find  his  catechist  with  the 


196  CHATTER   IX. 

water  up  to  his  neck.  Hoisting  him  up  by  a  final  effort  to  a 
higher  branch,  he  watched  with  him  during  the  remaining  hours 
of  the  night.  On  the  morrow  the  flood  abated,  and  the  sur 
vivors  pursued  their  way. 

Ortega  was  now  lamed  for  life,  yet  so  little  did  he  regard 
this  additional  obstacle,  that  on  one  occasion  he  performed  a 
missionary  journey  of  nine  hundred  miles  at  once.  Every  trial 
which  could  test  his  virtue  befell  him,  and  in  all  he  was 
victorious.  At  Lima,  the  Holy  Office  of  the  Inquisition,  to  the 
amazement,  of  the  whole  country,  condemned  him  to  prison. 
Ortega  did  not  even  ask  what  was  his  crime.  He  had  been 
slanderously  charged,  though  he  knew  it  not,  with  revealing  a 
confession. '  As  he  never  opened  his  lips,  his  silence  was 
accepted  as  an  evidence  of  guilt.  When  he  had  been  five 
months  incarcerated,  without  a  murmur  or  a  question,  his 
accuser  died ;  and  on  his  death-bed  confessed,  that  it  was 
Ortega's  refusal  to  give  him  absolution  which  tempted  him  to 
invent  the  hateful  calumny.  Released  from  prison,  with  every 
mark  of  admiration  and  reverence,  he  resumed  his  apostolic 
career;  and  having  brought  multitudes  into  the  Church,  he 
died  in  1622,  surviving  his  companion  Barsena  by  thirty  years. 

But  he  was  only  one  in  an  army  of  soldiers  as  valiant  as 
himself.  We  cannot  even  name  the  half  of  them ;  let  it  suffice 
to  attempt  a  brief  record  of  a  few,  and  of  their  works.  So  like 
were  they  in  their  fortitude,  their  boundless  zeal,  and  inex 
haustible  charity,  that  in  describing  one,  we  describe  all. 

Gaspare!  de  Monroy,  baffled  in  one  of  his  journeys  by  the 
obstinate  ferocity  of  an  Ornagua  chief,  who  not  only  rejected 
the  Gospel  himself,  but  threatened  the  most  horrible  death  to 
the  missionaries  and  to  all  who  should  embrace  their  doctrine, 
formed  one  of  those  sublime  resolutions  of  which  the  world 
applauds  with  enthusiasm  the  feeble  imitation  in  its  own  selfish 
heroes,  but  refuses  to  praise  the  execution  in  warriors  of  a 
nobler  class.  Ho  set  out  alone,  and  alone  he  entered  the  hut  of 
the  savage.  "You  may  kill  me,"  said  the  Father  with  a 
tranquil  air,  as  soon  as  he  stood  in  the  presence  of  the  bar 
barian,  "but  you  will  gain  little  honor  by  slaying  an  unarmed 
man.  If,  contrary  to  my  expectation,  you  give  me  a  hearing, 
all  the  advantage  will  be  for  yourself;  if  I  die  by  your  hand, 
an  immortal  crown  awaits  me  in  heaven."*  Astonishment 
disarmed  the  ^savage,  and  admiration  kept  him  silent.  Then, 
witl^a  kind  of  reluctant  awe,  he  offered  to  his  unmoved  visitor 
a  drink  from  his  own  cup.  A  little  later,  he  and  his  whole 
tribe  were  converted. 

*  Charlevoix,  liv.  iv.,  p.  323. 


MISSIONS  IN  AMERICA.  197 

In  1604,  Marcel  Lorengana,  a  friend  of  Monroy,  and  Joseph 
Cataldino,  are  wrecked  in  the  Paraguay,  and  only  saved  by  the 
daring  of  the  Christian  Indians.  It  was  Lorencana, — "who 
was  rightly  considered,"  says  Mr.  Southey,  "an  accomplished 
missionary," — who  obtained  permission  to  go  to  the  Guaranis, 
when  their  caciques  had  publicly  announced,  "that  they 
would  never  be  satisfied  till  they  had  drunk  the  blood  of  the 
last  Mahoma,"  a  recently  converted  tribe,  "  out  of  the  skull  of 
the  oldest  missionary."  The  Guaranis  became  afterwards,  as 
we  shall  see,  a  proverb  for  their  Christian  virtues. 

But  who  shall  estimate  the  toils  by  which  these  ferocious 
savages  were  converted  into  men  and  Christians?  "The 
Guarani  race,"  says  a  prejudiced  English  traveller  in  1852, — 
two  hundred  and  fifty  years  after  Lorencana  had  dwelt  amongst 
them,  "  are  a  noble  set  of  fellows — Roman  Catholic  the  creed."* 
It  was  no  human  power  which  wrought  a  change  so  marvellous 
and  so  enduring.  "I  was  informed  at  Quito,"  says  the  cele 
brated  navigator  Ulloa,  "  that  the  number  of  towns  of  the 
Guarani  Indians  in  the  year  1734,  amounted  to  thirty-two, 
supposed  to  contain  between  thirty  and  forty  thousand  families, 
and  that  from  the  increasing  prosperity  of  the  Christian  religion, 
they  were  then  deliberating  on  building  three  other  towns."f 
From  1610  to  1768,  seven  hundred  and  two  thousand  and 
eighty-six  Guaranis  were  baptized  by  the  Jesuits  alone,  besides 
those  who  were  admitted  into  the  Church  by  the  Franciscans.^ 

It  was  Lorencana,  for  they  were  the  same  in  all  trials,  who 
threatened  the  judgments  of  heaven  against  the  Spaniards  for 
their  cruelty  and  avarice;  and  when  commanded  by  an  official 
of  the  church  in  which  he  was  preaching  to  be  silent  and  leave 
the  pulpit,  "immediately  obeyed,  without  the  slightest  emotion 
of  anger."  "  It  is  said,"  observes  Southey,  "  that  this  modera 
tion  affected  the  Treasurer  so  much,  that  he  went  into  the 
pulpit,  and  with  a  loud  voice  confessed  his  fault,  for  having 
insulted  a  good  man  in  the  discharge  of  his  duty."  A  few 
days  after,  the  Treasurer  carne  to  a  miserable  end. 

In  1605,  Diego  de  Torrez  arrived  in  Peru  as  Provincial  of 
Chili  and  Paraguay,  bringing  with  him  seven  Fathers.  In 
1615,  when  his  term  of  office  expired,  his  successor  de  Onate 
found  that  the  ssven  had  become  one  hundred  and  nineteen. 
In  1617,  thirty-seven  more  entered  the  field  under  the  conduct 
of  Viana.  In  1628,  forty-two  arrived  under  Mastrilli.  In 
1639,  thirty  came  with  Diaz  Tano.  And  so  to  the  las,t  hour 


*  Paraguay,  Brazil,  &c.,  by  C.  B.  Mansfield,  Esq.,  M.A.,  preface,  p.  9. 
f  Ulloa,  Voyage  to  8.  America  ;  Pinkerton.  vol.  xiv.,  p.  036. 
i  Dobrizhoffer,  Accoitnt  of  the  Abypone*,  vql.  iii.,  p.  417  (18.22). 


198  CHAPTER   IX. 

they  were  recruited,  more  than  five  thousand  Jesuits  from  Spain 
alone  finding  here  their  cross  and  their  crown. 

In  1623,  Juan  Romero,  superior  of  the  mission  of  Asumpcion, 
accepted  a  task  which  the  viceroy  had  vainly  proposed  to  his 
soldiers,  that  of  tracing  the  Uruguay  to  its  source.  "  None  but 
a  Jesuit,"  says  Mr.  Southey,  "  could  make  the  attempt  with 
any  hope  of  safety,"  because  they  alone  were  not  solicitous 
about  safety.  Escorted  by  a  few  Indians,  he  had  already 
advanced  a  hundred  leagues,  when  he  was  forced  back  to 
Buenos  Ayres,  unable  to  communicate  his  own  intrepidity 
to  his  followers.  It  was  Romero  who  replied  to  some  Chris 
tians  who  wished  to  punish  the  murderers  of  Father  Gonzal- 
vez,  "  The  blood  of  martyrs  is  not  to  be  avenged  by  blood." 
In  1654,  after  a  long  life  of  apostolic  toil,  he  was  himself 
martyred. 

Almost  every  year,  from  the  beginning  of  this  mission  to  its 
close,  was  consecrated  by  a  martyrdom.  Let  us  notice  at  least 
a  few  of  these  glorious  dates.  Gonzalvez,  a  man  of  illustrious 
birth,  was  one  of  the  first.  Often  he  had  presented  himself 
alone  to  the  fiercest  tribes,  and  when  they  lifted  the  bow  or 
the  club,  he  would  say,  "  This  cross  which  you  see  me  carry 
is  more  powerful  than  the  arms  of  the  Spaniards,  and  it  is  my 
only  defence ;"  and  the  club  would  fall  harmless  to  the  ground, 
the  arrow  would  be  withdrawn  from  the  bow.  In  1615,  he 
was  ascending  the  Parana  without  any  companion.  "  No 
European,"  said  an  Indian  cacique,  who  met  him  on  his  way, 
"  has  ever  trodden  this  shore  without  dyeing  it  with  his  blood." 
"  Think  not,"  answered  Gonzalvez,  "  to  alarm  me  with  your 
threats.  I  am  a  servant  of  the  only  true  God,  whose  ministers 
count  it  the  greatest  happiness  which  can  befall  them  to  shed 
their  blood  for  Him."  A  hundred  times  he  encountered,  and 
survived,  the  same  perils,  but  his  hour  came  at  last.  In  1628, 
on  the  15th  of  November,  just  as  he  had  finished  the  Holy 
Sacrifice,  and  had  quitted  the  church,  the  savages  rushed  upon 
him :  "  One  blow  from  a  macana  laid  him  lifeless  upon  the 
ground,  and  a  second  beat  out  his  brains."*  Father  Rodriguez, 
running  out  of  the  church  at  the  cry  of  the  savages,  found  the 
same  end ;  and  two  days  later,  Del  Castillo,  the  companion  of 
both,  was  also  martyred. 

Mr.  Southey,  who  recounts  these  events  after  Charlevoix  and 
other  historians,  admits  that  the  barbarians  were  "  impressed 
with  astonishment,"  not  only  by  the  miracles  which  are  said 
to  have  followed  the  triple  sacrifice,  but  especially  by  "  the 
public  rejoicings  in  which  all  classes  of  men  partook,"  in 

*  Southey,  ii.,  294. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  199 

celebration  of  the  triumph  of  the  martyrs.  "  ISTor  could  they 
contemplate,"  says  the  English  writer,  "without  astonishment 
the  conduct  of  the  Jesuits,  their  disinterested  enthusiasm,  their 
indefatigable  perseverance,  and  the  privations  and  dangers 
which  they  endured  for  no  earthly  reward."  They  became 
anxious,  he  adds,  "to  see  these  wonderful  men,"  as  of  old 
the  people  of  Lystra  and  Derbe  thronged  round  Paul  and 
Barnabas,  "  saying  in  the  Lycaonian  tongue,  the  gods  are 
come  down  to  us  in  the  likeness  of  men  ;"*  and  when  they 
"  once  came  within  the  influence  of  such  superior  minds," 
even  they  discerned  Whose  messengers  they  were,  and  from 
murderers  became  disciples. 

Montoya,  whom  Southey  calls  one  of  the  most  learned  men 
of  his  age,  and  who  was  the  author  of  a  Grammar  of  the 
Guarani  language,  was  a  missionary  of  the  same  class  as 
Gonzalvez  and  Rodriguez.  A  Guarani  chief,  Tayaoba,  "  who 
had  long  been  the  dread  of  the  Spaniards,"  and  whose  tribe 
were  some  of  the  fiercest  of  their  race,  had  resolved  to  kill  him. 
The  nation  of  which  this  man  was  the  leader  was  so  ferocious 
in  its  habirs,  that  "their  arrows  were  headed  with  the  bones  of 
those  whom  they  had  slain,  and  in  weaning  their  children  the 
first  food  which  was  substituted  for  the  mother's  milk,  was  the 
ilesh  of  an  enemy."  To  this  tribe,  with  the  more  than  human 
intrepidity  which  marked  his  order,  Montoya  presented  himself; 
and  when  he  told  them  that  he  had  come  to  teach  them  how 
they  might  be  saved  from  eternal  torments,  "  they  replied  that 
lie  was  a  liar  if  he  said  they  were  to  be  eternally  tormented, 
and  then  let  fly  a  volley  of  arrows  upon  him  and  his  attendants." 
Seven  of  the  latter  were  killed,  but  Montoya,  who  seems  to 
have  been  on  this  occasion  miraculously  preserved,  retired  with 
the  rest ;  and  when  the  savages  had  devoured  the  seven,  "  they 
expressed  their  sorrow  that  they  had  not  tasted  priest's  flesh  at 
the  feast,  and  had  the  Jesuit's  skull  for  a  cup."  Another  chief, 
Pindobe,  "laid  in  wait  for  Montoya,  for  the  purpose  of  eating 
him."  Yet  even  Tayaoba  and  his  horrible  crew  were  so  im 
pressed,  as  Mr.  Southey  relates,  with  the  astonishing  valor  and 
dignity  of  the  missionaries,  that  "this  fierce  warrior  sent  two 
of  his  sons  secretly  to  the  Reduction  of  St.  Francis  Xavier,  to 
see  whether  what  he  had  heard  of  these  establishments  was 
true."  A  little  later,  Tayaoba  was  instructed  and  baptized  by 
Montoya,  "with  twenty-eight  of  his  infant  children. "f 

We  have  mentioned  Cataldino,  the  companion  of  Lorencana, 
and  the  friend  of  Montoya.  In  1623,  he  was  one  day  super- 

v 

*  Acts  xiv.  10. 
t  Southey,  p.  290. 


200  CHAPTER   IX. 

intending  the  erection  of  a  forest  church,  when  Montoja  sud 
denly  appeared  before  him  with  the  announcement,  that  a 
tribe  of  hostile  savages  were  at  his  heels.  "  The  will  of  God 
be  done,  my  dear  Father,"  said  Cataldino,  and  then  quietly 
resumed  his  work,  without  even  turning  his  head  towards 
the  yelling  crowd,  who  were  rushing  upon  him.  Amazed  at 
his  calm  indifference,  or  restrained  by  an  unseen  power,  they 
gazed  upon  him  for  a  while,  and  then  disappeared  in  the 
forest. 

In  1632,  Christoval  de  Mendoza,  the  grandson  of  one  of  the 
conquerors  of  Peru,  was  martyred  by  a  tribe  to  whom  he  had 
been  preaching.  "  It  was  his  hope  and  faith,"  we  are  told  by 
Mr.  Southey,  "that  his  life  and  death  might  atone  for  the 
offences  of  his  ancestors  against  those  Indians  for  whose  salva 
tion  he  devoted  himself."  "  He  is  said,"  observes  Dobrizhoffer, 
"  to  have  baptized  ninety-five  thousand  Indians."  In  1634, 
Espinosa,  who  had  been  the  companion  of  Montoya,  Suarez, 
and  Contreras,  in  all  their  toils,  and  whose  own  life  had  been 
a  long  series  of  dangers  and  sufferings,  was  martyred  by  the 
Guapalaches.  He  was  on  his  road  to  Santa  Fe,  whither  he 
was  going  to  beg  food  and  to  buy  cotton  for  his  neophytes, 
suffering  from  the  barbarity  of  the  unconverted  Indians.  He 
knew  his  danger,  but  the  famine  was  urgent,  and  he  hurried 
on  to  fall  into  the  snare  which  the  savages  had  laid  for  him. 

In  1636,  Osorio  and  Ripario,  who  had  founded  a  new  Re 
duction  in  the  country  of  the  Ocloias,  were  tortured  to  death 
by  the  Chiriguanes.  the  former  appears  to  have  received  a 
revelation  of  the  death  by  which  he  was  to  glorify  God,  since 
lie  had  himself  announced  it  beforehand  in  a  letter  to  the  cele 
brated  Cardinal  de  Lugo.* 

In  1639,  Alfaro  gained  in  his  turn  the  crown  of  martyrdom  ; 
and  the  death  of  so  many  victims  had  already  been  so  prolific, 
according  to  the  law  of  Christian  missions,  in  graces  to  the 
heathen,  that  even  at  this  early  date  there  were  already  twenty- 
nine  separate  Reductions  in  the  two  provinces  of  Parana  and 
Uruguay,  in  which  more  than  three  hundred  thousand  Indians 
had  learned  to  practice  all  the  virtues  of  the  Christian  life. 

Let  us  pass  at  once  to  the  close  of  the  seventeenth  century, 
and  take  up  the  narrative  from  the  year  1683,  in  which  Ruiz 
and  Solinas,  accompanied  by  a  secular  priest,  Don  Ortiz  de 
Zarate,  who  aspired  to  the  crown  of  martyrdom,  entered  the 
mountain  region  of  Chaco.  Already  they  had  formed  a  new 
Reduction,  under  the  title  of  St.  Raphael,  in  which  four  hundred 
families  were  assembled,  and  Ruiz  had  departed  for  Tucuman, 

*  Charlevoix,  liv.  ix.,  p.  377. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  201 

when  Solinas  and  Zarate  were  attacked  by  the  Tobas  and 
Macobis,  and  on  the  17th  of  March,  1686,  fell,  under  their 
arrows  and  clubs. 

In  1690,  Mascardi  and  Quilelmo,  who  had  penetrated  almost 
to  the  southern  extremity  of  the  continent,  were  martyred  by 
the  Patagonians,  that  so  the  blood  of  apostles  might  sanctify 
the  land  throughout  its  length  and  breadth  ;  while  Father 
Joseph  Cardiel  "was  reduced  to  such  straits  as  to  be  obliged  to 
feed  on  grass,  unless  he  preferred  dying  of  emptiness."* 

In  1694,  some  of  the  best  and  bravest  of  this  company  01 
preachers, — de  Arce,  Centeno,  Hervas,  de  Zea,  d'Avila,  and 
others, — formed  new  Reductions  on  every  side,  amid  perils 
which  bad  no  terrors  for  such  men,  though  most  of  them  were 
destined  to  lose  their  lives  in  the  work.  Twice  de  Arce  attempt 
ed  in  vain  to  subdue  the  lierce  Chiriguanes,  "  one  of  the  most 
numerous  and  formidable  of  all  the  South  American  nations." 
They  are  supposed,  Mr.  Southey  relates,  to  have  killed  in  the 
course  of  two  centuries  "  more  than  one  hundred  and  tifty 
thousand  Indians."  When  the  missionary  sought  to  arrest 
their  attention  by  warning  them  of  the  fire  of  hell,  they  replied 
disdainfully,  "that  they  should  find  means  of  putting  it  out." 
So  his  superiors  removed  him  for  a  time,  and  sent  him  with 
Ignatius  Chome,  "one  of  the  most  intelligent  and  most  merito 
rious  of  the  Jesuits,"  to  the  Chiquitos.  Chome  had  composed 
a  Grammar  and  a  Dictionary  of  both  the  Zamuco  and  Chiquito 
tongues;  had  translated  Thomas  a  Kempis  into  the  latter,  and 
written  a  history  of  their  nation.  It  is  a  circumstance  worthy 
of  remark,  that  of  the  seven  companions  who  accompanied 
de  Arce  in  this  attempt,  not  two  were  of  the  same  race.  They 
were  a  Sardinian,  a  Neapolitan,  a  Belgian,  an  Austrian,  a 
Bohemian,  a  Biscayan,  and  a  Spaniard  of  La  Mancha.  "  So 
curiously,"  says  Mr.  Southey,  "  was  this  extraordinary  society 
composed  of  men  of  all  nations.  And  what  a  pre-eminent 
knowledge  of  mankind  must  the  Jesuits  have  possessed  from 
this  circumstance  alone  ;  this  knowledge,  of  all  others  the  most 
difficult  of  acquisition,  was  thus  acquired  by  them  as  a  mother 
tongue,  and  they  were  fitted  for  missionaries  and  statesmen 
almost  without  study."  Yet  this  gentleman,  intoxicated  with 
self-love,  thought  himself  qualified  to  pass  sentence  upon  them 
all,  and  to  rebuke  their  " superstition"  and  "idolatry!" 

De  Arce  was  now  amongst  the  Chiquitos.  Abandoned  to 
the  most  extraordinary  and  eccentric  superstitions,  which  it 
would  be  unprofitable  to  describe  in  detail,  and  brutalized  by 
almost  perpetual  intoxication,  they  had  killed  the  first  mission- 

*  Dobrizhoffer,  p.  150. 


202  CHAPTER   IX. 

aries  who  went  amongst  them,  and  flattered  themselves  that 
they  were  now  delivered  forever  from  their  importunate  pres 
ence.  But  they  were  saved  by  the  very  blood  which  they  had 
shed,  as  Saul  owed  his  conversion  to  the  martyrdom  of  St. 
Stephen.  "From  their  first  establishment,"  says  the  English 
historian,  "  the  Chiquito  missions  were  uniformly  prosperous  in 
all  things.  Here,  as  in  other  parts  of  America,  the  Jesuits  were 
usefully,  meritoriously,  and  piously  employed ;  ready,  at  all 
times,  to  encounter  sufferings,  perils,  and  death  itself,  with 
heroic  and  Christian  fortitude."  And  so  they  converted  the 
whole  nation  ;  and  with  such  lasting  results,  that  as  M.  d'Or- 
bigny  observes,  the  Chiquitos,  "happier  than  other  tribes,  all 
live  to  this  day  in  the  missions,  under  the  old  form  of  govern 
ment  established  by  the  Jesuit  Fathers."*  It  was  amongst  the 
Chiquitos  that  this  traveller  heard  the  ecclesiastical  music 
which  filled  even  his  fastidious  ear  with  admiration. 

De  Arce,  to  whom  we  must  return  for  a  moment,  aspiring 
after  new  dangers  and  more  arduous  toils,  now  entered  for  the 
third  time  the  territory  of  the  Chiriguanes.  It  was  almost 
certain  death,  but  he  was  one  of  those  missionaries  who  can 
say  with  St.  Paul,  who  finished  his  career  by  martyrdom  as 
they  did,  "The  charity  of  Christ  constraineth  me."  We  have 
no  space  to  relate  his  labors  and  tribulations,  which  were  so 
fruitful,  that  when,  at  a  later  period,  the  enemies  of  these 
apostolic  warriors  caine  to  count  the  final  results  of  their  war 
fare,  they  found  forty  thousand  Chiriguanes,  now  fervent  and 
docile  Christians,  collected  together  in  a  single  mission.  De 
Arce  died  as  he  had  lived,  and  as  it  was  fitting  that  such  a  man 
should  die,  martyred  by  the  Payaguas,  in  1717,  together  with 
his  fellow-missionaries,  Maco,  Sylva,  and  de  Blende. 

Lucas  Cavallero,  also  destined  for  martyrdom,  was  laboring 
at  the  same  time  amongst  the  Puraxis.  'Unable  to  resist  his 
fearless  charity,  and  captivated  by  his  preaching  and  example, 
they  also  are  won  to  Christianity  and  civilization.  It  would 
have  been  reasonable  that  he  should  have  reposed,  at  least  for 
a  ^time,  amongst  these  now  peaceful  neophytes  ;  but  he  was 
willing  to  postpone  thoughts  of  ease  to  another  life,  and  once 
inure  plunged  into  the  thick  of  the  battle.  In  vain  the  Puraxis 
implore  him  not  to  expose  himself  to  the  fury  of  the  barbarians. 
He  leaves  them  his  blessing,  and  confiding  them  to  other 
pastors,  hastens  to  the  Manacicas.  They  also  are  subdued  by 
his  word,  and  he  is  next  among  the  Sibacas.  Everywhere  he 
is  victorious ;  and  as  the  Quiriquicas  had  now  become  the  most 
implacable  enemies  of  his  neophytes,  and  were  thirsting  for 

*  Voyage  dans  VAmtrique  Meridionale,  tome  iv.,  p.  260. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  20!$ 

his  own  blood,  he  presents  himself  among  them.  Such  were 
the  simple  tactics  of  these  soldiers  of  the  Cross.  They  ask 
where  danger  is  to  be  found,  only  to  confront  it.  Four  other 
tribes  in  succession  are  evangelized  by  the  same  indomitable 
missionary,  and  still  he  survives.  But  such  a  career  could  not 
last  forever.  His  brethren,  who  knew  how  to  judge  apostolic 
gifts,  were  accustomed  to  say  of  him,  "  that  St.  Francis  Xavier 
had  no  more  perfect  imitator  than  Lucas  Cavallero."  On  one 
occasion  he  was  saluted  by  a  shower  of  arrows,  but  they  in 
flicted  no  wound,  though  they  rained  on  him  from  every  side. 
At  length  his  hour  arrived,  and  he  found  amongst  the  Puy- 
zocas,  in  1711,  the  crown  of  martyrdom  for  which  he  had  so 
long  and  so  patiently  labored. 

Let  us  notice  also  Father  Falconer,  an  English  Jesuit,  "  of 
great  skill  in  medicine,"  w»ho  succeeded  in  founding  a  mission 
in  the  Pampas,  which  he  called  Kuestra  Senora  del  Pilar,  and 
whose  manner  of  life  is  thus  described  by  the  writer  from 
whom  Maria  Theresa  of  Austria  used  to  delight  to  hear  such 
narratives,  when  he  had  been  banished  from  America.  "Wan 
dering  over  the  plains  with  his  Indians  to  kill  horseflesh, 
] laving  no  plate,  either  of  pewter  or  wood,  he  always,  in  place 
thereof,  made  use  of  his  hat,  which  grew  at  length  so  greasy, 
that  it  was  devoured,  while  he  slept,  by  the  wild  dogs  with 
which  the  plains  are  overrun."* 

Cyprian  Baraza,  says  Mr.  Southey,  "  was  perhaps  the  most 
enlightened  Jesuit  that  ever  labored  in  South  America."f  He 
had  set  out  from  Lima  with  the  martyr  del  Castillo,  and 
ascended  in  a  canoe  the  river  Guapay.  For  twelve  days  they 
urged  on  their  frail  boat,  till  they  reached  the  camp  of  the  tribe 
whom  they  sought.  It  was  among  the  Moxos,  in  the  country 
to  the  south  of  the  Portuguese  territory  of  Mato  Grosso,  that 
Baraza  was  destined  to  toil  for  twenty-seven  years.  Recalled 
lor  a  moment  to  Santa  Cruz  by  his  superiors,  in  consequence  of 
a  fever  which  had  reduced  h'im  to  what  appeared  incurable 
debility,  he  spent  the  long  days  of  his  convalescence  in  learning 
the  art  of  weaving,  that  he  might  introduce  it  among  his  future 
disciples.  At  length  he  was  able  to  resume  the  apostolate 
which  had  been  interrupted,  and  found  himself  amongst  a 
people  so  ignorant  and  barbarous  that  they  had  not  even  any 
chiefs,  lived  only  for  rapine  and  murder,  and  hunted  men 
instead  of  beasts  for  food.  Among  these  degraded  savages 
this  man  of  profound  learning  and  elegant  tastes  consented  to 
spend  his  life;  sharing  their  filthy  lodgings;  studying  all 

*  Dobrizhoffer,  p.  145. 

f  Vol.  iii.,  ch.  xxxiv.,  p.  198. 


204:  CHAPTER   IX. 

their  caprices  ;  imitating  their  habits  ;  and  descending  himself 
almost  to  the  condition  of  a  savage,  in  order  to  raise  them  to 
the  dignity  of  Christians.  And  this  life,  for  the  love  of  God, 
he  led  for  more  than  a  quarter  of  a  century  ;  till  on  the  16th  of 
September,  1702,  being  then  in  his  sixty-first  ^  year,  he  was 
martyred  by  the  Baures,  whom  he  had  visited  in  the  hope  of 
converting  them,  and  who  by  his  death  were  won  to  Christ. 

Like  all  his  fellows,  he  had  not  only  planted  but  reaped, 
even  in  this  rugged  soil.  At  his  death,  fifteen  colonies  of 
Christian  Moxos  had  been  formed,  from  twenty  to  thirty  miles 
apart  from  each  other.  "  With  his  own  hand,"  observes  Mr. 
Markliain,  "  he  baptized  one  hundred  and  ten  thousand  hea 
thens.  He  found  the  Moxos  an  ignorant  people,  more  savage 
and  cruel  than  the  wild  beasts,  and  he  left  them  a  civilized 
community,  established  in  villages,  and  converted  to  Chris 
tianity."*  The  churches,  of  which  he  was  often  himself  the 
architect,  "  were  large,  well  built,  and  richly  ornamented," 
says  Mr.  Southey.  The  Moxos,  once  so  barbarous,  had  become, 
as  the  same  writer  relates,  not  only  excellent  workmen,  but  even 
skilful  artists.  "  Cotton  was  raised  in  all  the  settlements,"  an 
active  commerce  created,  and  habits  of  intelligent  industry 
formed.  "  More  comforts,"  says  Mr.  Southey,  "  were  found  in 
the  missions  of  the  Moxos  and  Baures  than  in  the  Spanish 
capital  of  Santa  Cruz  de  la  Sierra."f  And  the  apostle  who  had 
accomplished  this  amazing  work,  and  who,  during  many  years, 
had  permitted  himself  no  other  couch  than  the  bare  ground  or 
the  steps  of  his  church,  was  deemed  happy  and  glorious  by  all 
his  companions,  because  in  his  old  age  he  attained  to  martyr 
dom,  and  after  devoting  all  his  faculties  for  forty  years  to  the  ser 
vice  of  his  Master,  was  beaten  to  death  by  the  clubs  of  savages. 

A  century  after  his  martyrdom,  they  were  still,  says  Mr, 
Markham,  "a  thriving,  industrious  people, famous  as  carpeii 
ters,  weavers,  and  agriculturists  ;"  and  an  Anglo-Indian  writer, 
alluding  in  1857  to  this  prodigious  and  lasting  work  of  civiliza 
tion  throughout  the  whole  southern  continent,  asks  how  it  can 
be  explained  that  even  "  the  slaves  and  mestijos  of  South 
America  should  be  able  to  purchase  of  one  single  class  of 
English  manufactures,  twenty-four  times  as  much  as  the  free, 
enlightened,  and  happily  guided  Hindus  ?"^ 

Such  as  Baraza,  and  Cavallero,  and  Espinosa,  they  continued 
to  the  end.  Dobrizhotfer,  the  apostle  of  the  Abipones,  "  was 
contented,"  says  Mr.  Southey,  though  he  hated  and  reviled  the 


*  Introd.,  p.  xli. 

f  Vol.  iii.,  ch.  xlii.,  p.  606. 

\  Mead,  The  Sepoy  Revolt,  ch.  xxvii.,  p.  347. 


MISSIONS    IN    AMERICA.  205 

very  men  whom  he  was  forced  to  applaud,  "to  .employ,  in 
laboring  among  these  savages,  under  every  imaginable  circum 
stance  of  discomfort  and  discouragement,  talents  which  would 
have  raised  him  to  distinction  in  the  most  enlightened  parts  of 
Europe."  Henart,  once  a  page  of  honor  in  the  court  of  Henri 
IY.,  was  a  man  of  the  same  school,  and  chose  the  "riches  of 
Christ"  before  the  favor  of  the  most  popular  of  earthly  kings  ; 
and  Herrera,  in  whom  the  most  learned  men  of  Europe  would 
have  recognized  a  master,  but  whom  the  Abipones  slew  ;  and 
Hervas,  who  died  of  fatigue,  after  all  his  immense  labors,  by 
the  banks  of  an  obscure  stream ;  and  d'Aguilar,  who  governed 
the  Reductions  of  the  Parana,  and  at  the  head  of  seven  thou 
sand  Christian  Indians  saved  Peru  to  the  crown  of  Spain  ;  and 
Martin  Xavier,  a  kinsman  of  St.  Francis,  who,  with  Father 
Balthazer  Sena,  was  cruelly  starved  to  death ;  and  Sylva  and 
]Sriebla,  both  martyred  by  the  Payaguas ;  and  Arias  and  de 
Arenas,  who -won  the  same  crown;  and  Ugalde,  whom  the 
Mataguyos  killed.  Not  inferior  to  these  were  Machoni  and 
Montijo,  the  apostles  of  the  Lulles ;  and  Julian  di  Lizardi,  who 
was  martyred  by  the  Chiriguanes,  his  body  being  found  pierced 
with  arrows,  and  his  breviary  lying  open  by  his  side  at  the 
office  for  the  dead,  as  if  he  had  chanted  his  own  requiem  ;  and 
Castanarez,  who  converted  the  Zamucos,  when  they  had  mar 
tyred  Albert  Romero,  and  was  slaughtered  himself,  in  1TM,  by 
the  Mataguyos,  after  forty  years  of  toil ;  and  Joseph  de  Quiroga, 
one  of  the  most  famous  seamen  of  Spain  before  he  put  on  the 
habit  of  St.  Ignatius ;  and  Juan  Pastor,  who  at  seventy-three 
years  of  age  presented  himself  alone  in  the  camp  of  the  Mata 
guyos  ;  and  Juan  Yaz,  perhaps  a  kinsman  of  that  other  Yaz, 
of  whom  we  heard  in  Ceylon,  who  died  in  old  age  of  pestilence 
while  ministering  to  the  sick ;  and  Alvarez,  who  dwelt  alone 
among  the  fierce  Caai'quas,  wThom  the  Spaniards  could  never 
reduce,  and  dared  not  provoke  ;  and  Philip  Suarez,  the  mar 
tyr  ;  and  Altamirano,  and  Bartholomew  Diaz,  and  a  thousand 
more,  whom  we  can  neither  name  nor  praise  —  whom  God 
made  what  they  were,  who  did  all  their  works  for  His  sake 
alone,  and  who  found  in  Him  their  eternal  reward. 

We  have  still  to  show,  in  conclusion,  and  we  shall  be  able  to 
do  so  by  the  testimony  of  enemies,  what  were  the  actual  and 
final  results  accomplished  in  Paraguay  by  the  labors  at  which 
we  have  now  glanced.  But  first  let  it  be  permitted  to  add  a 
word  upon  the  men  themselves,  of  whom  we  have  noticed  only 
an  inconsiderable  number,  because  their  lives  sufficiently  repre 
sent  and  illustrate  those  of  their  companions,  and  because  thou 
sands  in  that  age  left  no  other  memorial  on  earth  by  which 
their  passage  may  now  be  traced  than  the  multitude  of  disci' 


206  CHAPTER  IX. 

pies  from  Canada  to  China,  and  from  Paraguay  to  Abyssinia, 
who  by  their  ministry  were  "  renewed  in  the  spirit  of  their 
minds,'"  and  gathered  into  the  fold  of  Christ. 

It  would  be  a  mere  indiscretion  to  suggest  reflections  which 
the  deeds  of  this  great  company  of  apostles,  who  will  be  imitated 
by  Catholic  missionaries  to  the  end  of  time,  will  awaken  in  every 
Christian  soul,  and  which  they  kindled  even  in  the  breast  of 
the  cannibal  savage,  half  beast  and  half  idiot,  who  wandered 
by  the  banks  of  the  Parana  and  the  Uruguay,  guided  only,  till 
these  men  stood  before  him,  by  the  instincts  of  an  animal,  and 
the  passions  of  a  demon.  But  it  is  well  to  observe,  in  contem 
plating  the  supernatural  virtues  of  which  we  have  witnessed 
the  action,  that  they  were  the  natural  fruit  of  gifts  and  graces 
which  were  not  only  fair  to  look  upon,  and  mighty  to  subdue 
the  arts  of  the  wicked  one,  and  to  unbind  in  every  land  the 
fetters  of  his  victims,  but  which  had  a  yet  deeper  and  more 
awful  significance,  as  even  the  barbarians  of  Asia  and  America 
understood,  inasmuch  as  they  revealed  the  immediate  and  in 
timate  presence  of  God,  as  surely  as  the  golden-fringed  cloud 
tells  of  the  great  orb  behind,  wThose  rays  it  obscures  but  cannot 
hide.  These  men  were  mighty,  but  evidently  not  by  their  own 
strength  ;  valiant,  because  they  feared  nothing  but  sin  ;  patient, 
for  they  walked  in  the  steps  of  the  Crucified  ;  and  wise,  beyond 
the  wisdom  of  the  children  of  Adam,  because  to  them  it  had 
been  said,  by  Him  who  once  gave  the  same  assurance  to  earlier 
missionaries,  "  It  is  not  you  mat  speak,  but  the  Spirit  of  your 
Father  that  speaketh  in  you"* 

Yet  it  was  at  the  very  moment  in  which  the  loving  providence 
of  God  was  sending  forth  into  all  lands,  from  the  crowded  cities 
of  the  furthest  East  to  the  solitudes  of  the  unknown  West,  such 
a  multitude  of  apostles  as  the  world  had  never  before  seen  ;  arid 
that  His  Spirit,  with  a  mighty  inspiration,  was  filling  thousands 
at  once  with  such  graces,  and  leading  them  to  such  victories,  as 
men  had  almost  begun  to  reckon  among  the  impossible  glories  of 
an  earlier  age  ;  that  a  people  of  Saxon  origin,  newly  separated 
from  the  Church  to  which  they  owed  all  their  past  happiness,  all 
their  noblest  institutions,  all  their  knowledge,  and  all  their  civili 
zation,  were  filling  the  air  with  imprecations  against  the  very 
religion  upon  which  the  Almighty  was  once  more  impressing, 
before  the  face  of  the  gentiles  now  entering  into  their  forfeited 
inheritance,  the  seal  of  His  august  sanction.  It  was  at  this  time, 
when  every  pagan  land  was  being  newly  fertilized  with  the  blood 
of  apostles,  who  died  for  the  name  of  Jesus,  and  would  have 
died,— as  More  and  Fisher,  Campion  and  Parsons,  and  many 

*  S.  Matt.  x.  20. 


MISSIONS    IN   AMERICA.  207 

more,  died  in  England, — as  joyously  and  exultingly,  for  the 
Church  which  He  illumined  with  His  presence,  or  for  the  least 
of  her  doctrines ;  that  the  founders  and  promoters  of  the 
Anglican  schism,  less  discerning  than  the  pagans  of  India  or 
China,  more  blind  and  perverse  than  the  savages  of  Brazil  and 
Paraguay,  were  blaspheming  the  faith  which  the  Hindoo  and 
the  Omagua  could  no  longer  resist,  when  they  had  once  heard 
the  more  than  human  wisdom  which  proclaimed  it  to  them.  It 
was  in  the  very  age  in  which  St.  Francis  began  that  immortal 
apostolate,  and  those  stupendous  labors,  which  were  to  be  con 
tinued  during  two  centuries,  and  in  which  his  brethren  and 
kinsmen  -w ere  to  win  to  the  Church  more  souls  than  all  the 
powers  of  hell  were  about  to  snatch  from  her;  that  Cranmer,  in 
language  which  none  but  an  apostate  could  use,  was  stirring  up 
the  English  against  the  Church  which  he  called  "  the  cursed 
synagogue  of  Antichrist  ;""*  that  Kidley  was  reviling  her,  with 
the  accents  of  an  energumen,  as  "  the  Beast  of  Babylon,  that 
devilish  drab,  whore,  and  beast  ;"f  that  Bacon,  the  intimate  of 
Cranmer,  was  shrieking  like  a  maniac  against  "  the  pestiferous 
and  damnable  sect  of  the  papists ;"  and  declaring,  in  hideous 
words,  that  "  the  Sacrifice  of  the  Mass  came  from  hell  ;":£  that 
Jewel,  as  if  the  powers  of  darkness  used  his  mouth  for  a 
trumpet,  was  calling  the  Vicar  of  Christ,  "the  Man  of  Per 
dition;'^  that  Grindal,  who  was  called  "Archbishop  of  Can 
terbury,"  was  commanding  all  the  altars  in  England,  upon 
which  the  adorable  Sacrifice  of  the  New  Law  had  once  been 
offered,  "  to  be  utterly  taken  down,  broken,  defaced,  and  'be 
stowed  to  some  common  use  ;"\  that  Sandys,  who  was  styled 
"Archbishop  of  York,"  was  raving  like  one  possessed  against 
"  that  synagogue  of  Satan,  that  man  of  sin,  that  triple-crowned 
beast,  that  double-sworded  tyrant,  that  thief  and  murderer,  that 
adversary  unto  Christ ;"  ^[  and  lastly,  that  the  Anglican  Church, 
the  creation  of  these  very  rnen,  was  exhorting  all  her  ministers 
diligently  to  teach  the  people  of  England,  whether  they  would 
hear  or  no,  that,  till  Cranmer  and  Beza  arose,  "  the  whole  world 
had  been  sunk  in  the  pit  of  damnable  idolatry,  by  the  space  of 
nine  hundred  years  and  odd,"** — or,  in  other  words,  that  Satan 
had  dethroned  the  Author  of  Christianity,  and  brought  to 
naught,  in  the  early  dawn  of  its  strength  and  beauty,  the 

*  Against  Transubstantiation,  book  ii.,  p.  238 ;  ed.  Parker  Society, 
f  Piteous  Lamentation,  p.  50 ;  Letters,  p.  409. 
%  The  Jewel  of  Joy,  p.  449  ;  Cf.  pp.  264,  380. 
|  Zurich  Letters,  pp.  33,  47. 
\  Remains,  p.  134 ;  App.,  p.  480. 
1  Sermon  xx.,  p.  389. 
**  Homily  on  Peril  of  Idolatry. 


208  CHAPTER   IX. 

dearest,  the  most  costly,  and  the  most  perfect  work  of  His 
baffled  love  and  unstable  power ! 

We  have  heard  the  blasphemy,  and  have  seen  how  God 
rebuked  it.  It  was  at  this  moment,  long  expected  by  the 
heathen  world,  but  which  England  had  chosen  for  the  hour  of 
her  apostasy,  that  He  resolved  to  create  twice  ten  thousand 
apostles,  who  should  gather  from  East  and  West,  from  lands 
hitherto  unknown,  a  new  company  of  guests  to  that  Divine 
banquet  which  "they  who  were  invited"*  might  never  more 
taste,  and  preach  in  His  name  to  nations  lying  in  the  shadow 
of  death  the  mystery  of  salvation  which  England  was  now 
rejecting,  and  build  up  among  them  the  very  Church  which 
England  was  vainly  striving  to  uproot.  And  that  all  men 
might  surely  know  whose  messengers  they  were,  He  clothed 
them  in  armor  brought  out  of  the  innermost  sanctuary  of 
heaven,  and  endowed  them  with  gifts  which  the  Seraphim 
might  have  consented  to  share.  Once  again  the  world  saw  an 
army  of  apostles,  filled  with  the  zeal  of  St.  Paul,  the  tenderness 
of  St.  Peter,  and  the  charity  of  St.  John  ;  austere  as  the  Baptist, 
who  fed  on  locusts  and 'wild  honey,  yet  merciful  to  the  weak 
and  infirm  ;  ready  to  die,  like  St.  Stephen,  at  the  word  of  their 
Master,  and  rewarded  in  death  with  the  same  beatific  vision 
which  consoled  his  agony  and  theirs.  England  had  begun,  for 
the  first  time  in  her  history,  to  invoke  maledictions  on  the 
Church,  and  this  was  God's  answer.  The  missions  of  the  six 
teenth  century  were  God's  Protest  against  Protestantism. 

It  is  time  to  bring  our  account  of  the  missions  of  Paraguay  to 
a  close.  In  estimating  the  actual  fruits  of  those  missions,  it  is 
not  the  evidence  of  Catholic  writers  which  we  shall  interrogate. 
Protestant  authorities,  many  of  whom  would  read  with  sympa 
thy,  even  if  they  hesitated  to  repeat,  the  horrible  language  of 
the  authors  of  the  Anglican  religion,  will  tell  us  what  the  mis 
sionaries  really  effected  in  South  America,  and  even,  as  far  as 
such  men  could  understand  them,  by  what  means  they  obtained 
their  success.  Mr.  Southey,  who  uses  such  "  intemperate  lan 
guage,"  as  an  English  Protestant  remarks,  that  "the  general 
circulation  of  his  book  is  rendered  impossible  ;"f  who  declares 
that  Vieyra,  and  Baraza,  and  Cavallero,  and  the  rest,  "  never 
scrupled  at  falsehood  when  it  was  to  serve  a  pious  purpose ;" 
who  relates  that  Paraguay  exhibited  "  the  naked  monstrosity 
of  Romish  superstition ;"  and  who  describes  the  sacred  mysteries 
of  the  Christian  Altar  in  terms  which  it  would  be  profanation 
to  repeat,  and  which  the  evil  spirits  would  not  dare  to  employ, 

*  S.  Luke  xiv.  24. 

f  Voyage  to  Brazil,  by  Lady  Calcott,  p  13. 


MISSIONS  IN  AMERICA.  209 

because  they  "  believe  and  tremble ;  will  be  our  most  appro 
priate  witness.  Here  is  his  summary  of  the  labors  of  the  mis 
sionaries,  as  respects  their  geographical  limits. 

"  A  chain  of  missions  has  now  been  established  in  all  parts 
of  this  great  continent.  Those  of  the  Spaniards  from  Quito 
met  those  of  the  Portuguese  from  Para,"  thus  connecting  the 
Pacific  with  the  Atlantic.  "  The  missions  on  the  Orinoco  com 
municated  with  those  of  the  Negro  and  the  Orellana.  The  Moxo 
missions  communicated  with  the  Chiquito,  the  Chiquito  with 
the  Reductions  in  Paraguay,  and  from  Paraguay  the  indefati 
gable  Jesuits  sent  their  laborers  into  the  Chaco,  and  among 
the  tribes  who  possessed  the  wide  plains  to  the  south  and 
west  of  Buenos  Ayres.  Had  they  not  been  interrupted  in 
their  exemplary  career,  by  measures  equally  impolitic  and  in 
iquitous,  it  is  possible  that  ere  this  they  might  have  completed 
the  conversion  and  civilization  of  all  the  native  tribes;  and 
probably  that  they  would  have  saved  the  Spanish  colonies  from 
the  immediate  horrors  and  barbarizing  consequences  of  a  civil 
war/'* 

Let  us  hear  next  what  he  says  of  their  converts,  who  once 
wandered  naked  through  the  woods,  fed  on  human  flesh,  and 
had  almost  lost  the  instincts  of  humanity.  "  At  the  close  of 
the  eighteenth  century,  the  Indians  of  these  Reductions  were 
a  brave,  an  industrious,  and  comparatively  a  polished  people. 
They  were  good  carvers,  good  workers  in  metal,  good  handi 
crafts  in  general,  and  the  women  manufactured  calico  of  the 
finest  quality,  &c.  &c."f 

Again :  "  Considerable  progress  had  been  made  both  in  the 
useful  and  ornamental  arts.  Besides  carpenters,  masons,  and 
blacksmiths,  they  had  turners,  carvers,  printers,  and  gilders  ; 

they  cast  bells  and  built  organs They  were  taught  enough 

of  mechanics  to  construct  horse-mills,  enough  of  hydraulics  to 
raise  water  for  irrigating  the  lands  and  supplying  their  public 
cisterns.  A  Guarani," — we  know  what  he  had  been  in  his  un 
converted  state, — "  however  nice  the  mechanism,  could  imitate 
any  thing  which  was  set  before  him.";); 

Once  more.  So  universal  was  the  industry  of  these  populous 
communities,  once  disdainful  of  all  toil  but  that  of  the  chase, 
that  the  commerce  of  South  America  received  a  development 
under  the  prudent  direction  of  their  paternal  guides,  which 

*  Vol.  iii.,  p.  372.  "  In  fatto  non  v'ha  in  tutta  1'America  meridionale  terra 
alcuna,  dove  non  sieno  penetrati  i  missionarii,  e  quasi  nessuna  tribu,  a  cui  non 
sia  stato  bandito  il  Vangelo."  Storia  Uhiversale  delle  Cattoliche  Missioni,  voL 
i.,  chap,  iv.,  p.  162. 

f  P.  842. 

\  Vol.  ii.,  ch.  xxiv.,  p.  350. 

VOL.  II. 

15 


210  CHAPTER  IX. 

even  the  political  economists  of  our  own  day  might  contemplate 
with  admiration — if  such  philosophers  could  applaud  a  state  of 
society  in  which  none  were  poor  and  none  rich  ;  in  which  each 
worked  for  all ;  where  there  was  labor  without  hardship  and 
obedience  without  oppression ;  and  in  which  was  exhibited 
on  a  vast  scale  that  wonderful  spectacle  which  made  even 
Mr.  Southey  exclaim,  "Never  has  there  existed  any  other 
society  in  which  the  welfare  of  the  subjects,  temporal  and 
eternal,  has  been  the  sole  object  of  the  government !"  and 
which  forced  from  such  a  man  the  confession  that  "  the  in 
habitants,  for  many  generations,  enjoyed  a  greater  exemption 
from  physical  and  moral  evil  than  any  other  inhabitants  of 
the  globe."* 

We  might  stop  here,  dismissing  all  further  details  as  super 
fluous,  at  least  in  such  a  sketch  as  this  ;  but  the  educational  and 
religious  aspects  of  these  communities  claim  also  a  moment's 
attention.  "In  every  Reduction,"  says  Mr.  Southey,  "not 
only  was  the  knowledge  of  reading,  writing,  and  arithmetic 
literally  universal,  but  there  were  some  Indians  who  were  able 
to  read  Spanish  and  Latin  as  well  as  their  own  tongue."  And, 
as  at  Carthagena  at  the  other  extremity  of  the  "continent,  a 
university  was  founded  under  the  immediate  sanction  of  the 
Sovereign  Pontiff,  so  at  Cordoba,  as  Mr.  Southey  observes,  "  the 
university  became  famous  in  South  America." 

Lastly,  the  influence  of  religion  among  this  vast  population 
of  converted  savages  was  so  powerful  and  all-prevailing,  so 
utterly  was  vice  in  all  its  forms  banished  from  among  them, 
that,  in  1721,  the  Bishop  of  Buenos  Ayres,  Don  Pedro  Faxardo, 
could  report  to  Philip  V.  of  Spain,  "Their  innocence  is  so  uni 
versal,  that  I  do  not  believe  a  mortal  sin  is  committed  in  these 
Reductions  in  the  course  of  a  year."f 

Mr.  Southey  offers  an  explanation,  after  his  manner,  of  this 
almost  fabulous  innocence.  "  Few  vices,"  says  this  gentleman 
with  apparent  seriousness,  "  could  exist  in  such  communities. 
Avarice  and  ambition  were  excluded;  there  was  little  room 
for  envy,  and  little  to  excite  hatred  and  malice."  He  forgets 
that  there  was  human  nature,  with  all  its  frailties;  and  that 
the  enemy  of  man,  who  found  an  entrance  even  into  Paradise, 
had  probably  free  access  to  Paraguay.  "  Drunkenness,"  he 
continues,  in  order  to  prove  that" even  the  virtues  of  these 
Catholic  Indians  were  not  merits,  "  was  effectually  prevented 
by  the  prohibition  of  fermented  liquors."  Yet  he  relates  in  his 
next  volume,  forgetting,  as  such  witnesses  are  apt  to  do,  what 


*  Vol.  ii.,  ch.  xxiv.,  p.  300. 
f  Charlcvoix,  liv.  v.,  p.  94. 


MISSIONS  IN  AMERICA.  211 

he  had  previously  said,  that  "  the  Indians  of  these  Eeductions 
cultivated  the  cane,  both  for  sugar  and  rum  ;  and  distilleries, 
which  in  most  places  produce  little  but  evil,  may  be  regarded 
with  complacency  there,  because  the  moderate  use  of  ardent 
spirits  appears  to  counteract  the  ill  effects  of  marshy  situa 
tions."* 

Finally,  as  the  absence  of  avarice,  ambition,  envy,  and 
drunkenness,  were  perfectly  natural  in  vast  communities  of 
many  thousand  persons,  recently  recruited  from  utter  barba 
rism,  and  cannot  reasonably  be  deemed  Christian  virtues ;  so 
the  crowning  grace  of  purity  was  also,  according  to  this  Prot 
estant  authority,  a  mere  result  of  "precaution,"  and  of  "the 
spirit  of  monachism."  Besides,  as  he  gravely  observes,  "their 
idolatry  came  in  aid  of  this  precautionary  system  ;"  which 
means,  it  appears,  that  "  no  person  who  had  in  the  slightest 
degree  trespassed  against  the  laws  of  modesty  could  be  deemed 
worthy  to  be  accounted  among  the  servants  of  the  Queen  of 
Virgins."  And  so,  in  all  these  great  communities,  thanks  to 
"  monachism"  and  "  idolatry,"  the  law  of  chastity  was  kept 
inviolate. 

And  now  we  have  heard  enough.  For  two  hundred  years 
this  work  had  been  in  progress,  and  these  were  its  fruits.  Once 
more  the  promise  had  been  fulfilled  which  said  of  the  apostles 
of  the  Church,  "  They  shall  build  the  places  that  have  been 
waste  from  of  old.  And  they  shall  know  their  seed  among  the 
gentiles,  and  their  offspring  in  the  midst  of  peoples."  Once 
more  the  missionaries  of  the  Cross  had  glorified  their  Master  by 
orue  of  those  victories,  of  which  the  philosophers  and  the  phi 
lanthropists  of  this  world  are  always  dreaming,  always  an 
nouncing  the  future  promise  to  their  credulous  disciples,  but 
always  abandoning  in  impotent  despair.  Once  more  the 
Church  had  perfected  one  of  those  seemingly  impossible  tri 
umphs  which  man  may  never  compass  or  achieve  by  his  own 
power  ;  and  of  which  all  the  stages — the  first  conception,  the 
gradual  progress,  and  the  final  execution — are  traversed  only 
by  the  succor  and  the  inspiration  of  the  Most  High.  But  even 
the  Church  does  not  always  triumph,  or  how  would  she  imi 
tate  the  life  of  her  Lord  ?  Like  Him,  to-day  she  is  saluted  with 
Hosannahs,  to-morrow  she  puts  on  the  Crown  of  Thorns.  It 
was  now  the  enemy's  turn  to  triumph.  Here,  as  in  other  lands, 
he  understood,  that  if  he  would  scatter  the  sheep,  he  must  first 
smite  the  shepherds.  While  they  watched  the  fold,  no  irrep 
arable  evil  could  befall  the  flock.  Often,  during  those  two 
hundred  years,  the  Evil  One  had  tried  to  force  an  entrance. 

*  Ch.  xliv.,  p.  843. 


212  CHAPTER   IX. 

At  one  time,  his  agents  massacred  the  pastors  who  kept  such 
careful  watch,  but  a  moment  after  their  place  was  supplied  by 
others  as  vigilant  and  undaunted.  At  another,  he  employed 
corrupt  Europeans — filled  with  jealousy  and  malice,  furious 
because  the  Indian  had  found  a  refuge  from  ^ their  oppression, 
or  smarting  with  the  shame  of  baffled  cupidity — to  plot  their 
destruction.  In  the  single  year  1630,  the  infamous  Paulistas 
— Portuguese  and  other  slave-traders,  of  various  nations — 
carried  off  by  force  fifteen  hundred  Indians  from  the  Reduc 
tions.  Fathers  Mansilla  and  Manceta,  as  Mr.  Southey  relates, 
"  had  the  courage  to  follow  them  as  close  as  they  could,  trust 
ing  to  what  they  might  find  in  the  woods  for  subsistence,  and 
administering  such  consolation  as  they  could  to  the  dying,  with 
whom  the  road  was  tracked."  But  these  ravages,  formidable 
as  they  were,  could  not  mar  the  work  of  the  missionaries,  who 
during  two  centuries  were  affectionately  supported  in  all  their 
conflicts  by  the  sovereigns  of  Spain  and  Portugal,  and  often 
led  their  Indian  soldiers  to  victory  against  the  enemies  of  religion 
and  monarchy,  when  no  other  power  in  America  could  have 
saved  either.  The  day  was  now  at  hand  when  the  same  troops 
would  have  fought  with  equal  valor  to  save  their  Fathers  from 
outrage,  if  the  latter  had  not  refused  to  use  in  their  own  de 
fence  the  forces  which  they  had  constantly  employed  with  suc 
cess  in  that  of  others.  "  Upwards  of  a  hundred  thousand 
civilized  Indians,"  says  a  Protestant  author,  "  were  ready  to 
take  arms  in  defence  of  their  spiritual  leaders,  and  it  was  only 
by  their  own  earnest  entreaties  to  their  flocks  that  tranquillity 
was  preserved."* 

We  have  seen  in  the  earlier  chapters  of  this  history  how  the 
Christian  missions,  just  when  they  seemed  about  to  embrace  the 
whole  heathen  world,  were  suddenly  overthrown  in  every  land  ; 
not  by  the  failure  of  apostolic  laborers, — who  were  never  so 
numerous  as  at  that  hour, — but  by  a  conspiracy  which  had  its 
agents  in  every  court  of  Europe,  and  which  enlisted  the  eager 
sympathies  of  statesmen,  philosophers,  and  infidels,  who  attack 
ed  the  Church  through  the  Society  of  Jesus,  and  who  despaired 
of  executing  the  selfish  or  criminal  projects  which  they  had 
formed,  so  long  as  they  were  confronted  on  all  sides  by  an  army 
of  indomitable  warriors — more  sagacious  than  the  statesman, 
more  subtle  than  the  philosophers,  more  courageous  than  the 
infidels — whom  they  could  neither  divide  by  policy,  nor  bribe 
by  favor,  nor  terrify  by  threats.  And  so  these  puritans  of  a  pan 
theistic  civilization,  invoking  with  cynical  hypocrisy  the  names 
of  liberty,  justice,  and  progress,  and  despairing  of  victory  by  any 

*  Mansfield,  p.  443. 


MISSIONS   IN    AMERICA.  213 

other  means  over  their  patient  and  accomplished  adversaries, 
had  recourse  at  last  to  vulgar  and  ignoble  violence,  the  strategy 
of  the  bandit,  and  the  craft  of  the  highwayman.  It  was 
the  only  weapon  in  their  armory,  and  they  used  it  without 
remorse. 

"The  Jesuits  were  hurried  into  exile,"  says  Mr.  Southey, 
"  with  circumstances  of  great  barbarity ;"  and  then  he  shows, 
that  even  aged  men,  who  had  grown  infirm  in  the  work  of  the 
missions,  actually  died  in  the  arms  of  the  soldiers,  as  they  were 
dragged  along  the  road.  And  the  same  scenes  occurred  in 
overy  part  of  America.  "Throughout  Chili,"  says  another 
English  Protestant,  "in  deep  midnight,  the  military  governor 
of  every  town,  attended  by  a  military  guard,  took  possession  of 
every  convent.  The  manner  of  performing  the  act  was  dis 
graceful  to  those  who  ordered  its  execution ;  it  bore  the  ap 
pearance  of  performing  an  act  of  which  they  were  ashamed."* 
Out  of  thirty,  who  were  dispatched  in  one  vessel  from  Buenos 
Ayres,  "  only  five,"  says  Dobrizhoifer,  "  reached  Cadiz  half 
alive."f 

Let  us  add,  in  conclusion,  a  few  additional  testimonies 
from  Protestant  writers,  who  have  honestly  confessed  not 
only  the  virtues  of  the  missionaries,  but  the  iniquity  of 
the  charges  brought  against  them,  the  malignity  of  the 
treatment  which  they  received,  and  the  woeful  results  of  their 
exile. 

They  were  charged  with  amassing  riches,  and  even  Southey 
says,  "  that  the  Jesuits  accumulated  nothing  from  Paraguay  is 
most  certain."  They  were  libelled  for  excluding  the  Spanish 
language  from  the  missions,  though,  as  Chateaubriand  notices, 
"  all  the  converts  could  read  and  write  Spanish  correctly,"  and 
Southey  observes,  "  malice  has  seldom  been  more  stupid  in  its 
calumnies."  They  were  taunted  with  making  converts  "by 
violence,"  though  they  were  every  hour  at  the  mercy  of  their 
own  disciples,  and  the  same  unfriendly  writer  replies,  "  per 
suasion  was  their  only  weapon."  They  were  accused  of 
seeking  to  form  a  "  principality,"  and  of  governing  it  inde 
pendently  of  Spain,  and  of  their  own  Order  in  Europe,  and 
even  Mr.  Southey  answers,  "  The  charge  will  in  itself  appear 
incredible  to  those  who  reflect  upon  the  character  and  con 
stitution  of  the  Company."  They  were  all  linked  together, 
he  observes,  by  "perfect  unity  of  views  and  feelings;"  whereas 
the  very  design  imputed  to  them,  "  if  successful,  would  in  its 
inevitable  consequences  have  separated  the  province  from  the 

*  Miers,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  xviii.,  p.  208. 
t  Vol.  ill,  p.  415. 


214:  CHAPTER   IX. 

general  system,  and  deprived  the  Jesuits  there  of  those  supplies 
without  which  their  Order  in  that  country  would  in  one 
generation  have  been  extinct.  They  had  their  root  in  Europe ; 
and  had  the  communication  been  cut  off,  it  would  have  been 
barking  the  tree."* 

Yet  a  respectable  Anglican  clergyman,  reviving  the  very 
calumnies  which  even  a  Southey  despised,  and  which  the 
remorse  of  their  original  authors  long  since  retracted  and 
disavowed,  was  not  ashamed  to  say  a  few  years  ago  before 
the  University  of  Oxford,  as  if  sure  of  the  sympathetic  applause 
of  such  an  audience,  that  "  it  was  not  the  Church  that  was 
planted  among  the  natives  of  Paraguay,"  though  that  mission 
was  governed  by  Bishops  and  constituted  by  an  Ecclesiastical 
Council,  "  but  a  principality  of  Jesuits  !"f  So  true  it  is  that, 
in  our  days,  the  clergy  of  this  particular  school,  living  only  for 
their  own  theories  and  loving  only  their  own  inventions, 
abandoning  even  the  pretence  of  reverence  which  they  once 
affected  for  the  Mother  of  Saints,  and  surpassing  in  intemper 
ance  the  most  thoughtless  of  their  sect,  have  been  willing, 
out  of  hatred  to  the  Church  which  has  only  compassion  for 
them,  to  catch  up  the  abandoned  weapons  of  the  infidels  of 
the  eighteenth  century,  of  the  very  men  upon  whose  malignant 
fables  the  contempt  of  civilized  Europe  has  long  ago  done 
justice. 

Let  us  continue  the  chain  of  testimony  which  this  digression 
has  interrupted.  "The  King  of  Spain,"  says  Mr.  Prichard, 
"yielding  to  the  advice  of  the  enemies  of  religion  and  of 
monarchy,  ordered  their  expulsion  from  Paraguay,  and  left 
one  hundred  and  twenty  thousand  converts  from  one  single 
aboriginal  nation  destitute  of  the  advice  and  guidance  of  their 
spiritual  and  temporal  instructors."^: 

Sir  Woodbine  Parish,  who  ridicules,  like  Mr.  Southey,  the 
hollow  pretexts  of  their  enemies,  and  eloquently  describes  the 
true  aim  and  character  of  the  missions,  says :  "  This  was  that 
imperium  in  im.perw  which  once  excited  the  astonishment  of  the 
world,  and  the  jealousy  of  princes.  How  little  cause  they  had 
to  be  alarmed  by  it  was  best  proved  by  the  whole  fabric  falling 
to  pieces  on  the  removal  of  a  few  poor  old  priests.  A  more 
inoffensive  community  never  existed."  And  then  he  generously 
adds,  "  It  was  an  experiment  on  a  vast  scale,  originating  in 
the  purest  spirit  of  Christianity,  to  civilize  and  render  useful 
hordes  of  savages  who  otherwise  would,  like  the  rest  of  the 

*  Vol.  iii.,  ch.  xx.,  p.  501. 

f  Grant's  Bampton  Lectures,  v.,  152. 

\  Section  xlvii.,  p.  466. 


MISSIONS  IN"  AMERICA.  215 

aborigines,  have  been  miserably  exterminated  in  war  or 
slavery."  He  even  confesses,  that  "  its  remarkable  success 
excited  envy  and  jealousy,  and  caused  a  thousand  idle  stories 
to  be  circulated  as  to  the  political  views  of  the  Jesuits  in 
founding  .such  establishments  ;"  and  that  these  very  rumors, 
invented  by  malice  and  propagated  by  selfish  cupidity, 
"  contributed,  there  is  no  doubt,  to  hasten  the  downfall  of  their 
Order."* 

"It  is  not  easy,"  is  the  confession  of  a  more  prejudiced 
writer,  "  to  find  a  parallel  in  history  to  the  act  of  gigantic  self- 
abnegation,  so  to  speak,  by  which  the  Order  renounced  with 
out  a  blow  a  dominion  so  vast,  and  seemingly  so  firmly  founded, 
as  that  which  they  exercised  in  Paraguay."f 

Even  Robertson,  though  incapable  of  appreciating  such  men 
or  their  works,  vindicates  them  from  the  calumnies  of  their 
implacable  persecutors.  "It  is,"  he  observes,  "in  the  new 
world  that  the  Jesuits  have  exhibited  the  most  wonderful  dis 
play  of  their  abilities,  and  have  contributed  most  effectually  to 
the  benefit  of  the  human  species.  .  .  .  The  Jesuits  alone  made 
humanity  the  object  of  their  settling  there. "^ 

Sir  James  Mackintosh,  a  man  who  better  deserved  the  title 
of  philosopher,  and  who  was  able  to  admire  "the  heroic  con 
stancy  with  which  they  suffered  martyrdom,"  declares,  in  his 
turn,  that  "  the  Jesuits  alone,  the  great  missionaries  of  that 
age,  either  repaired  or  atoned  for  the  evils  caused  by  the 
misguided  zeal  of  their  countrymen ;"  and,  after  quoting  the 
well-known  eulogy  of  Lord  Bacon,  he  adds,  "  Such  is  the 
disinterested  testimony  of  the  wisest  of  men  to  the  merits  of 
the  Jesuits."§ 

A  multitude  of  American  writers  of  our  own  day  have 
delivered  the  same  verdict ;  let  the  testimony  of  one  suffice. 
"Their  missionary  zeal  among  the  Indians  in  the  remotest 
provinces,"  says  a  Secretary  of  Legation  in  Mexico,  "  was 
unequalled.  The  winning  manners  of  the  cultivated  gentle 
men  who  composed  this  powerful  Order  in  the  Catholic  Church 
gave  them  a  proper  and  natural  influence  with  the  children  of 
the  forest,  whom  they  had  withdrawn  from  idolatry  and  par 
tially  civilized."  And  then,  denying  "that  there  was  just 
cause"  for  the  affected  "  alarm"  of  the  King  of  Spain,  and 
hinting  that  "he  and  his  council  were  willing  to  embrace  any 
pretext  to  rid  his  colonial  possessions  of  the  Jesuits;"  this 


*  Buenos  Ay  res,  ch.  xxii.,  p.  256. 

f  Mansfield,  ubi  supra. 

±  Charles  V.,  book  vi.,  vol.  vi.,  p.  203  (1817). 

§  Works,  vol.  ii.,  pp.  250,  1. 


216  CHAPTER  IX. 

gentleman  notices,  with  just  indignation,  that  "  all  expression  of 
public  sentiment,  as  well  as  amiable  feeling,  at  this  daring  act 
against  the  worthiest  and  most  benevolent  clergymen  of  Mex 
ico  was  effectually  stifled."*  Sir  Woodbine  Parish,  an  English 
diplomatic  agent,  repeats  the  same  reproach,  when  he  quotes 
the  touching  protest  addressed  by  the  Christian  Indians  of  San 
Luis  to  the  Governor  of  Buenos  Ayres,  in  1768.  "  Our  children, 
who  are  in  the  country  and  in  the  towns,  when  they  return  and 
find  not  the  sons  of  St.  Ignatius,  will  flee  away  to  the  deserts 
and  to  the  forests  to  do  evil."  The  only  reply  of  the  sycophant 
Bucarelli  was  to  send  troops  against  them,  but,  adds  Sir  Wood 
bine,  "  he  found  them  not  in  arms,  but  in  tears."f 

Lastly,  another  English  writer  of  our  own  day,  retracting 
with  a  noble  candor  earlier  language,  thus  estimates  the  Society 
whose  labors  he  had  once  misjudged.  "  I  have  formerly  ranked 
its  operations  in  Paraguay  and  Brazil  amongst  those  of  its 
worst  ambition  ;  but  more  extended  inquiry  has  convinced  me 
that,  in  this  instance,  I,  in  common  with  others,  did  them 
grievous  wrong.  .  .  Their  conduct  in  these  countries  is  one  of 
the  most  illustrious  examples  of  Christian  devotion — Christian 
patience — Christian  benevolence  and  disinterested  virtue  upon 
record."  And  then  he  adds,  in  words  which  he  seems  to  have 
adopted  from  another,  and  which  may  fltly  conclude  these 
impressive  confessions :  "  No  men  ever  behaved  with  greater 
equanimity,  under  undeserved  disgrace,  than  the  last  of  the 
Jesuits ;  and  the  extinction  of  the  Order  was  a  heavy  loss  to 
literature,  a  great  evil  to  the  Catholic  world,  and  an  irreparable 
injury  to  the  tribes  of  South  America." J 

The  evil  was  consummated,  and,  as  Sir  Woodbine  Parish 
observes,  "  upwards  of  a  million  of  Indians"  were  now  deprived 
of  the  pastors  and  guides  by  whom  they  had  been,  as  it  were, 
created  anew  ;  and  whose  gentle  rule  they  obeyed  with  such 
docile  and  loving  confidence,  that,  as  Ulloa  relates,  "even  if 
they  had  been  punished  unjustly,  they  would  have  believed  that 
they  deserved  it."  We  have  seen,  by  the  unsuspicious  testimony 
of  Protestant  writers,  to  what  degree  of  civilization  they  had 
attained.  No  longer  dwelling  in  huts  composed  of  branches,  or 
lying  naked  on  the  untilled  earth,  from  which  they  gathered 
only  the  fruits  which  it  spontaneously  offered,  the  Fathers  had 
taught  them  to  build  stone  houses,  and  to  roof  them  with  tiles  ; 
agriculture,  directed  by  science  and  aided  by  an  effective  system 
of  irrigation,  gave  birth  to  new  products  of" which  they  had  not 

*  Mexico,  Aztec,  Spanish,  and  Republican,  by  Brantz  Mayer,  vol.  i.,  ch.  xiii.. 
p.  243  (1852). 
f  Ubi  supra. 
$  Howitt,  Colonization  and  Christianity,  ch.  x.,  pp.  121,  141. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  217 

suspected  the  existence;  their  wide  pastures  nourished  vast 
herds  of  cattle  ;  public  magazines  afforded  a  safeguard  against 
famine,  and  carefully  organized  hospitals  a  refuge  against  dis 
ease  or  accident ;  noble  churches,  decorated  with  no  mean  skill 
by  their  own  art,  displayed  treasures  of  silk  and  jewels  and 
gold  which  only  their  own  intelligent  industry,  and  the  profits 
of  a  well-regulated  commerce,  had  enabled  them  to  procure ; 
they  had  troops  and  arsenals,  ever  at  the  service  of  the  king, 
never  employed  against  him  ;  they  had  become,  by  the  pru 
dent  cultivation  of  their  own  resources,  almost  independent  of 
foreign  productions  ;  they  grew  their  own  sugar,  and  their  own 
tea,  and  distilled  enough  alcohol  for  the  wise  uses  to  which 
they  applied  it ;  they  were  artists  and  manufacturers,  as  well 
as  soldiers  and  herdsmen  ;  they  made  all  kinds  of  musical  in 
struments,  even  the  organs,  whose  tones  filled  their  vast 
churches,  and  sung  with  a  sweetness  and  precision  which 
modern  travellers  still  attest  with  admiration  ;  and  lastly, 
though  the  ecclesiastical  Council  of  Lima — mindful,  perhaps, 
that  they  had  but  lately  been  hunters  of  men,  and  eaters  of 
human  flesh — prescribed  the  most  rigorous  precautions  in  ad 
mitting  the  Indians  to  the  Sacraments,  even  refusing  Holy 
Communion  till  after  seven  years  of  blameless  life,  so  great 
was  their  purity  and  devotion  that  these  injunctions  had  be 
come  well-nigh  superfluous,  and  the  Bishop  of  Buenos  Ayres, 
who  had  minutely  examined  them  by  virtue  of  his  office  as 
"  apostolic  visitor,'"  could  report  to  astonished  Europe,  "  They 
form,  perhaps,  the  most  precious  portion  of  the  flock  of  Jesus 
Christ." 

And  now  the  apostles,  who  out  of  such  rude  materials  had 
built  up  so  fair  an  edifice,  were  taken  from  them.  "  Here 
ended,"  says  Mr.  Southey,  whom  we  quote  for  the  last  time, 
"  the  prosperity  of  these  celebrated  communities.  The  '  admin 
istrators'  " — who  now  supplanted  the  missionaries — "  hungry 
ruffians  from  the  Plata,  or  fresh  from  Spain,  neither  knew  the 
native  language,  nor  had  patience  to  acquire  it." 

Before  these  "  rapacious  and  brutal"  agents,  emissaries  of 
rapine,  fraud,  and  obscenity,  the  Indian  sunk  down  in  despair, 
or  fled  away  in  dismay.  The  administrators  were  appointed, 
as  the  new  authorities — apt  representatives  of  Pombal,Choiseul, 
and  Aranda* — gravely  announced,  "  to  purify  the  Deductions 

*  Even  English  Protestants  have  sometimes  appreciated  these  men  and  their 
fellows.  "  Well  read  in  Voltaire,  D'Alembert,  and  Helvetius,"  says  the  late  Lord 
Holland,  speaking  of  Aranda,  "jealous  of  the  Church,  inveterate  against  the 
Jesuits,  who  had  been  suppressed  during  his  first  ministry,  and  not  insensible 
to  the  somewhat  exaggerated  praises  lavished  upon  him  for  that  measure  by 
those  who  had  rendered  infidelity  fashionable  in  Paris."  And  the  school  has 
continued  the  same  to  the  present  day.  The  "ignorant,  rash,  and  presumptu- 


218  CHAPTER   IX. 

from  tyranny ;"  and  the  immediate  result  of  their  presence 
was,  that  "  the  arts  which  the  Jesuits  had  introduced  were 
neglected  and  forgotten  ;  their  gardens  lay  waste,  their  looms 
fell  to  pieces  ;  and  in  these  communities,  where  the  inhabitants, 
for  many  generations,  had  enjoyed  a  greater  exemption  from 
physical  and  moral  evil  than  any  other  inhabitants  of  the 
globe,  the  people  were  now  made  vicious  and  miserable.  Their 
only  alternative  was,  to  remain  to  be  treated  like  slaves,  or 
fly  to  the  woods,  and  take  their  chance  as  savages." 

Such  is  the  last  chapter  of  a  history  more  full  of  sadness  than 
any  in  the  modern  annals  of  our  race.  Out  of  "  a  population 
of  one  hundred  thousand  persons,  inhabiting  thirty  towns  under 
the  control  of  the  Jesuits,"  by  the  borders  of  the  Parana  and 
the  Uruguay,  which  were  more  exposed  than  remoter  districts  to 
the  arts  of  the  "  hungry  ruffians"  who  now  devastated  them, 
"  not  a  thousand  souls,"  observes  Sir  Woodbine  Parish,  "  re 
mained  in  1825!"  "Upwards  of  four  hundred  towns •,"  says 
DobrizhofFer,  "  which  formerly  stood  around  Guadalcazar,  a 
city  of  Tucuman  now  destroyed,  utterly  perished."  Other 
tribes,  it  is  true,  suffered  less,  because  the  agents  of  European 
infidelity  could  not  reach  them  ;  but  these  also  were  deprived  of 
their  Fathers  and  teachers,  and  left  to  find  their  way  in  darkness. 
And  yet  they  have  kept  the  faith,  by  that  special  privilege  which 
""distinguishes  every  church  founded  in  the  sixteenth  century,  and 
have  survived  a  trial  hardly  paralleled  in  ecclesiastical  story  ; 
nay  more,  their  number  is  again  steadily  increasing,  and  "  many 
of  the  missions  at  this  day,"  as  M.  d'Orbigny  has  told  us,  "push 
the  Catholic  religion  even  to  fanaticism," — which  probably 
means  no  more,  in  the  mouth  of  such  a  witness,  than  that  they 
are  fervent  Christians.  The  same  writer, — who  seems  to  belong 
to  that  class,  of  which  France  unhappily  produces  so  many,  who 
classify  the  phenomena  of  religious  life  with  the  same  frigid 
composure  with  which  they  arrange  the  statistics  of  the  animal 
or  vegetable  world, — furnishes  in  his  elaborate  work  many 
deeply  interesting  proofs  of  that  marvellous  inflexibility  of  faith 
of  which  the  history  of  Catholic  missions  supplies  examples  in 
every  land,  and  which,  to  a  Christian  reader,  are  the  most 
valuable  portion  of  his  remarkable  volumes.  All  the  Chiquitos, 
he  has  already  told  us,  "  have  persevered,  and  at  this  day 
nothing  would  induce  them  to  return  to  the  life  of  the  woods." 

ous"  Urquijo  is  thus  described  by  the  same  critic.  "  So  fanatically  hostile  was  he 
to  the  Church  of  Rome,  that  when,  being  Charge  d' Affaires  in  London,  he  first 
heard  that  General  Bonaparte,  by  the  peace  of  Tolentino,  had  spared  the  Papal 
Government,  he  ran  like  a  maniac  from  his  house  for  more  than  a  mile,  on  the 
Uxbridge  roa,d,  and  threw  himself  in  despair  into  a  pond."  Foreign  Remi 
niscences,  by  Henry  Richard  Lord  Holland,  pp.  75,  100  (1851). 


MISSIONS   IN  AMERICA.  219 

Amongst  other  nations,  he  observes,  the  customs  introduced  by 
the  missionaries  "  are  still  maintained ;"  and  he  relates  that 
whenever  an  old  sermon  of  one  of  the  Jesuit  Fathers  is  read  to 
them,  they  eagerly  assemble,  and  listen  with  profound  attention. 
"  The  old  men  still  remember  with  sorrow  the  expulsion  of  the 
Fathers  in  1767,  and  all  repeat,  '  By  them  we  were  made 
Christians;  by  them  we  were  brought  to  the  knowledge  of 
God,  and  the  possession  of  happiness.' " 

"Wherever  he  goes,  and  he  went  everywhere,  M.  d'Orbigny 
says  :  "  I  am  never  weary  of  admiring  the  unparalleled  results 
which  the  Jesuits  obtained  in  so  short  a  time  amongst  men  who 
had  so  lately  quitted  the  savage  state."  And  then  he  contrasts 
their  social  and  religious  condition  before  and  after  the  sup 
pression  of  the  Society.  "  Under  the  Jesuits  a  severe  morality 
was  observed ;  their  present  rulers  are  themselves  examples  to 
the  Indians  of  misconduct."  "The  epidemics  which  now  afflict 
them  were  unknown,"  he  says,  "  in  the  time  of  the  Jesuits," 
being  kept  at  a  distance  by  rigorous  sanitary  arrangements. 
Besides,  the  Jesuits  nursed  them  in  all  their  sickness,  and  now 
they  are  left  to  die  like  the  beasts  of  the  field.  Finally,  con 
trasting  the  economical  and  agricultural  statistics  under  the 
Religious  and  under  the  Civil  administration,  he  declares,  in 
eloquent  words,  that  "  Nature  herself  seems  to  have  resumed 
her  original  aspect."f 

Sir  Woodbine  Parish  also,  who  speaks,  like  M.  d'.Orbigny, 
after  personal  experience,  gives  examples,  which  would  be 
surprising  if  the  fruits  of  such  apostolic  toils  could  excite 
astonishment,  of  the  abiding  power  and  influence  of  the  mis 
sionaries.  Thus  at  Cordoba,  which  was  a  sort  of  metropolis  of 
the  missions,  "  the  effects  of  the  preponderating  influence  of 
the  monastic  establishments  are  still  visible  in  the  habits  of  the 
generality  of  the  people  "\ 

Lastly,  for  it  is  time  to  bring  this  sketch  to  a  close,  an  official 
French  writer,  who  was  attached  to  the  diplomatic  mission  to 
the  Plata,  confirms,  in  1850,  all  the  other  witnesses.  M.  de 
Brossard  is  not  wholly  exempt  from  the  vulgar  prejudices  of  his 
day,  and  has  not  shaken  off  the  superstition,  which  makes  the 
Jesuits  a  bugbear  and  a  scarecrow  in  the  eyes  of  so  many 
shallow  and  half -educated  Frenchmen  ;  but  he  was  capable  of 
expressing  with  energy  the  generous  impressions  which  actual 
observation  produced  in  his  mind.  "  One  thing  is  certain,  and 
ought  to  be  declared  to  the  praise  of  the  Fathers,  that  since  their 

*  Tome  ii.,  p.  606. 
Tome  i.,  p.  281. 
Part  iii.,  ch.  xviii.,  p.  281. 


220  CHAPTER   IX. 

expulsion  the  material  prosperity  of  Paraguay  has  diminished ; 
that  many  lands  formerly  cultivated  have  ceased  to  be  so;  that 
many  localities  formerly  inhabited  present  at  this  day  only 
ruins.  What  ought  to  be  confessed  is  this, — that  they  knew 
how  to  engrave  with  such  power  on  their  hearts  reverence  for 
authority,  that  even  to  this  very  hour,  the  tribes  of  Paraguay, 
beyond  all  those  who  inhabit  this  portion  of  America,  are  the 
most  gentle,  and  the  most  submissive  to  the  empire  of  duty."* 

*  Les  Repiibliquea  de  la  Plata,  par  M.  Alfred  de  Brossard,  ch.  iv.,  p.  31. 


MISSIONS  IN  AMERICA.  221 


PAKT  II. 


NOETH    AMERICA. 


IT  is  time  to  quit  South  America,  that  we  may  search  in  the 
northern  continent  for  the  last  and  most  notable  example  which 
the  world  offers  of  the  contrast  between  the  work  of  the  Church 
and  the  work  of  the  Sects.  In  tracing  this  final  chapter  of  a 
history  which  we  have  now  almost  completed,  we  shall  once 
more  use,  as  we  have  done  throughout  these  volumes,  the 
testimony  of  Protestant  authorities ;  and  if  we  have  had  reason 
to  feel  surprise  at  the  vigor  with  which  they  have  denounced 
the  operations  of  their  co-religionists  in  all  other  lands,  the 
astonishing  candor  and  truthfulness  which,  with  rare  excep 
tions,  are  the  honorable  characteristic  of  American  writers, 
including  the  eminent  names  of  Washington  and  Franklin,  of 
Irving  and  Channing,  will  be  found  to  supply  evidence  at  least 
as  valuable  as  any  hitherto  produced,  and  perhaps  still  more 
remarkable  than  any  for  copiousness,  precision,  and  emphasis. 
It  is  impossible  not  to  be  struck  by  the  fact,  that  while,  on  the 
one  hand,  the  inhabitants  of  the  United  States  have  pushed  the 
right  of  religious  division,  and  the  sovereign  independence  of 
the  individual,  to  results  which  have  appalled  even  the  boldest 
thinkers  among  them,  and  have  generated  at  last  that  chaos 
of  spiritual  confusion  which  their  own  writers  have  partly 
described  to  us ;  on  the  other,  a  large  portion  of  their  literature, 
since  they  became  a  distinct  nation,  is  a  protest  against  the 
unappeasable  jealousies,  the  eager  malice,  and  fierce  resent 
ments,  which  breathe  in  every  line  of  the  polemical  writings  of 
British  Protestants.  In  refusing  to  transplant  to  her  free 
shores  the  effete  feudalism  of  England,  America  has  declined 
also  to  become  the  heir  of  her  arrogant  and  superstitious 


222  CHAPTER  IX. 

bigotry.*  Almost  the  only,  certainly  the  most  conspicuous, 
exceptions  to  this  rule  are  found,  as  we  might  have  anticipated, 
among  the  members  of  the  American  Episcopalian  sect;  as 
enamored  at  this  hour  of  their  dull  and  frigid  forms,  as  inca 
pable  of  generous  and  expansive  life,  as  when  they  first  pro 
voked  the  disgust  of  the  Virginians  by  their  petty  tyranny, 
ignoble  greed,  and  querulous  self-love.  Imitating  the  model 
which  they  had  left  behind,  they  have  attempted  to  restore  it 
in  their  new  home,  but  without  success ;  and  while  the  majority 
of  American  sects,  wisely  allowing  the  echoes  of  sectarian  fury 
to  die  away,  and  refusing  the  heritage  of  cruel  traditions  and 
implacable  hatred  which  have  given  a  special  tone  both  to  the 
literature  and  the  legislation  of  England,  have  frankly  acknow 
ledged  that  the  Church  wears  as  noble  a  front  in  a  Republic  as 
in  an  Empire,  and  have  even  been  willing  to  draw  their  own 
ranks  closer  together,  not  to  oppose,  but  to  make  room  for  her ; 
the  Episcopalians,  affecting  to  be  neither  wholly  Catholic  nor 
frankly  Protestant,  but  doomed  in  all  lands  to  restless  jealousy 
and  the  pangs  of  that  unfruitful  labor  in  which  "  there  is  not 
strength  to  bring  forth,"  still  repeat  the  fretful  maledictions 
which  seem,  with  them  as  with  others,  to  be  the  sole  positive 
element  of  their  religion. 

In  the  United  States,  whose  religious  phenomena,  as  far  as 
they  relate  to  the  history  of  missions,  we  shall  presently  review, 
there  is  hardly  room,  except  in  one  sect,  for  that  peculiar  form 
of  the  passion  of  hate  which  is  begotten  by  the  memory  of 
wrongs  inflicted  but  not  repented.  The  Americans  never 
decapitated,  in  the  interests  of  a  new  religion,  a  More  or  a 
Fisher,  nor  tortured  a  Campion,  nor  tore  out  the  bowels  of  a 
Lacy ;  and  being  guiltless  of  the  blood  of  the  righteous,  have 
no  motive  for  cherishing  hatred  against  them.  Hence  the 
marked  contrast  between  their  controversial  writirtgs  and 
those  of  British  Protestants.  What  the  English  can  say  of  the 
Church  of  God,  and  of  her  works,  we  have  seen;  the  Americans 
will  tell  us,  in  their  turn,  how  they  have  learned  to  estimate 
both. 

*  A  single  example  will  serve  to  illustrate  effectively  the  absence  of  mean 
and  fretful  passions  which  distinguishes  the  American  people  from  their 
English  co-religionists.  In  1862,  the  authorities  of  Harvard  University,  who 
are  Protestants  of  an  advanced  school,  spontaneously  offered  their  highest 
academical  degree  to  the  Catholic  Bishop  of  Boston,  and  being  trustees  of  a 
plot  of  land  in  that  city  which  the  Prelate  desired  to  purchase,  afforded  him 
every  facility  in  completing  his  design,  which  included  the  conversion  of  a 
Protestant  into  a  Catholic  church.— Boston  Pilot,  October  25,  1862. 


MISSIONS  IN  AMERICA.  223 


GUATEMALA. 

The  first  province  which  we  must  traverse  in  our  way 
towards  the  North  after  passing  the  Isthmus  of  Panama,  is 
Guatemala.  If  we  stay  here  for  a  moment,  we  have  at  least 
a  sufficient  apology  to  offer  for  what  might  otherwise  be 
deemed  a  needless  delay.  The  history  of  the  early  missions  in 
this  comparatively  obscure  province  has  been  recently  sketch 
ed,  by  an  English  Protestant  writer,  with  such  rare  fidelity  of 
research  and  humanity  of  temper,  that  it  would  be  unpardon 
able  to  neglect  altogether  his  interesting  record.  "  It  will  be 
a  pleasure,"  he  says,  and  his  readers  will  confirm  the  declara 
tion,  "  to  recount  the  proceedings  of  the  Dominican  monks 
of  Guatemala,  instinct  with  the  wisdom  of  the  serpent,  as  well 
as  the  harailessness  of  the  dove." 

It  was  by  Pedro  de  Alvarado,  one  of  the  most  famous  of  the 
conquistadores  of  the  New  World,  that  this  province  had  been 
annexed  to  the  crown  of  Spain,  in  1523.  Animated,  like  all 
the  warriors  of  his  age  and  class,  by  a  burning  religious  zeal 
which  even  their  many  faults  never  quenched,  he  had  an 
nounced  to  the  natives  of  Guatemala  that  he  "  came  to  show 
the  Indians  the  way  to  immortality."  The  promise  was  to  be 
abundantly  fulfilled,  though  not  by  himself.  In  1529,  the  cele 
brated  Dominican,  Domingo  de  Betanzos, — of  whose  life  and 
character  Mr.  Helps  gives  an  account  almost  as  remarkable  for 
elevation  of  sentiment  as  for  purity  of  style, — set  outfrom  Mexico 
for  the  scene  of  Alvarado's  conquest.  It  was  a  weary  journey  of 
four  hundred  leagues,  but  he  went  on  foot,  "eating  little,  and 
that  only  of  wild  fruits,  and  sleeping  in  the  open  air."  He 
had  scarcely  reached  the  new  city  of  Santiago,  when  he  was 
summoned  back  to  Mexico  to  attend  a  Council  of  his  Order. 
In  the  spirit  of  patient  obedience  he  retraced  his  steps,  though 
not  till  he  had  commenced  the  building  of  a  humble  monastery, 
which  was  to  be  governed  a  little  later  by  a  disciple  of  his  own, 
who  became,  as  often  happens,  more  illustrious  than  his  master. 

It  was  in  1532  that  Las  Casas,  also  a  Dominican,  arrived  in 
Nicaragua,  on  his  return  from  Peru.  Four  years  later  he 
entered  Guatemala,  and  "  took  up  his  abode  in  the  convent 
which  Domingo  de  Betanzos  had  built."  With  him  went  Luis 
Cancer,  Pedro  de  Angulo,  and  Rodrigo  de  Ladrada,  "  all  of 
whom,"  observes  the  English  historian,  "  afterwards  became 
celebrated  men."  "These  grave  and  reverend  monks,"  he 
continues,  "might  any  time  in  the  year  1537  have  been  found 
sitting  in  a  little  class  round  the  Bishop  of  Guatemala  (Francisco 
de  Marroquin),  an  elegant  scholar,  but  whose  scholarship  was 


224:  CHAPTER    IX. 

now  solely  employed  to  express  Christian  doctrines  in  the 
Utlatecan  language,  commonly  called  Quiche.  As  the  chroni 
cler  says,  'It  was  a  delight  to  see  the  bishop,  as  a  master  of 
declensions  and  conjugations  in  the  Indian  tongue,  teaching 
the  good  Fathers  of  St.  Dominic.'  This  prelate  afterwards 
published  a  work  in  Utlatecan,  in  the  prologue  of  which  he 
justly  says,  l  It  may,  perchance,  appear  to  some  people  a  con 
temptible  thing  that  prelates  should  be  thus  engaged  in  trifling 
things  solely  fitted  for  the  teaching  of  children ;  but,  if  the 
matter  be  well  looked  into,  it  is  a  baser  thing  not  to  abase 
one's  self  to  these  apparent  trifles,  for  such  teaching  is  the 
marrow  of  our  Holy  Faith.'  The  bishop  was  quite  right.  It 
will  soon  be  seen  what  an  important  end  this  study  of  the 
language  led  to  ;  and,  I  doubt  not — indeed  it  might  almost  be 
proved — that  there  are  territories,  neighboring  to  Guatemala, 
which  would  have  been  desert  and  barren  as  the  sands  of  the 
sea  but  for  the  knowledge  of  the  Utlatecan  language  acquired 
by  these  good  Fathers — an  acquisition,  too,  it  must  be  recollect 
ed,  not  easy  or  welcome  to  men  of  their  age  and  their  habits."* 

In  the  neighborhood  of  Guatemala,  on  its  northeastern 
frontier,  was  the  province  of  Tuzulutlan,  called  by  the  Span 
iards,  "  The  Land  of  War,"  because  they  had  thrice  invaded 
and  been  thrice  repulsed  from  it.  Las  Casas,  whose  whole 
life  was  a  struggle  in  favor  of  the  Indian  against  his  oppres 
sors,  engaged  on  behalf  of  the  Dominican  Fathers  to  attempt 
the  conversion  of  this  formidable  people,  "  whom  no  Spaniard 
dared  to  go  near,"  but  only  on  a  condition  that  the  battle 
should  be  waged  with  spiritual  weapons  alone,  and  that  no 
Spaniard  should  be  suffered  to  enter  the  province  for  the  space 
of  five  years.  The  Governor  of  Guatemala  accepted  the  "com 
pact,"  and  then  they  made  their  missionary  preparations, 
u  using,"  says  Mr.  Helps,  "  all  the  skill  that  the  most  accom 
plished  statesmen,  or  men  of  the  world,  could  have  brought 
to  bear  upon  it."  It  is  probable  that  the  Fathers  themselves 
relied  still  more,  as  St.  raul  was  wont  to  do,  upon  "  the  most 
fervent  prayers,  severe  fasts,  and  other  mortifications,"  which, 
as  he  relates,  preceded  their  perilous  attempt. 

It  would  be  pleasant  to  transcribe  the  whole  narrative  of  Mr. 
Helps,  in  which  he  traces,  with  rare  refinement  of  language 
and  feeling,  the  gradual  progress  of  the  Fathers  and  the  means 
by  which  it  was  effected.  One  of  the  points,  he  says,  to  which 
"the  cautious  Cacique''  of  the  province  directed  the  most 
careful  attention,  in  order  to  test  the  real  character  of  the  new 
teachers,  was  "  to  observe  whether  they  had  gold  and  silver 
* 

*  Helps,  book  xv.,  vol.  iii.,  ch.  v.,  p.  331. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  225 

like  the  other  Christians,  and  whether  there  were  women  in 
their  houses."  The  Dominicans,  as  we  might  have  anticipated, 
endured  with  success  an  investigation  which  would  have  been 
fatal  to  certain  "  missionaries"  of  whom  we  have  read  in  these 
pages  ;  and  so,  when  this  point  was  sufficiently  cleared,  the 
prudent  Cacique  "  was  the  first  to  pull  down  and  burn  his 
idols  ;  and  many  of  his  chiefs,  in  imitation  of  their  master, 
likewise  became  iconoclasts."* 

"The  mission  was  extremely  successful,"  says  Mr.  Helps, 
as  such  missions  are  apt  to  be  ;  and  Las  Casas,  who  was  always 
looking  ahead,  and  providing  with  all  his  might  against  possi 
ble  dangers,  was  gladdened  by  the  arrival  of  a  brief  from  Paul 
III.,  pronouncing  "  a  sentence  of  excommunication  of  the  most 
absolute  kind  against  all  who  should  reduce  the  Indians  to 
slavery,  or  deprive  them  of  their  goods."  And  then  "  the 
great  Protector  of  the  Indians,"  as  Mr.  Helps  justly  styles  Las 
Casas,  passed  through  Tuzulutlan,  and  penetrated  to  Coban. 
Being  well  received,  he  hastened  to  inform  the  other  Fathers, 
"  and  they  all  commenced  with  great  vigor  studying  the  lan 
guage  of  Coban.  Each  success  was  with  these  brave  monks  a 
step  gained  for  continued  exertion." 

After  a  while  the  converted  Cacique  of  Tuzulutlan  came  on 
a  visit  to  the  monastery  at  Santiago,  and  was  presented  by  the 
learned  bishop  to  the  governor  Alvarado. '  "  Now  Alvarado," 
says  our  eloquent  historian,  "  though  a  fierce  and  cruel  per 
sonage,  knew  (which  seems  to  have  been  a  gift  of  former  days) 
when  he  saw  a  man.  When  the  bold  Adelantado  met  the 
Cacique,  the  Indian  chieftain's  air  and  manner,  his  repose, 
the  gravity  and  modesty  of  his  countenance,  lils  severe  look 
and  weighty  speech,  won  so  instantaneously  upon  the  Spaniard, 
that,  having  nothing  else  at  hand,  he  took  off  his  own  plumed 
hat,  and  put  it  on  the  head  of  the  Cacique."  The  soldiers 
who  stood  round  murmured  when  they  saw  the  great  captain 
pay  honor  to  an  Indian  ;  but  Alvarado  was  a  better  judge 
than  they  of  the  qualities  of  the  new  Christian,  and  continued 
to  treat  him  with  the  same  distinction  during  his  stay  in 
Guatemala.  By  this  specimen  also  he  understood  what  sort  of 
converts  the  Fathers  had  won  in  that  "  Land  of  War,"  which 
his  own  troops  once  dared  not  enter,  "  but  which  now,"  as  Mr. 
Helps  observes,  "  deserved  that  name  less  than  any  part  of  the 
Indies."f 

Indeed,  the  once  dreaded  province  had  already  received  from 
Charles  Y.  the  significant  name  which  it  bears  to  this  day  of 

*  Ch.  vii.,  p.  350. 
t  P.  369. 
VOL.  n  16 


226  CHAPTER   IX. 

Yera  Paz  •  and  Mr.  Helps  remarks  that  it  is  a  notable  instance 
"  of  an  aboriginal  tribe  being  civilized  and  enlightened  by 
their  conquerors,  and  not  being  diminished  in  numbers  nor  re 
stricted  in  territory."  Its  prosperity  has  lasted  during  nearly 
three  hundred  years ;  and  the  English  historian,  alluding  to 
the  final  success  of  the  great  undertaking  of  Las  Casas,  ob 
serves,  in  words  worthy  of  himself  and  of  the  subject,  "  It  seems 
something  wondrous  when  any  project  by  one  man  really  does 
succeed  in  the  way  and  at  the  time  that  he  meant  it  to  succeed. 
We  feel  as  if  the  hostile  Powers,  always  lurking  in  the  rear  of 
great  and  good  designs,  must  have  been  asleep,  or,  in  the  mul 
tiplicity  of  their  evil  work,  have,  by  some  oversight,  let  pass  a 
great  occasion  for  the  hindrance  of  the  world. "* 

Of  the  four  great  and  good  men  who  accomplished  this 
noble  work,  and  by  their  wisdom  and  fortitude  added  provinces 
to  the  kingdom  of  Christ,  two  will  meet  us  again  in  Mexico ; 
let  us  add  a  word  upon  the  other  two,  Luis  Cancer  and  Pedro 
de  Angulo.  The  latter  was  appointed  Bishop  of  Vera  Paz,  in 
155&,  but  "  did  not  live  to  enter  his  diocese."  His  memory 
long  survived,  says  Mr.  Helps,  who  has  carefully  studied  all 
the  original  records,  and  never  begins  to  write  till  he  has 
examined  every  thing  relating  to  his  subject,  and  "the  Indians 
forty  years  afterwards  were  wont  to  quote  things  which,  they 
had  heard  him  say  in  the  pulpit.  He  gained  their  love,  it  is 
said,  so  much,  that  4  they  did  not  know  where  they  were 
without  him.'  '  One  of  them,  "  giving  an  account  of  the 
effect  which  his  preaching  produced,  used  an  expressive  meta 
phor — especially  expressive  in  that  country — comparing  the 
excitement  in  the  hearts  of  his  Indian  audience  to  that  of  ants 
in  an  ant-heap  when  some  one  comes  to  disturb  it  with  a 
stick." 

Luis  Cancer,  the  first  of  the  four  to  enter  the  province  of 
Yera  Paz,  was  the  only  one  honored  with  the  crown  of  mar 
tyrdom.  He  was  put  to  death  by  the  Indians  of  Florida,  who 
knew  not  how  to  distinguish  him  from  the  violent  and  unjust 
Spaniards  whom  they  feared  and  hated.  "  How  seldom,"  says 
Mr.  Helps,  in  allusion  to  this  martyrdom,  "  do  men  recognize 
their  true  friends  !" 

It  is  time  to  pursue  our  journey.  Three  provinces  more  had 
been  won  to  religion  and  civilization,  and  this  time  the  work 
was  done  by  Dominicans.  But  if  they  succeeded,  and  the  fruits 
of  their  apostolic  toils  remain  to  this  day, — for  paganism  is 
almost  unknown  in  these  regions, — it  was  not  because  they  were 
Dominicans,  not  because  they  were  learned,  patient,  and  wise, 

*  Ch.  ix.,  p.  398. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  227 

but  because  they  had  received  from  God  a  special  vocation  to 
this  work,  and  had  been  sent  forth  by  the  Church  to  accomplish 
a  task  which  none  but  her  chosen  apostles  have  ever  under 
taken,  and  in  which  none  but  they  may  ever  hope  to  triumph. 
This  is  the  only  reflection  which  we  rniss,  and  which  we  could 
hardly  expect  to  find,  in  the  graceful  and  learned  pages  of 
Mr.  Helps. 


CENTRAL    AMERICA. 

It  would  detain  us  too  long  to  speak  in  detail  of  the  various 
provinces  of  Central  America.  If  we  refer  to  them  for  a 
moment,  it  is  with  the  object  of  recording  the  experience  of  an 
English  Protestant  missionary,  who  was  not  indeed  of  the  school 
of  Angulo  or  Las  Casas,  but  should  not  on  that  account  be 
passed  over  in  silence.  It  is  our  business  to  trace  a  contrast. 
This  gentleman  announces,  then,  in  1850,  after  a  somewhat 
disastrous  career  in  these  regions,  and  in  language  which  his 
English  friends  would  perhaps  applaud,  that  "  Romanism  is  the 
putrescent  heart  of  Central  America."  The  rest  of  his  book  is 
in  the  same  style.  He  observes  with  displeasure  that  even  "  the 
Carif  women,"  who  are  not,  socially  speaking,  a  high  class, 
"  have  been  seen  joining  in  the  prostrate  adoration  of  an  image 
of  the  Virgin, "  and  that  he  and  his  companions  tried  in  vain 
"  to  preserve  them  from  these  calamities." 

From  his  own  account,  the  state  of  the  Protestant  mission 
was  not  consoling.  All  its  members  were  fighting  together, 
within  hearing  of  "the  Carif  women,"  and  with  the  uWtal% 
lavish  expenditure  of  Scripture  texts.  One  of  them  retired 
"  for  want  of  a  congregation,"  a  trial  which  the  rest  endured 
with  greater  fortitude.  The  narrator  himself  got  into  jail,  and 
seems  to  have  stayed  there  a  good  while.  Finally,  the  "  mission 
house"  was  sold,  and  converted  into  a  lunatic  asylum.  Such 
was  the  issue  of  Protestant  efforts  in  this  region. 

But  this  is  not  the  most  important  information  which  we  derive 
from  this  gentleman,  whose  "  violent  extramission"  from  Guate 
mala  was  related  in  an  earlier  chapter,  and  may  perhaps  account 
for  his  lively  resentment.  The  people  of  Brazil,  Mr.  Ewbank  has 
told  us,  despise  a  Protestant  missionary,  "  from  a  rooted  belief 
in  his  ignorance  and  presumption  ;"  in  Guatemala,  as  Mr.  Crowe 
relates  with  indignation,  "  a  Jew  is  something  akin  to  a  demon, 
and  a  Protestant  is  something  lower  and  more  dangerous  than  a 
Jew."  He  adds,  however,  as  if  to  excuse  this  misconception  on 
the  part  of  the  Guatemalans,  that  "  the  general  deportment  of 
the  Anglo-Saxon  visitors,  or  residents,  has  not  been  such  as  to 


223  CHAPTER  IX. 

raise  the  respect  of  the  inhabitants  for  the  Protestantism  which 
they  profess,"  and  that  his  own  attempts  to  apply  a  remedy 
"  have  signally  failed."  And  so  lie  returned  to  England,  and 
the  people  of  Central  America  still  rank  him  and  his  co-relig 
ionists  below  the  Jew.* 

It  was  apparently,  as  we  have  said,  the  memory  of  his  own 
discomfiture  which  inspired  Mr.  Crowe's  volume.  Other  Prot 
estant  travellers,  who  had  a  much  more  extensive  knowledge  ot 
Central  America,  thus  correct  his  unfavorable  report.  Mr. 
Stephens,  unconsciously  reproving,  like  so  many  of  his  candid 
and  intelligent  countrymen,  the  ignoble  malice  of  mortified  mis 
sionaries,  gives  a  very  different  account,  in  his  well-known  work, 
both  of  the  inhabitants  of  these  tropical  regions  and  of  their 
pastors.  Of  a  large  tribe  of  Carib  Indians,  dwelling  within  the 
British  territory,  on  the  Gulf  of  Honduras,  he  says,  "  Though 
living  apart,  as  a  tribe  of  Caribs,  they  were  completely  civilized. 

In  every  house  was  a  figure  of  the  Virgin,  or  of  some 

tutelary  saint ;  and  we  were  exceedingly  struck  with  the  great 
progress  made  in  civilization  by  these  descendants  of  cannibals, 
the  fiercest  of  all  the  Indian  tribes  whom  the  Spaniards  en 
countered." 

A  little  later,  he  assists  at  a  religions  service  in  the  same 
tribe,  conducted  by  a  strange  priest,  an  Irishman,  whose  total 
ignorance  of  their  language  "  led  to  confusion  ;  but  all  were  so 
devout  and  respectful,  that,  in  spite  of  these  tribulations,  the 
ceremony  was  solemn." 

"From  the  moment  of  my  arrival,"  says  the  same  writer,  "I 
was  struck  with  the  devout  character  of  the  city  of  Guatemala," 
gfyfahich  Mr.  Crowe  retained  such  unpleasant  recollections. 
***  Every  house  had  its  figure  of  the  Virgin,  the  Saviour,  or 
some  tutelary  saint,  and  on  the  doors  were  billets  of  paper  with 
prayers."  One  of  these,  which  Mr.  Crowe  perhaps  failed  to 
notice,  was  as  follows :  "  May  the  true  blood  of  Christ  our 
Redeemer  deliver  us  from  pestilence,  war,  and  sudden  death. 
Amen." 

Mr.  Stephens  visited  every  part  of  Central  America,  and  was 
constantly  the  guest  of  the  clergy  in  every  province.  Speaking  of 
44  the  whole  Spanish-American  priesthood,"  he  says,  in  spite  of 
Protestant  sympathies,  exactly  what  Mr.  Temple  and  others  have 
already  told  us  of  the  same  class.  "  They  were  all  intelligent 
and  good  men,  who  would  rather  do  benefits  than  an  injury  ;  in 
matters  connected  with  religion  they  were  most  reverential, 
labored  diligently  in  their  vocations,  and  were  without  reproach 

*  The  Gospel  in  Central  America,  by  Rev.  F.  Crowe,  ch.  xii.,  p.  242  :  ch.  xiv., 
pp.  294,  306,  457. 


MISSIONS  IN   AMERICA.  229 

among  their  people."  He  remarks  that  he  "had  an  oppor 
tunity  of  seeing  throughout  all  Central  America  the  life  of 
labor  and  responsibility  passed  by  the  cura  in  an  Indian  village 

looked  up  to  by  every  Indian  as  a  counsellor,  friend, 

and  father,"  and  declares,  after  coming  out  on  one  occasion 
from  a  church  in  which  all  the  Indians  had  assisted  at  Vespers, 
"  I  could  but  think,  what  subsequently  impressed  itself  upon 
me  more  and  more  in  every  step  of  my  journey  in  that  country, 
Blessed  is  the  village  that  has  a  padre."* 

Perhaps  we  may  now  cease  to  wonder  that  Mr.  Crowe  and 
his  companions  only  succeeded  in  getting  into  jail,  and  that 
their  mission-house  was  converted  into  a  lunatic  asylum. 


MEXICO. 

And  now  let  us  enter  Mexico.  The  conquest  of  Mexico  by 
Spain  has  been  compared  by  Lord  Macaulay  with  that  of 
Hindostan  by  the  English.  Only  one  point  of  contrast  between 
the  two  events  was  left  unnoticed,  perhaps  because  unheeded, 
by  the  great  Essayist.  Pie  nowhere  reminds  either  himself  or 
his  readers  that  Mexico  became  a  Christian  nation,  while  India 
has  only  been  confirmed  in  her  worship  of  demons.  Such  is 
the  familiar  contrast  which  history  records,  for  the  admonition 
of  mankind,  between  the  fruits  of  a  Catholic  and  a  Protestant 
conquest. 

Mexico  is  Christian.  Count  up  all  the  misdeeds  of  the  vio 
lent  men  who  subdued  the  Aztec  race, — exaggerate,  if  it  be 
possible,  all  their  faults,  and  add  a  darker  shade  to  their 
crimes, — still,  when  all  is  told,  the  fact  remains,  which  you  will 
never  be  able  to  obliterate,  that  paganism  is  extinct  in  Mexico, 
and  triumphant  in  India. 

And  how  was  this  conversion  of  a  whole  people,  hitherto 
abandoned  to  a  dark  and  bloody  superstition,  brought  to  a  pros 
perous  issue  ?  How  was  this  mighty  work  of  renovation  accom 
plished,  the  contemplation  of  which  forced  an  eminent  American 
writer  of  our  own  day  to  exclaim,  "  How  easily  has  the  Indian 
element  in  Mexican  nationality  been  developed  into  civilized 
and  productive  co-operation  !"f  By  what  mysterious  and  per 
suasive  arts  was  this  new  triumph  of  Christianity  effected,  of 
which  a  French  writer  epitomizes  the  whole  history  in  a  few 
emphatic  wrords,  wrhen  he  says,  "The  progress  of  religion  in 


*  Incidents  of  Travel  in  Central  America,  by  John  Lloyd  Stephens,  ch.  ii., 
pp.  13,  15  ;  ch.  viii.,  pp.  104,  108  ;  ch.  xxxv.,  p.  443  (1854). 
\  Texas,  by  F.  Law  Olmsted,  p.  297. 


230  CHAPTER    IX. 

America,  by  the  preaching  of  a  few  poor  religious,  notably  of 
the  order  of  St.  Francis,  was  so  universal,  that  in  the  space  of 
forty  years,  six  thousand  monasteries  and  six  hundred  bishoprics 
were  founded  in  that  land  ?"* 

It  is  only  a  brief  answer  which  we  can  give  to  this  question. 
No  doubt  it  was  to  the  labors  of  apostolic  men, — such  as 
Betanzos  and  Motolinia;  Martin  de  Valencia  and  Peter  of 
Ghent ;  Francisco  de  Soto,  Las  Casas,  and  Zumarraga ;  such, 
in  a  word,  as  that  great  company  of  valiant  and  gifted  men  who 
at  the  same  hour  were  toiling  for  God's  glory  in  every  land,  from 
Lake  Huron  to  the  Gulf  of  Siam — that  this  magnificent  conquest 
was  chiefly  due.  But  justice  claims  even  for  the  mailed  war 
riors  of  Spain,  who  fought,  like  Cortez,  with  the  sword  in  one 
hand  and  the  cross  in  the  other,  some  share  in  the  noble  work  to 
which  it  is  their  glory,  and  almost  their  justification,  to  have 
contributed.  It  has  been  the  fashion,  with  all  but  a  few  cautious 
and  patient  students  of  history,  to  load  with  undiscriminating 
obloquy  the  men  who  overthrew,  by  a  prodigy  of  valor  and 
policy,  the  throne  of  Montezuma.  Yet  something  may  be  said 
in  their  behalf.  It  is  not,  indeed,  to  such  red-handed  warriors, 
impetuous  as  Jehu  and  resolute  as  Joab,  that  we  can  point  as 
types  of  the  Christian  character.  Yet  even  these  imperious 
soldiers,  who  shouted  from  morning  till  night  their  war-cry  of 
''Santiago," — Cortez  and  Alvarado,  Sandoval  and  Pizarro, — 
will  be  monuments  to  the  end  of  time  of  the  power  and  majesty 
•of  that  Faith  from  which,  in  spite  of  their  errors,  they  derived 
all  their  strength,  and  without  whose  inspirations  they  would 
neither  have  attempted  nor  accomplished  the  immortal  enter 
prise  with  which  their  names  are  forever  associated. 

A  tardy  justice  has  begun  to  recognize  in  our  own  day  the 
truth  of  this  allegation.  Even  Protestant  writers  will  tell  us, 
that  it  was  not  a  thirst  for  gold  which  was,  or  could  be,  the  sole 
spring  of  action  with  a  man  so  truly  great  as  Cortez.  "There 
is  much  to  blame,"  says  one  of  the  most  elegant  and  discerning 
historians  of  this  memorable  epoch,  "  in  the  conduct  of  the  first 
discoverers  in  Africa  and  America;  it  is,  however,  but  just  to 
acknowledge  that  the  love  of  gold  was  not  by  any  means  the 
only  motive  which  urged  them,  or  which  could  have  urged  them, 
to  such  endeavors  as  theirs. "f  They  were  penetrated,  he  adds, 
with  the  most  profound  conviction  of  "  the  fatal  consequences 
of  not  being  within  the  communion  of  the  Church."  He  does 
not,  of  course,  share  their  belief,  but  he  is  keen  enough  to  see 
that  it  affords  the  only  rational  explanation  of  their  conduct. 

*  Migne,  Dictionnaire  des  Conversions,  introd.,  p.  18  (1852). 
\  Helps,  vol.  i.,  ch.  i.,  p.  28. 


MISSIONS   IN  AMERICA.  231 

A  French  writer,  equally  devoid  of  partial  sympathies,  detects 
also  the  same  motive  in  all  their  actions.  "  They  redeemed," 
says  M.  de  Brossard,  in  words  which  we  cannot  accept  without 
modification,  "  the  disorders  of  their  private  life  by  deeds  of 
charity  and  an  ardent  faith."  And  this  was  especially  true  of 
Cortez.  "An  object  which  Cortez  never  lost  sight  of,"  says 
Mr.  Helps,  "was  the  conversion  of  the  natives."  It  was  Cortez 
who  first  requested  that  religious  might  be  sent  from  Spain. 
"I  supplicate  your  Imperial  Majesty,"  he  says  in  one  of  his 
letters,  alluding  to  the  possibility  of  converting  the  natives, 
"that  you  would  have  the  goodness  to  provide  religious  persons, 
of  good  life  and  example,  for  that  end."  And  when  the  Fran 
ciscans  arrived,  it  was  in  the  following  words  that  he  presented 
them  to  the  people  of  Mexico.  "These  are  men  sent  from  God, 
and  ardently  desiring  the  salvation  of  your  souls.  They  ask 
neither  your  gold  nor  your  lands,  for  despising  all  the  goods 
of  this  world,  they  aspire  only  after  those  of  the  next."* 

It  is  an  error  to  suppose  that  Cortez,  a  man  filled  with  tender 
and  generous  thoughts,  was  cruel  by  nature,  or  that  he  \vas  as 
careless  of  the  blood  of  others  as  he  was  of  his  own.  He  never 
slew  for  the  sake  of  slaying,  and  was  as  calm  in  victory  as  he 
was  terrible  in  battle.  He  deplored,  with  perfect  sincerity,  the 
very  actions  in  which  he  took  part,  and  only  inflicted  death 
upon  those  who  refused  mercy.  It  must  be  remembered  too, 
that  he  had  entered  with  Montezuma  that  infernal  shrine  in 
which  the  hearts  of  men  smoked  in  golden  platters  before  the 
idols  of  the  nation,  and  that  he  quitted  it  trembling  with 
religious  horror  and  indignation,  and  became  thenceforward  as 
truly  the  minister  of  the  Most  High  in  chastising  the  demon- 
worship  of  this  guilty  race,  as  Joshua  was  when  he  led  the 
armies  of  Israel  across  the  Jordan.  Nor  let  it  be  forgotten 
that  to  him  is  due,  at  least  in  part,  the  significant  and  atoning 
fact  that  the  noblest  temple  which  has  ever  been  reared  in  the 
New  World  stands  on  the  very  site  of  that  foul  and  impious 
den,  from  which  Cortez  hurled  with  his  own  hand  both  the 
blood-stained  priests  who  were  lodged  within  it,  ayd  the  idols 
which,  but  for  him,  might  perchance  have  been  worshipped  at 
this  hour.f 

Lastly,  it  is  evident  that  Cortez  was  otherwise  appreciated, 
both  by  the  Mexicans  themselves  and  by  the  prelates  and  mis- 

*  Henrion,  tome  i.,  ch.  xxxvi.,  p.  390. 

f  "  On  the  same  lofty  platform,  where  Cortez  converted  the  half-burned  tem 
ple  of  the  great  '  teocalli'  to  the  purposes  of  a  Christian  church,  now  stands  a 
more  modern  ecclesiastical  structure,  dedicated  to  Our  Lady  de  los  Remedios, 
whose  shrine  is  tended  ly  an  Indian  priest  of  the  blood  of  the  ancient  Choi  u- 
lans."  Prehistoric  Man,  vol.  i.,  ch.  xiv.,  p.  483. 


232  CHAPTER   IX. 

sionaries  who  were  their  most  courageous  and  devoted  pro 
tectors,  than  by  the  crowd  of  careless  or  half-informed  critics 
who  have  neither  done  justice  to  the  merits  nor  rightly  dis 
criminated  the  faults  of  this  illustrious  man.  When  he  re 
turned  from  his  first  visit  to  Spain,  "he  was  received,"  we  are 
told,  "  with  vivid  demonstrations  of  delight  by  great  numbers 
of  the  people  in  "New  Spain,  both  Spaniards  and  Indians."* 
Zumarraga,  the  first  bishop  of  Mexico,  and  Domingo  de  Be- 
tanzos,  men  as  valiant  as  himself  though  in  another  cause,  and 
always  strenuous  protectors  of  the  Indians,  were  not  only  his 
personal  friends,  but  the  chosen  executors  of  his  will ;  while 
another  prelate  of  the  same  class,  Sebastian  de  Fuenleal,  who 
would  have  refused  homage  to  any  mortal  potentate,  unless  he 
could  offer  it  with  a  good  conscience,  chose  him  for  his  coun 
sellor.  "Far  from  looking  upon  Cortez  as  an  enemy,"  says 
Mr.  Helps,  "  the  wise  bishop  acted  entirely  in  concert  with  the 
Captain-General.  It  was  Don  Sebastian's  practice  to  take 
counsel  with  many  persons  as  to  what  ought  to  be  done,  but 
with  the  Marquis  alone,  or,  at  least,  with  very  few  persons,  as 
to  the  mode  of  executing  what  had  been  resolved  npon."f 

Cortez  was  a  warrior  who  had  something  of  the  temper  of  St. 
Louis,  and  more  of  Kichard  Coeur  de  Lion.  Like  the  last,  he 
turned  aside  neither  to  right  nor  left,  but  clove  a  straight  path 
through  all  that  barred  his  way  ;  like  the  first,  every  blow  he 
dealt  was,  a  defiance  to  the  pagan,  a  victory  for  the  Cross.  He 
was  inconsistent,  as  men  of  war  are  wont  to  be ;  but  he  was  no 
vulgar  swordsman,  battling  only  for  wealth  and  honors.  His 
great  heart  was  filled  to  the  brim  with  that  faith  which  meaner 
men  call  "  fanaticism,"  but  which  alone  made  him  what  he 
was,  which  gave  lustre  to  all  his  actions,  and  which  he  assisted 
to  plant  so  deeply  in  the  soil  of  Mexico,  that,  in  after  days,  it 
overshadowed  all  the  land. 

Even  Alvarado  and  Pizarro,  men  far  inferior  to  Cortez,  were 
no  such  graceless  ruffians  as  modern  critics,  possessing  neither 
their  heroic  valor  nor  their  religious  instincts,  would  have  us 
believe.  It,  is  no  small  praise  to  the  first,  that,  with  all  his 
faults,  he  was  honored  with  the  friendship  of  the  learned  and 
saintly  Bishop  of  Guatemala.  His  last  will  remains  to  prove 
that  he  knew  at  least  how  to  deplore  his  injustice  and  violence, 
and  desired  to  atone  for  them ;  and  when  he  lay  on  his  death 
bed,  mangled  by  that  avenging  rock  which  had  crushed  his 
stalwart  limbs,  and  was  asked  where  his  pain  was  sorest,  the 
spirit  within  him  broke  forth  in  the  sorrowing  cry,  "  My  soul ! 
mv  Ronl  f" 


my 


*  Helps,  vol.  in.,  ch.  vi.,  p.  198. 
f  Ch.  viii.,  p.  218. 


MISSIONS  IN"  AMERICA.  233 

Pizarro,  too,  an  adventurer  and  an  outcast  from  his  youth, 
whether  he  was  starving  in  the  island  of  Gorgona,  with  his 
fourteen  dauntless  followers,  or  leading  on  his  handful  of  com 
rades  to  battles  in  which  they  were  one  against  a  thousand,  or 
plucking  the  Inca  with  his  own  hand  from  his  litter  in  the  great 
square  of  Cassamarca,  was  ever,  after  his  kind,  a  soldier  of  the 
Cross.  "  In  the  midst  of  all  their  misery,"  says  a  Protestant 
historian,  "  they  did  not  forget  their  piety."  In  Gorgona,  where 
they  spent  three  heavy  months  of  doubt  and  suffering,  while 
"  subsisting  upon  shell-fish,  and  whatever  things,  in  any  way 
eatable,  they  could  collect  upon  the  shore ;"  "  every  morning, 
they  gave  thanks  to  God :  at  evening-time  they  said  the  Salve 
and  other  prayers  appointed  for  different  hours.  They  took 
heed  of  the  feasts  of  the  Church,  and  kept  account  of  their 
Fridays  and  Sundays."*  And  when  the  decisive  hour  arrived, 
and  Pizarro  stood  face  to  face  with  Atahuallpa,  it  was  Father 
Vicente  de  Valverde  who,  at  the  conqueror's  request, "  advanced 
towards  the  Inca,  bearing  a  cross  in  one  hand,  and  holding  a 
breviary  in  the  other,"  and  explained  to  the  Peruvian  prince, 
still  at  the  desire  of  Pizarro,  the  mysteries  of  "  the  true  Catholic 
Faith,"  and  "  the  history  of  Jesus  Christ."  Finally,  when  this 
intrepid  warrior  came  to  his  end,  and  the  violent  man  fell  under 
the  swords  of  assassins,  he  drew  the  sign  of  the  cross  on  the 
floor  with  his  own  blood,  kissed  with  his  dying  lips  the  emblem 
of  salvation,  and  with  that  supreme  act  of  love  and  contrition 
Pizarro  passed  to  his  account. 

Compare  these  men,  who  in  every  case  won  kingdoms  for 
their  Divine  Master,  and  who  banished  paganism  from  every 
land  which  they  entered,  with  the  English  captains  who  scattered 
the  hosts  of  the  Mogul  or  the  Mahratta.  Little  recked  they  of 
the  glory  of  God,  or  of  the  progress  of  the  Faith.  Fanaticism, 
as  they  would  have  called  the  sublime  enthusiasm  of  a  St.  Paul 
or  a  Las  Casas,  was  riot  their  line.  ~No  word  did  their  tongues 
ever  utter  in  honor  of  the  Cross,  no  hymn  did  they  chant  in 
praise  of  the  Crucified.  "  JSTot  a  temple  'has  been  thrown  down 
by  the  English"  says  a  Protestant  writer,  "  not  a  single  deity 
removed  by  proclamation  from  the  calendar."f  To  live  as  the 
heathen  blushed  to  live,  and  sometimes  to  die  as  even  the 
heathen  would  have  been  ashamed  to  die ;  to  smile  compla 
cently  on  the  foul  superstitions  which  they  neither  rebuked  them 
selves,  nor  would  suffer  others  to  rebuke ;  to  "  discountenance 
Christianity  as  a  most  dangerous  innovation"  while  they  at 
tended  banquets  in  honor  of  Ganesa,  fired  royal  salutes  to  do 

*  Helps,  vol.  iii.,  p.  447. 

t  Mead,  The  Sepoy  liewlt,  cli.  xix.,  p.  245. 


234  CHAPTER  IX. 

homage  to  Sivah,  or  gathered  wealth  from  the  worship  of  Jug 
gernaut  ;  such,  as  their  own  historians  have  told  us,  were  the 
tactics  of  the  English  conquerors  of  Hindostari.  And  they 
were  the  same  from  first  to  last.  The  hero  of  Plassy,  almost  as 
great  a  soldier  as  Cortez,  found  an  exit  from  life  through  the 
shameful  gate  of  suicide ;  the  victor  of  Assaye  and  Seringapatam 
died  as  his  own  war-horse  died,  and  with  scarcely  more  thought 
of  the  Unseen.  No  province  did  they,  or  such  as  they,  ever 
win  to  Christ.  They  found  India  pagan,  and  they  left  it  pagan. 
One  lesson  only  they  imparted  to  Hindoo  or  Mahometan,  which 
•he  learned  but  too  well.  They  taught  him,  by  their  own  ex 
ample,  to  hate  and  despise  the  religion  of  which  they  were  pro 
fessors,  and  to  deride  a  doctrine  the  very  preachers  of  which, 
when  at  last  they  arrived  in  India,  were  so  manifestly  types  of 
woiidliness  and  self-indulgence,  that,  far  from  producing  any 
impression  upon  the  mocking  pagans  who  doubted  "  whether 
they  believed  their  own  Scriptures,"  a  conspicuous  member  of 
their  order  ingenuously  confessed,  "  Your  profession  of  religion 
is  a  proverbial  jest  throughout  the  world.' 

There  is  no  need,  even  if  we  had  space,  to  recount  the  toils 
by  which  men  of  another  faith,  and  other  gifts,  won  Mexico 
to  the  cross  of  Christ.  Here,  as  in  every  other  land  in  which 
they  encountered  only  such  impediments  as  were  common  to 
St.  Paul  or  St.  James,  they  did  the  work  for  which  God  raised 
them  up,  and  for  which  He  endowed  them  with  adequate  gifts. 
They  failed  only,  where  St.  Paul  or  St.  James  would  perhaps 
have  equally  failed,  in  countries  where  the  heathen  have  been 
fatally  prejudiced  against  Christianity,  by  the  divisions  and 
contradictions,  the  irrational  precepts  or  the  effeminate  habits, 
of  Protestant  teachers.  Against  such  obstacles  even  apostles 
contend  in  vain,  or  only  at  a  fearful  disadvantage. 

In  Mexico  they  had  a  fair  field,  and  had  to  fight  only  against 
the  corruptions  of  the  human  heart,  and  the  devices  of  the  Evil 
One.  They  overcame  both.  All  South  America,  from  the 
Isthmus  of  Panama  to  the  frontiers  of  Patagonia,  and  from  the 
valleys  of  Peru  to  where  the  floods  of  the  Amazon  and  the 
Orinoco  mingle  with  those  of  the  Atlantic,  was  converted  by 
them  ;  and  then  they  spread  their  conquests  in  the  North, 
through  Guatemala,  Nicaragua,  Mexico,  Texas,  and  California. 
They  had  done  all  that  apostles  could  do.  Canada  and  the 
United  States,  which  would  have  shared  the  same  privilege, 
were  snatched  from  them  ;  because  t/iere,  as  we  shall  see,  a 
hundred  spurious  forms  of  Christianity,  stripped  of  every  Divine 
element,  and  each  battling  against  every  other,  had  inspired 
only  the  disdain  of  the  barbarian,  who  formed  such  an  estimate 
of  the  doctrine  and  its  teachers,  that  he  not  unfrequently  went 


MISSIONS  IN  AMERICA.  235 

down  to  his  untimely'  grave,  imprecating  with  his  latest  breath 
a  malediction  upon  both. 

One  special  trial  beset  the  apostles  of  Mexico,  and  it  should 
be  noticed,  because  there  is  perhaps  nothing  in  their  career 
more  admirable  than  the  struggle  by  which  they  overcame  it. 
It  was  not  from  such  men  as  Cortez  or  Pizarro  that  they  ever 
encountered  opposition  in  their  holy  work,  but  from  a  later 
generation  of  ignoble  adventurers,  vulgar  soldiers  or  greedy 
lawyers,  who  soon  swarmed  in  the  fair  regions  which  the  great 
Marquis  had  added  to  the  crown  of  Spain.  Against  these 
men,  whose  crimes  were  often  unredeemed  by  a  single  virtue, 
Las  Casas  and  Zumarraga,  and  all  their  brethren,  fought  with 
a  patient  but  unyielding  courage  which  even  the  most  pre 
judiced  writers  have  celebrated  with  applause.  "The  Roman 
Catholic  clergy  in  America,"  says  the  unbelieving  Robertson, 
"  uniformly  exerted  their  influence  to  protect  the  Indians,  and 
to  moderate  the  ferocity  of  their  countrymen-."*  "  We  must 
express  our  admiration,"  says  an  English  naturalist,  "  for  the 
exalted  piety  of  the  Roman  Catholic  missionaries,  who,  in  these 
countries,  inhabited  by  human  beings  in  the  lowest  state  of 
degradation,  endured  poverty  and  misery  in  all  forms,  to  win 
the  Indians  to  better  habits  and  a  purer  faith. "f  • "  The  learned 
and  thoughtful  men,"  says  Mr.  Helps — "  for  such  the  monks 
and  ecclesiastics  must  be  held  to  be,  looking  before  and  after, 
knowing  many  of  the  issues  of  history,  and  often  appealing  to 
great  and  general  principles,  are  steadily  arrayed  against  the 
mere  conquering  soldier, — the  good  Bishop  Zumarraga  and  his 
confraternity,  against  Nuno  de  Guzman  and  his  followers.":): 

Sometimes  the  civil  authorities,  who  wished  to  employ  the 
Indian  only  as  a  beast  of  burden,  cunningly  affected  in  their 
appeals  to  Spain  to  defend  "the  prerogatives  of  the  State" 
against  "  the  encroachments  of  the  Church ;"  but  Charles  Y. 
was  too  sagacious  a  monarch  to  be  much  moved  by  arguments 
of  which  he  appreciated  the  real  character,  but  which  the  same 
class  of  statesmen  use  in  our  own  day  to  frighten  feebler  po 
tentates. 

On  the  other  hand,  notable  examples  are  found  of  active  and 
generous  co-operation  with  the  clergy  on  the  part  of  the  lay 
Auditors  of  Mexico.  In  1531,  when  there  were  only  a  hundred 
Dominicans  and  Franciscans  in  the  whole  country,  the  Auditors 
"  sent  to  the  Emperor,  beseeching  him  to  send  out  more  monks, 
being,  doubtless,  of  the  same  mind  with  a  subsequent  Yiceroy 

*  Charles  V.,  notes,  vol.  x.,  p.  400. 

f  Narrative  of  the  Voyage  of  H.M.S.  Herald,  by  Bertliold  Seemann,  F.L.S., 
vol.  ii.,  ch.  ix.,  p.  153  (1853). 
t  Book  xiv.,  ch.  v.,  p.  186. 


236  CHAPTER   IX. 

of  Mexico,  who,  when  there  was  much  question  about  building 
forts  throughout  the  country  (a  suggestion  urged  upon  him  by 
the  authorities  at  home),  replied,  that  towers  with  soldiers  were 
dens  of  thieves,  but  that  convents  with  monks  were  as  good  as 
walls  and  castles  for  keeping  the  Indians  in  subjection."* 

Again  :  when  a  new  generation  of  Auditors  "  made  the  noble 
endeavor  to  provide  homes  and  instruction  for  the  numerous 
orphans  who  had  lost  their  parents  by  reason  of  the  cruel  work 
imposed  upon  them  in  the  mines,"  Quiroga,  one  of  their  num 
ber, — "  who,  it  must  be  remembered,  was  a  lawyer,  and  there 
fore  less  likely  to  be  led  away  by  a  love  for  monastic  institu 
tions," — urgently  recommended  the  Council  of  the  Indies  "  to 
make  a  settlement  of  the  young  Indians  in  each  district,  at  a 
distance  from  other  pueblos,  and  in  each  settlement  to  place  a 
monastery  with  three  or  four  religiosos^  who  may  incessantly 
cultivate  these  young  plants  to  the  service  of  God."  And  so 
perfectly  did  these  shrewd  men  of  the  world  of  that  age  com 
prehend,  what  the  same  class  affect  to  doubt  in  our  own,  that 
monasteries  are  both  cheaper  and  more  potential  institutions 
than  prisons  or  workhouses,  that  Quiroga,  filled  with  admira 
tion  at  what  the  monks  had  already  done,  exclaims,  "  I  offer 
myself,  with  the  assistance  of  God,  to  undertake  to  plant  a 
kind  of  Christians  such  as  those  were  of  the  primitive  Church ; 
for  God  is  as  powerful  now  as  then.  I  beseech  that  this 
thought  may  be  favored. "f 

Nor  was  this  the  language  of  mere  enthusiasm.  What  the 
Religious  could  do  had  been  already  sufficiently  proved  in  many 
a  province  of  America,  and  Mexico  was  not  destined  to  be  an 
exception.  Already  the  Indian,  refusing  to  see  in  them  the 
emissaries  of  a  foreign  power,  had  learned  to  regard  the  Fathers 
first  with  astonishment,  and  then  with  veneration.  "Their 
poverty,  their  temperance,  their  simplicity  of  life,"  says  a 
Protestant  writer,  "  recommended  them  at  once  to  the  Indian."  J 
And  as  time  went  on,  and  fresh  colonies  of  Dominicans  and 
Franciscans  arrived,  all  filled  with  the  same  charity,  and 
displaying  the  Christian  religion  in  its  noblest  and  most 
attractive  form,  the  Mexican  understood  that  these  men  came 
to  him  with  hands  filled  only  with  gifts  and  blessings.  It 
was  they  who  obtained  from  the  Holy  See  the  menace  of 
excommunication  against  his  selfish  oppressors,  and  from  the 
royal  authority  such  decrees  as  the  following:  "That  no  Indian 
should  carry  any  burdens  against  his  will,  whether  he  was  paid 
for  it  or  not ;"  that  "  when  they  were  sent  to  the  mines  they 

*  Helps,  book  xiv.,  ch.  vi.,  p.  200. 

f  Id.,  p.  208. 

;  Id.,  ch.  xv.,  p.  313. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  237 

were  to  be  provided  with  clergy  there ;"  that  the  "  Protectors," 
of  whom  the  noble  and  generous  Las  Casas  was  one,  should 
"  cause  that  the  Indians  be  well  treated,  and  taught  in  secular 
things,  and  instructed  in  the  Articles 'of  the  Holy  Catholic 
Faith."* 

What  marvel  if  the  Indian  abandoned  himself  with  love  and 
confidence  to  such  teachers  as  a  bountiful  Providence  had  now 
provided  for  him?  How  should  men  who  are  thus  described 
even  by  Protestant  writers  fail  to  win  his  heart  ?  Of  the 
Bishop-President  of  Mexico,  Don  Sebastian  Ramirez  de  Fuen- 
leal,  who  arrived  in  1531,  Mr.  Helps  gives  the  following  por 
trait:  "JSTo  single  subject  of  government  occupied  his  attention 
to  the  exclusion  of  others.  He  founded  churches  ;  he  divided 
Mexico  into  parishes ;  he  established  a  college,  and  was  the 
first  man  to  propose  that  a  learned  education  should  be  given  to 
the  Indians.  His  efforts  in  this  matter  were  successful ;  and 
it  is  curious  that  one  of  the  best  chroniclers  of  the  bishop's 
proceedings  (Torquemada)  was  instructed  in  the  Mexican 
language  by  a  most  accomplished  Indian,  who  had  been 
educated  at  this  college."f 

"  The  clergy,"  says  the  same  careful  and  conscientious  his 
torian,  "  not  only  taught  spiritual  things,  but  temporal  also. 
They  converted,  they  civilized,  they  governed ;  they  were 
priests,  missionaries,  schoolmasters,  kings.  A  considerable 
share  in  the  credit  of  this  good  work  must  be  given  to  the  un 
wearied  labors  of  the  Franciscan  and  Dominican  monks.  That 
the  missionary  spirit  in  that  age  was  so  potent  and  so  success 
ful  as  it  was  must  in  some  measure  be  attributed  to  the  intense 
belief  which  the  missionaries  entertained  of  the  advantage  to 
be  derived  from  outward  communion  of  the  most  ordinary 
kind." 

St.  Paul  seems  to  have  shared  the  same  "  intense  belief,"  if 
we  may  judge  from  his  summary  exhortation  to  Titus  how  to 
deal  with  "  a  man  that  is  a  heretic""^  or  his  equally  emphatic 
warning  to  the  Philippians,  "Beware  of  dogs."§  u  Earth  has 
no  privilege,"  is  in  every  age  the  confession  of  loving  faith, 
"  equal  to  that  of  being  a  member  of  His  Church ;  and  they 
dishonor  both  it  and  Him  who  extenuate  the  dismal  horrors  of 
that  outer  darkness  in  which  souls  lie  that  are  aliens  from  the 
Church."  Only  they  who  have  received  this  "  royal  grace"  can 
understand  their  unutterable  calamity  who  possess  it  not,  or  the 
"  appalling  difficulties  of  salvation  outside  the  Church.  This 

*  Helps,  book  xiv.,  ch.  xiv.,  pp.  175-177. 
f  Id.,  p.  219. 
i  Tit.  iii.  10. 
§  Philip,  iii.  2. 


238  CHAPTER  IX. 

is  the  reason  why  the  saints  have  ever  been  so  strong  in  the 
instincts  of  their  sanctity,  as  to  the  wide,  weltering,  almost 
hopeless  deluge  which  covers  the  ruined  earth  outside  the  ark. 
Harsh,  to  unintelligent  uncharitable  kindness  intolerably  harsh, 
as  are  the  judgments  of  stern  theology,  the  saints  have  even 
felt  and  spoken  more  strongly  and  more  peremptorily  than  the 
theologians.  The  more  dear  to  the  soul  the  full  light  and  sac 
ramental  life  of  Jesus,  the  more  utter  the  darkness,  the  more 
dismal  the  death,  of  those  who  are  without  that  light  and  life, 
in  their  fulness  and  their  sacramentality.  The  eternal  posses 
sion  of  Mary's  Immaculate  Heart,  together  with  all  the  intel 
ligences  of  the  countless  angels,  would  not  suffice  to  make  one 
act  of  thanksgiving  for  the  single  comprehensive  mercy  of 
being  Catholics,  and  of  acknowledging  St.  Peter's  paternal 
supremacy."* 

But  this  ardent  conviction,  of  the  "  advantage  to  be  derived 
from  communion"  with  the  Catholic  Church,  wrhich  alone  has 
inspired  all  apostolic  works,  and  which  St.  Peter  and  St.  Paul, 
St.  James  and  St.  Jude,  expressed  in  such  startling  words, 
"  would  not  alone  have  caused  the  rapid  progress  of  these 
missionaries,"  Mr.  Helps  truly  observes,  "  had  there  not  been 
to  back  it  the  utmost  self-devotion,  supreme  self-negation, 
and  also  considerable  skill  in  their  modes  of  procedure." 
Was  not  the  "  supreme  self-negation"  a  result  of  the  "  intense 
belief,"  and  were  not  both  the  fruit  of  Divine  grace,  which 
during  some  twenty  centuries  has  always  lavished  these  noblest 
gifts  upon  one  class  of  men,  and  always  refused  them  to  every 
other  ? 

Sometimes  the  same  English  historian  whom  we  have  so  often 
quoted,  and  always  with  pleasure,  gives  individual  examples  of 
that  great  company  of  preachers  by  whom  Mexico  was  evan 
gelized.  Of  the  Franciscan  Martin  de  Valencia,  head  of  the 
Order  in  Mexico,  he  speaks  thus  :  "  When  he  arrived  in  Mex 
ico,  he  maintained  the  most  rigid  mode  of  life.  He  went  bare 
foot,  with  a  poor  and  torn  robe,  bearing  his  wallet  and  his 
cloak  on  his  own  shoulders,  without  permitting  even  an  Indian 
to  assist  in  carrying  them.  In  this  fashion  he  used  to  visit  the 
convents  under  his  jurisdiction.  Being  already  an  old  man 
when  he  arrived  in  Mexico,  he  could  not  learn  the  language 
with  the  same  facility  as  his  companions;  so  that  what  he  most 
devoted  himself  to  was  teaching  the  little  Indian  boys  to  read 

Spanish He  sang  hymns  with  the  little  children,  and, 

as  we  are  told,  did  great  good  in  the  Indian  villages  where  he 
resided."  Like  Moses,  he  would  sometimes  go  apart  from  the 

*  Father  Faber,  The  Blessed  Sacrament,  book  iv.,  sec.  5,  p.  502. 


MISSIONS   IN    AMERICA.  239 

world  to  draw  nearer  to  God,  for  whose  sake  lie  lived  this  life, 
and  was  accustomed  to  "retire  to  an  oratory  on  a  mountain, 
where  he  might  enjoy  the  most  profound  contemplation." 

Francisco  de  Soto,  "  a  man  of  singular  piety,  who  afterwards 
refused  the  bishopric  of  Mexico,"  was  a  missionary  of  the  same 
class  ;  and  Toribio  Motolinia,  who  wore  out  his  life  in  "  teaching, 
catechizing,  and  baptizing  the  Indians  ;"  and  of  whom  it  is  said, 
that  "  he  baptized  no  less  than  four  hundred  thousand  of  them." 

But  it  was  Peter  of  Ghent,  Mr  Helps  assures  us,  "  who 
perhaps  did  most  service."  He  was  a  Flemish  lay  brother, 
"  who,  in  his  humility,  never  would  be  any  thing  but  a  lay 
brother."  From  him  the  Mexicans  learned  "  to  read,  to  write, 
to  sing,  and  to  play  upon  musical  instruments.  He  contrived 
to  get  a  large  school  built,"  in  which,  besides  more  elementary 
matters,  he  taught  them  painting,  carving,  and  other  arts. 
"  Many  idols  and  temples  owed  their  destruction  to  him,  and 
many  churches  their  building.  He  spent  a  long  life — no  less 
than  fifty  years — in  such  labors,  and  was  greatly  beloved  by 
the  Indians,  amongst  whom  he  must  have  had  thousands  of 
pupils.  The  successor  of  Zumarraga  one  day  generously 
exclaimed,  4I  am  not  the  Archbishop  of  Mexico,  but  brother 
Peter  of  Ghent  is!" 

Of  Domingo  de  Betanzos,  who  became  "the  principal  Do 
minican  in  New  Spain,"  we  have  already  heard  in  Guatemala. 
It  was  a  sharp  life  which  he  and  his  brethren  led,  following  the 
strictest  rule  of  their  ascetic  Order,  and  "  so  versed  in  self- 
denial,"  as  our  historian  observes,  that  "  the  sternest  duties  of 
a  missionary  were  easy  to  them."  They  were  men  thoroughly 
penetrated  with  the  maxim  of  St.  Paul,  "No  man  being  a 
soldier  of  God  entangleth  himself  with  secular  business."* 
They  could  be  merciful  to  the  poor,  for  none  were  so  poor  as 
they.  They  could  rebuke  the  rich,  for  they  had  often  resigned 
wealth  and  honors  in  order  to  have  the  right  to  do  so.  The 
very  sight  of  them  suggested  thoughts  of  penance,  hope,  and 
manly  effort.  Of  Betanzos,  to  whom  "his  brethren  were 
attached  beyond  measure," — for  monks  have  more  loving  hearts 
than  the  egotistical  votaries  of  pleasure,  who  are  too  feeble  even 
to  love  in  earnest, — we  read  as  follows :  "  The  principal  men  in 
New  Spain  held  him  in  high  estimation ;  the  Indians  were 
delighted  with  his  disinterestedness ;  and  the  whole  country 
reverenced  him,  and  looked  up  to  him  as  a  father."f  When  he 
had  done  his  work  in  Mexico,  the  brave  old  man,  "  moved  by 
a  desire  for  martyrdom,"  wanted  to  go  to  China,  and  so  kindled 

*  2  Tim.  ii.  4. 
f  Helps,  ix.  407. 


24:0  CHAPTER   IX. 

the  heart  of  the  noble  Bishop  Zumarraga,  says  Mr.  Helps— 
though  he  only  considers  it  a  proof  of  "  high-souled  fanaticism," 
— that  he  was  ready  to  resign  his  bishopric  to  go  with  him. 
The  Pope,  however,  refused  permission,  and  they  both  died  in 
the  land  for  which  they  had  done  so  much. 

Ortiz,  afterwards  Bishop  of  Santa  Martha,  was  of  the  same 
school,  and  Julian  Garces,  "  a  very  learned  man  and  an  elegant 
Latin  writer,"  who  was  the  first  Bishop  of  Los  Angelos  in 
Tlascala;  and  Antonio  de  Montesino,  subsequently  martyred  in 
India,  and  Lorenzo  de  Bienvenida,  who  boldly  admonished 
Philip  II.  not  to  peril  his  own  soul  by  tolerating  the  injustice  of 
the  Spaniards  ;*  and  a  hundred  more,  who  displayed  in  Mexico 
the  same  virtues,  waged  the  same  battles,  and  gained  the  same 
victories,  as  their  fellow-laborers  in  other  lands. 

And  now  if  we  inquire,  without  attempting  to  enter  into 
impossible  details,  what  was  the  final  result  of  all  this  apostolic 
toil,  the  kindly  and  accomplished  historian  whom  we  have  fol 
lowed  will  tell  us.  "  Two  important  letters,"  he  observes, — the 
one  addressed  by  Bishop  Zumarraga,  in  1551,  to  a  General 
Chapter  of  the  Franciscan  Order,  held  at  Toulouse ;  the  other 
by  Bishop  Garces  a  }rear  or  two  later  to  Pope  Paul  III., — 
afford  information  from  which  "  we  are  able  to  form  something 
like  a  complete  picture  of  the  state  of  this  early  Church  in 
relation  to  the  Indians." 

The  Bishop  of  Mexico  relates,  that  already  more  than  a 
million  Indians  had  been  baptized  by  the  Franciscans  alone ; 
"  five  hundred  temples  have  been  thrown  down,  and  twenty 
thousand  idols  broken  in  pieces,  or  burnt.  In  place  of  these 
temples  have  arisen  churches,  oratories,  and  hermitages.  But, 
as  the  good  bishop  says,  that  which  causes  more  admiration  is, 
that  whereas  they  were  accustomed  each  year  in  this  city  of 
Mexico  to  sacrifice  to  idols  more  than  twenty  thousand  hearts  of 
young  men  and  young  women,  now  all  those  hearts  are  oifered 
up,  with  innumerable  sacrifices  of  praise,  not  to  the  Devil,  but 
to  the  Most  High  God."f 

Both  the  venerable  writers  speak  with  enthusiasm  of  the  piety 
and  docility  of  the  Indian  children,  and  the  Bishop  of  Tlascala 
says  of  those  in  his  own  diocese,  "  they  not  only  imbibe  but 
exhaust  the  Christian  doctrines' — 'non  hauriunt  modo,  sed  ex- 
hauriunt,  ac  veluti  ebibunt.'"  Of  their  exactness  in  frequenting 
the  Divine  office,  and  in  the  practice  of  confession,  as  well  as  of 
"  the  dove-like  simplicity"  with  which  they  accused  themselves 

*  Voyages,  &c.,  pour  sermr  d  I'histoire  de  la  Decouverte  de  VAmerique,  par  H. 
Ternaux  Company  tome  ii.,  p.  307.  See  also  the  letter  of  Juan  de  Zumarraga 
in  tome  v. 

f  Helps,  iii.,  300. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA. 

of  their  faults,  they  speak  with  equal  admiration  ;  while  "  the 
Bishop  of  Mexico  mentions  that  the  children  steal  away  the 
idols  from  their  fathers,  for  which,  he  says,  some  of  them  have 
been  inhumanly  put  to  death  by  their  fathers;  but  they  live 
crowned  in  glory  with  Christ." 

Lastly,  the  English  writer  whom  we  have  so  often  quoted, 
referring  to  that  linal  victory  of  the  Faith  which  was  accom 
plished  in  Mexico  by  "the. untiring  efforts  of  such  men  as  Las 
Casas,  Betanzos,  Zumarraga  .  .  .  and  the  various  prelates  and 
monks  who  labored  with  or  after  these  good  men,"  not  only 
declares  with  a  noble  frankness  that  "  it  is  a  result  which  Chris 
tians  of  all  denominations  may  be  proud  of  and  rejoice  in," — 
an  excessive  statement,  since  only  one  "denomination"  has  ever 
had  the  smallest  share  in  producing  such  results, — but  is  led  to 
make  the  following  weighty  reflection  upon  the  whole  history : 
"  We  are  told  that  in  the  sixteenth  century  there  was  a  revi 
val  throughout  Europe  in  favor  of  the  Papacy,  which  set  the 
limits  to  Protestantism — those  limits  which  exist  even  in  the 
present  day ;  but  we  cannot  say  that  any  such  revival  appears 
to  have  been  greatly  needed,  or  to  have  taken  place  in  Spain. 
The  fervent  and  holy  men,  whose  deeds  have  been  enumerated, 
were  in  the  flower  of  their  youth  or  their  manhood  before  the 
Reformation  had  been  much  noised  abroad ;  and  it  is  evident, 
from  the  whole  current  of  the  story,  that  the  spirit  of  these 
men  was  not  a  thing  developed  by  any  revival,  but  was  in  con 
tinuance  of  the  spirit  with  which  they  had  been  imbued  in 
their  respective  monasteries.  All  honor  to  their  names !" 

Let  us  conclude,  according  to  our  custom,  with  a  few  Prot 
estant  testimonies  to  the  fact,  which  we  have  noticed  in  every 
other  land,  that  neither  suffering,  nor  neglect,  nor  lapse  of 
years,  have  been  able  to  shake  the  faith  of  the  converted  Mex 
ican.  Las  Casas  and  Zumarraga,  Betanzos  and  Peter  of  Ghent, 
are  no  longer  among  them ;  the  disorders  of  Europe  have 
reached,  arid  sometimes  convulsed,  even  their  remote  dwellings; 
profligate  rulers,  whom  their  want  of  political  education  obliges 
them  to  accept,  have  involved  their  nation  in  shameful  disor 
der;  but  the  Mexican  people,  innocent  of  the  crimes  which 
scandalize  without  corrupting  them,  are  still  Catholic  in  their 
inmost  heart,  still  preserved  by  the  Mother  of  God,  who  always 
guards  her  own,  from  the  taint  of  heresy. 

A  few  witnesses  will  suffice ;  and  that  we  may  take  extreme 
oases,  they  shall  include  an  agent  of  the  Bible  Society,  an 
English  lawyer,  two  American  Protestants,  and  a  Scotch  Pres 
byterian.  u  Every  man,"  says  the  Rev.  Mr.  ."Norris,  whose 
Bibles  and  discourses  the  Mexicans  seern  to  have  rejected  with 
amused  contempt,  "  professes  himself  a  Catholic,  and  is  very 
VOL.  n.  17 


242  CHAPTER   IX. 

devout  and  religious  in  his  way ;  in  some  respects  they  are 
worthy  of  imitation  by  enlightened  Christians."*  It  is  true 
that  elsewhere  Mr.  Korris  calls  their  religion  "idolatry;"  but 
men  whose  own  "  worship"  hardly  equals  the  decent  courtesy 
which  one  civilized  man  offers  to  another,  and  who  have  still 
to  learn  in  what  the  union  of  the  creature  with  his  Creator 
consists,  may  well  deem  that  homage  idolatrous  which  is  so  far 
deeper  and  more  tender  than  their  own,  even  when  the  objects 
of  it  are  only  the  Saints  in  heaven.  Of  worship  in  its  true 
sense,  that  which  is  due  to  God  alone,  such  men  would  speak 
with  more  profit  if  they  had  any  personal  experience  of  it. 

Of  one  Mexican  province,  Mr.  Brantz  Mayer  speaks  as  fol 
lows,  in  1852.  "The  aborigines  of  Jalisco,  formerly  warlike 
and  devoted  to  a  bloody  religion,  are  most  generally  tillers  of 
the  ground,  adhering  to  the  doctrine  of  the  Catholic  Church"\ 

Even  the  most  frivolous  writers  suspend  the  jibe  or  the  jest 
to  notice  the  deep  religious  feeling  of  the  Mexicans,  in  spite  of 
neglect  or  scanty  instruction.  An  American  traveller  of  this 
class,  who  confesses  that  he  drew  his  knife  on  a  priest,  and 
scoffs  at  the  "ridiculous  mummeries"  of  processions  and 
prayers,  notices  with  a  sneer  that  "  the  Mexicans  are  jealous  of 
their  churches,  and  do  not,  willingly,  allow  a  heretic  to  enter 
alone;"  and  then  he  sums  up  his  impressions  in  these  words: 
u  The  religious  feeling  which  pervades  all  classes,  young  and 
old,  is  remarkable.  STever  do  you  see  any  of  them  pass  a 
church  without  uncovering  their  heads,  and  turning  their  faces 
thitherwards ;  while,  at  the  sound  of  the  bell,  every  hat  is  re 
moved  and  all  stand  uncovered  where  they  are,  until  the  sound 


is  over.";); 


Dr.  Lempriere  relates  that  "funciones  solemnes,  or  other  re 
ligious  performances,  may  be  witnessed  in  the  principal  towns 
and  cities  almost  daily"  in  which  fact  his  legal  education 
might  have  taught  him  to  see  at  least  a  proof  of  the  influence 
of  religion ;  but  it  suggests  to  him  quite  another  comment. 
Superbly  ignorant  of  religion  in  general,  and  of  the  Christian 
religion  in  particular,  this  ornament  of  the  Inner  Temple  goes 
on  thus :  "  You  enter  a  church  and  invariably  encounter  a 
motley  crowd,  exhaling  unseemly  odors,  and  dispensing  small 
vermin  on  every  side."  A  few  "well  dressed,  well-appearing 
individuals"  he  encountered,  but  not  enough  to  leaven  the 
mass,  and  so  he  adds,  "It  is  impossible  for  an  individual  ot 
respectable  education  and  ordinary  delicacy  of  feeling  to  join  a 

*  Strickland,  Hist,  of  American  Bible  Society,  cli.  xx.,  p.  175. 

f  Mexico,  &c.,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  vni.,  p.  295. 

j  A  Campaign  in  New  Mexico,  by  Frank  S.  Edwards,  ch.  vi  ,  p.  93. 


MISSIONS   IN  AMERICA.  243 

crowd  in  one  of  these  pagodas  or  jos  temples,  called  churches •, 
without  feeling  ineffable  disgust."*  Witnesses  of  this  class 
should  always  be  allowed  to  speak  for  themselves.  Alas  !  for 
Lazarus,  if  *he  should  venture  to  display  his  sores  at  Dr. 
Lempriere's  gate. 

A  more  humane  writer,  Madame  Calderon  de  la  Barca, 
speaks  thus  of  modern  Mexico:  "There  exists  no  country  in 
the  world  where  charities,  both  public  and  private,  are  practised 
on  so  noble  a  scale ;  generally  speaking,  charity  is  a  distinguish 
ing  attribute  of  a  Catholic  country."  And  this  is  confirmed  by 
an  American  Protestant,  who  visited  Mexico  as  a  prisoner,  and 
had  some  reason  to  speak  of  its  rulers  with  resentment.  "  It  is 
not  in  Mexico  alone,"  says  Mr.  Kendall,  after  describing  "  the 
institutions  for  relieving  the  distresses  of  the  unfortunate,  and 
the  different  orders  of  Sisters  of  Charity,  those  meek  hand 
maidens  of  benevolence,  whose  eyes  are  ever  seeking  the 
couch  of  sickness,"  "  that  this  holy  feeling  of  charity  exists ; 
but  wherever  the  religion  of v  Rome  is  known,  there  do  we  find 
the  same  active  benevolence  exerted,  the  same  attention  to  the 
wants  of  the  suffering."f 

Of  the  existing  race  of  monks,  usually  the  butt  at  which 
every  witless  traveller  aims  his  shafts,  Madame  de  la  Barca,  in 
spite  of  the  prejudices  of  her  Scotch  training,  candidly  observes: 
"  I  firmly  believe  that  by  far  the  greater  number  lead  a  life  of 
privation  and  virtue."  "  Throughout  the  whole  country," 
this  lady  adds,  "  at  every  step  you  see  a  white  cross  gleaming 
among  the  trees  .  .  .  here  every  thing  reminds  us  of  'the  triumph 
of  Catholicism"  Of  the  Indians  themselves,  their  " super 
stitions,"  and  perpetual  "religious  processions,"  she  gives 
much  the  same  account,  though  with  less  bitterness  of  lan 
guage,  as  we  received  from  Mr.  Scarlett,  Mr.  Mansfield,  and 
others,  with  respect  to  their  brethren  in  the  south ;  she  adds, 
however,  while  vehemently  disapproving  such  external  mani 
festations,  which  are  usually  dramatic  representations  of  facts 
in  the  life  of  our  Lord  or  of  the  Saints :  "  It  is  singular,  that, 
after  all,  there  is  nothing  ridiculous  in  these  exhibitions ;  on 
the  contrary,  something  rather  terrible.";): 

If  it  be  true  that  "  out  of  the  abundance  of  the  heart  the 
mouth  speaketh,"  and  that  national  customs  represent  national 
feelings,  we  may  perhaps  conclude,  that  a  people  who  spend  a 
large  part  of  their  lives  in  devout  processions  and  religious 

*  Mexico  in  1861  and  1862,  by  Charles  Lempriere,  D.C.L.,  of  the  Inner  Tem 
ple,  and  Law  Fellow  of  St.  John's  College,  Oxford,  ch.  iii.,  p.  103  ;  ch.  v.,  p.  175. 

f  Narrative  of  the  Texan  Santa  Fe  Expedition,  by  George  Wilkins  Kendall, 
vol.  ii.,  ch.  xvii.,  p.  340. 

$  Life  in  Mexico,  by  Madame  C.  de  la  Barca,  Letter  xxiii.,  pp.  177,  288. 


2:14  CHAPTER   IX. 

exhibitions,  can  hardly  be  indifferent  to  religion.  Such, 
spectacles  are  not  indeed  witnessed  in  England  or  Holland, 
and  no  man  expects  to  see- them.  The  Mexicans,  who  have 
received  the  gift  of  Faith,  may  fitly  represent  the  scenes  of 
the  Nativity,  the  Passion,  or  the  Resurrection,  for  these  events 
are  to  them  realities.  Such  sights  are  familiar  to  the  eye  and 
heart,  and  kindle  the  sad  or  joyous  sympathies  of  every 
inhabitant  of  the  land.  If  any  one  should  attempt  to  introduce 
them  in  any  village  of  England,  the  incongruous  spectacle 
would  be  speedily  suppressed,  and  perhaps  with  reason ;  for 
every  one  would  feel  that  it  awakened  only  uneasiness  and 
repugnance,  by  forcing  them  out  of  their  habitual  train  of 
thought,  and  rudely  disturbing  the  ordinary  current  of  their 
life.* 


TEXAS. 

If  now  we  once  more  pursue  our  journey  northwards,  we 
shall  find  two  provinces,  one  on  the  eastern,  the  other  on  the 
western  frontier  of  Mexico,  which  deserve  a  moment's  atten 
tion.  Texas  and  California,  both  lately  absorbed  by  that 
energetic  and  all-devouring  race  which  is  perhaps  destined  one 
day  to  overrun  the  whole  continent,  will  introduce  us,  not  only 
to  that  order  of  missionaries  with  whose  labors  and  successes 
we  are  now  sufficiently  familiar,  but  also,  for  the  first  time  in 
America,  to  the  agents  of  another  religion,  who  have  already 
nearly  completed  the  work  of  ruin,  violence,  and  demoraliza 
tion  which  has  marked  their  presence  in  every  other  land.  A 
few  words  must  suffice  for  each  province. 

A  well-known  American  writer,  who  published  in  1857  an 
account  of  the  present  state  of  Texas,  will  give  us,  in  two  or 
three  pregnant  sentences,  all  the  information  we  need  in 
illustration  of  the  contrast  which  we  have  so  often  traced. 
Speaking  of  the  work  of  the  Catholic  missionaries,  he  says, 
"The  missions  bear  solid  testimony  to  the  strangely  patient 
courage  and  zeal  of  the  old  Spanish  Fathers."f  Yet  one  hun- 

*  Dr.  Lempriere  scoffs,  as  becomes  "  an  individual  of  respectable  education," 
because  "  the  people  take  off  their  hats,"  not  only  to  every  ecclesiastic,  but 
"  whenever  they  pass  an  image,  and  also,  whenever  the  bells  indicate  that 
Borne  performance  is  going  on  inside  any  one  of  the  churches  they  happen  to 
be  passing."  Mexico,  ch.  ii.,  p.  04.  English  Protestants,  he  rejoices  to  think, 
do  nothing  of  the  kind.  Why  should  they  ?  To  them,  a  clergyman  is  only 
a  gentleman  witli  a  fair  income,  while  the  "  performance"  in  their  churches  is 
more  apt  to  create  drowsiness  than  reverence. 

f  Olinsted,  Texas,  p.  154. 


MISSIONS  IN  AMERICA.  245 

dred  and  thirty  years  have  passed  away  since  the  latest  mission 
of  San  Antonio  was  founded  by  the  Franciscans,  in  which, 
after  so  long  an  interval,  such  evident  traces  of  their  wisdom 
and  goodness  are  still  apparent  even  to  Protestant  eyes. 

It  is  certainly  a  notable  fact,  which  even  the  political  economist 
may  contemplate  with  interest,  that  the  very  ruins  of  Catholic 
missions  present  tokens  of  the  mighty  civilizing  power  which 
created  them,  such  as  no  Protestant  effort  of  the  same  kind  has 
ever  exhibited,  though  sustained  by  the  co-operation  of  civil 
and  military  officials,  and  aided  by  temporal  resources  which 
Catholic  missionaries  neither  desire  nor  enjoy.  "  A  noble 
monument  of  the  skill  of  the  Fathers,"  says  an  American  writer, 
"  and  of  the  improvement  of  their  neophytes,  remains  in  the 
many  churches,  aqueducts,  and  other  public  works,  'built  ~by 
Indian  hands,  which  still  remain  on  Texan  soil."* 

Of  the  Indians  themselves,  Mr.  Olmsted  says,  "  We  were  in 
variably  received  with  the  most  gracious  and  beaming  polite 
ness  and  dignity.  Their  manner  towards  one  another  is  enga 
ging,  and  that  of  children  and  parents  most  affectionate."  And 
then  follows  the  usual  account  of  the  woful  results  of  their  un 
willing  contact  with  a  Protestant  people.  "Since  1853  the 
diminution  has  been  rapid.  .  .  .  At  aM  points  of  contact  with 
the  white  race  they  melt  gradually  away"\  There  is,  then,  no 
exception  to  the  universal  law.  Wherever  the  Anglo-Saxon 
sets  his  foot,  bringing  in  his  train  selfishness,  arrogance,  and 
insatiable  cupidity,  the  aboriginal  races  disappear;  and  if  he  is 
accompanied,  as  sometimes  happens,  by  the  ministers  of  his 
religion,  they  disappear  so  much  the  quicker.  A  little  later  we 
shall  find  the  Indians  themselves  noticing  this  invariable  fact. 

Nor  can  this  doom  surprise  us,  as  respects  Texas,  when  we 
learn  from  Protestant  evidence  how  the  natives  are  treated  by 
their  new  masters.  "It  is,"  says  Mr.  Olmsted,  in  expressive 
language,  "  the  mingled  puritanism  and  brigandism"  of  his 
fervid  countrymen  which  make  it  impossible  for  them  "  to 
associate  harmoniously"  with  the  mild  and  courteous  Mexican. 
"  Inevitably  they  are  "dealt  with  insolently  and  unjustly.  They 
fear  and  hate  the  ascendant  race."  Mr.  Froebel  also  notices 
"  the  injustice  and  overbearing  with  which  the  Anglo-Americans 
everywhere  treat  the  Hispano-American  and  Indian  popula 
tion  ;"  and  Mr.  Russell  Bartlett,  one  of  their  countrymen,  not 
only  describes  "  their  shameful  and  brutal  conduct,"  but  de 
plores  their  participation  in  "  outrages  which  make  one  who 
has  any  national  pride  blush  to  hear  recited.";]: 

*  Shea,  Missions  among  the  Indian  Tribes,  &c.,  cli.  v.,  p.  87. 

f  P.  296. 

\  Personal  Narrative,  &c.,  vol.  i.,  ch.  xviii.,  p.  423, 


216  CHAPTER   IX. 

Yet  the  Mexicans,  of  all  ranks,  could  teach  their  rude  guests 
a  lesson  of  charity  and  courtesy,  if  the  latter  were  capable  of 
profiting  by  it.  When  the  Americans  who  invaded  Mexico 
from  Texas,  most  of  whom  were  brigands  of  the  vilest  class, 
were  happily  captured,  and  marched  as  prisoners  through  the 
whole  country  to  the  capital,  Mr.  Kendall,  who  shared  their 
fate  without  deserving  it,  gives  this  account  of  "  the  Mexican 
population  generally,"  through  whom  the  lawless  adventurers 
were  conducted.  "They  seldom  manifested  any  feelings  of 
exultation  in  our  presence.  On  the  contrary,  the  mild  and 
subdued  eyes  of  the  poor  Indians  were  turned  upon  us  invaria 
bly  in  pity,  while  the  crowds  through  which  we  passed,  in  all 
the  large  cities,  appeared  rather  to  be  actuated  by  commisera 
tion  than  triumph  or  hatred,  Jews  and  heretics  though  they 
thought  and  termed  us."* 

The  lesson  appears  to  have  been  unfruitful.  At  Bexar,  Mr. 
Olmsted  relates  how  the  Mexican  householders,  using  a  right 
which  American  institutions  are  supposed  to  guarantee,  voted 
at  a  certain  election  against  "  the  American  ticket,"  and 
apparently  against  the  introduction  of  slavery,  which  Catholic 
Mexico  has  suppressed.  For  this  act  of  citizenship  they  were 
publicly  assailed,  in  terms  which  may  suffice  to  warn  us  that 
we  are  once  more  coming  into  the  presence  of  Protestantism, 
as  "  political  lepers,  voting  at  the  bidding  of  a  rotten  priest 
hood.'^  We  may  easily  anticipate  the  fate  of  the  Mexican  in 
Texas. 

But  he  will  not  perish  without  an  effort  to  save  him.  There 
are  missionaries  at  this  hour  in  Texas  whom  the  best  and 
bravest  of  other  days  would  have  welcomed  as  brothers.  .  Even 
Zumarraga  and  Las  Casas  might  have  rejoiced  to  claim  for  a 
colleague  Bishop  Odin,  the  Vicar  Apostolic  of  Texas ;  even 
Betanzos  and  Peter  of  Ghent  would  have  recognized  as  fellow- 
laborers  such  men  as  Timon  and  Domenech,  Dubuis  and 
Chazelle,  Calvo  and  Estany,  Clark  and  Chanrion,  Fitzgerald 
and  llennessy ;  who  now  toil,  or  have  recently  finished  their 
course,  in  that  arduous  field.  The  Abbe  Domenech  has  lately 
described  their  labors,  their  sufferings,  and  their  patience.  If 
we  refer  for  a  moment  to  his  well-known  pages,  it  is  for  the 
sake  of  adding  one  more  proof  that  the  Church  still  produces 
the  same  class  of  missionaries — Spanish,  French,  English,  or 
-Irish — as  have  borne  her  message  to  all  lands  from  the  time 
of  St.  Paul  to  our  own. 

When  Bishop  Odin  visited  Europe  in  1815,  and  appealed  in 

*  Narrative,  &c.,  ch.  vi.,  p.  131. 
t  P.  499. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  247 

the  city  of  Lyons  to  the  Levites  of  France  to  follow  him,  for 
the  love  of  Christ,  to  the  banks  of  the  Brazos,  the  Kueces,  and 
the  Rio  Grande,  these  were  the  attractions  which  he  offered 
to  their  zeal.  "  You  will  not  always  find  any  thing  to  eat  or 
drink ;  you  will  be  without  ceasing  in  travels  through  un 
known  regions,  where  the  distances  are  immense,  the  plains 
boundless,  and  the  forests  of  vast  extent.  You  will  pass  your 
nights  on  the  moist  earth,  your  days  under  a  burning  sun. 
You  will  encounter  perils  of  every  kind,  and  will  have  need  of 
all  your  courage  and  all  your  energy."* 

The  invitation  was  accepted  as  frankly  as  it  was  given. 
Amongst  those  who  embraced  the  proposed  career  was  the 
Abbe  Emanuel  Domenech,  who  arrived  in  Texas  in  1846. 
From  the  window  of  his  humble  dwelling  in  Castroville  he 
looked  out  upon  the  tomb  of  his  predecessor  the  Abbe  Chazelle. 
Excessive  labor,  and  the  want  of  all  nourishing  food,  had  re 
duced  the  latter,  as  well  as  his  companion  the  Abbe  Dubuis, 
to  that  mortal  languor  and  exhaustion  for  which  in  their 
utter  poverty  they  could  find  no  remedy.  The  one  lay  on  the 
ground,  the  other  on  a  table,  both  stricken  with  typhus 
fever.  They  had  none  to  succor  them,  and  water,  of  which 
a  neighbor  placed  every  morning  a  pailful  at  their  door, 
was  their  only  medicine.  On  the  tenth  day  of  their  illness, — 
it  was  the  great  Feast  of  the  Assumption, — the  Abbe  Dubuis 
resolved  to  make  an  attempt  to  offer  once  more  the  Holy 
Sacrifice.  "  Let  us  confess  for  the  last  time,"  he  said  to  his 
dying  companion ;  "  the  strongest  of  the  two  shall  then  say 
Mass,  and  give  Holy  Communion  to  the  other."  With  diffi 
culty  Dubuis  accomplished  the  pious  design,  and  then  Chazello 
fell  to  rise  no  more.  He  was  in  his  last  agony,  when  his  com 
panion  staggered  to  his  side,  and  in  a  feeble  whisper  pronounced 
over  him  the  final  blessing  of  the  Church.  A  little  later,  he 
bore  him  with  tottering  steps  to  a  grave  in  the  garden,  and  there 
"  the  dying  interred  the  dead."f 

The  Abbe  Dubuis  recovered.  You  think,  perhaps,  that  he 
now  abandoned  a  scene  so  full  of  sorrowful  memories  in  the 
past,  of  formidable  anticipations  in  the  future?  But  men  who 
have  received  the  apostolic  vocation  accept  all  that  it  imposes. 
At  the  close  of  the  year  1847,  we  find  the  Abbe  Dubuis  writing 
from  Castroville  to  his  friend  the  Cure  of  Fontaines,  near 
Lyons,  a  letter  which  concludes  with  these  words :  "  To  this 
hour  I  have  never  known  one  moment  of  disgust  or  regret ; 


0  Journal  d'un  Missionaire  au  Texas  et  au  Mexique,  par  1' Abbe  E.  Domenech. 
eh.  i.,  p.  2. 
f  Ch.  ii.,  p.  50. 


248  CHAPTER   IX. 

and  if  I  were  still  in  France,  I  would  quit  it  immediately  for 
the  mission  of  Texas,  which  I  shall  only  abandon  when  strength 
and  life  are  taken  from  me."* 

Yet  it  was  a  hard  life  which  these  brave  missionaries  led  in 
Texas.  Salary  they  had  none,  not  even  the  traditional  twenty 
pounds  a  year  which  their  brethren  receive  in  India  and 
China.  They  lived  on  alms,  when  alms  were  offered,  and 
dispensed  with  them  when  they  were  not.  Sometimes  they 
dined  on  a  rattle-snake,  sometimes  on  a  cat,  and  oftener  still 
they  did  not  dine  at  all.  Once  the  Abbe  Dnbuis  failed  to  say 
Mass,  though  the  congregation  were  assembled ;  he  could  not 
speak,  not  having  tasted  food  for  forty-eight  hours.  He  and 
the  Abbe  Domenech  were  joint  proprietors  of  a  single  cassock, 
— for  as  they  sometimes  galloped  eighty  miles  to  administer  a 
sick  person,  their  vestments  were  subject  to  dilapidation, — so 
that  while  one  said  Mass,  the  other  stayed  at  home  in  his  shirt 
sleeves. 

Nor  does  their  bishop,  whom  the  Holy  See  subsequently 
raised  to  the  dignity  of  Archbishop  of  New  Orleans,  seem  to 
have  fared  much  better  than  his  clergy.  The  Abbe  Hennessy 
relates  to  a  friend  in  Paris  the  manner  of  living  in  the  Episcopal 
Palace.  u  To  give  you  an  idea  of  the  comfort  and  luxury  of 
our  life,  let  it  suffice  to  say,  that  here,  in  Galveston,  the  whole 
amount  of  our  weekly  expenditure,  for  the  Vicar  Apostolic  and 
the  three  priests  who  live  with  him,  is  four  dollars,  or  about 
sixteen  shillings.  Monseigneur  Odin,  choosing  poverty  and 
straitness  for  himself,  is  only  rich  and  lavish  towards  the  poor."f 
In  a  letter  which  this  apostolic  bishop,  who  lived  upon  four 
shillings  a  week,  addressed  to  his  parents,  he  says,  "  Sometimes 
discouragement  almost  seizes  me,  when  I  know  not  what  means 
to  adopt  to  procure  even  the  most  indispensable  provisions ; 
but  God  is  so  good  a  Father  that  He  always  comes  to  our 
help."} 

We  are  not  surprised  to  learn  from  the  Abbe  Domenech  that 
the  Protestant  clergy  in  Texas  had  no  sympathy  with  such  a 
mode  of  existence.  Each  of  them,  he  says,  had  five  hundred 
pounds  a  year,  besides  what  he  could  earn  by  the  ingenious 
operations  in  which  such  men  are  skilled.  One  of  them,  who 
had  three  marriageable  daughters,  announced  to  his  flock, — 
he  had  chosen  for  his  text  the  appropriate  words,  "  Increase 
and  multiply," — that  he  would  give  three  thousand  piastres 
with  each  of  the  young  ladies  to  any  eligible  suitor ;  and  his 

*  App.,  p.  471. 

f  P.  465. 

i  Annales  de  la  Propagation  de  la  Foi,  tome  iii.,  p.  533. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  249 

congregation  probably  saw  nothing  unusual  or  incongruous 
in  this  form  of  paternal  solicitude.* 

But  if  the  Protestant  ministers  lived  in  Texas  as  they  are 
wont  to  live  everywhere  else,  carefully  limiting  their  prudent 
operations  to  the  principal  cities,  and  diligently  avoiding 
even  the  remote  possibility  of  unwelcome  perils  ;  the  Catholic 
missionaries  would  have  taught  them,  if  they  could  have  com 
prehended  the  lesson,  what  men  can  do  who  have  forsaken  all 
for  Christ's  sake.  The  Abbe  Domenech,  amongst  others,  was 
familiar  with  startling  scenes.  He  is  on  one  of  his  ordinary 
errands  of  mercy,  journeying  from  Dhanis  to  La  Leona,  and 
comes  suddenly  upon  the  bodies  of  seven  Mexicans,  pierced 
with  arrows,  scalped  and  mutilated.  The  still  smouldering 
embers  of  their  camp-fire  showed  how  recent  the  massacre 
had  been.  A  few  miles  beyond  La  Leona, — for  he  had  boldly 
continued  his  way  where  charity  called  him, — he  finds  a 
woman  suspended  to  a  tree,  still  living,  though  her  scalp  had 
been  torn  off;  and  at  her  feet  three  Mexicans,  just  slaughtered 
by  a  party  of  marauding  Indians.  The  missionary  pursued 
his  course  unhurt. 

At  another  time  the  house  of  the  Abbe  Estany  is  attacked 
by  the  Comanches.  He  makes  his  way  through  a  storm  of 
arrows,  and  receives  no  wound ;  but  all  he  possesses,  clothes, 
books,  and  church  vessels,  are  carried  oif  or  destroyed. 

The  Abbe  Dubuis,  who  had  braved  a  hundred  deaths,  is 
surprised  in  his  turn  by  a  party  of  savages.  There  is  no 
escape,  and  he  quietly  advances  to  meet  them.  "  Do  me  no 
harm,"  he  says,  with  a  calm  voice:  "I  am  a  captain  of  the 
Great  Spirit,  and  a  chief  of  prayer."  They  leave  him  in 
peace. 

But  death  had  no  terrors  for  such  men  as  these  ;  it  was 
but  the  passage  to  eternal  life.  Once  the  Abbe  Domenech 
received  an  express,  bidding  him  hasten  to  the  assistance  of 
Father  Fitzgerald,  dying  at  Victoria.  He  sets  out  at  a  gallop, 
almost  leaps  over  a  panther  lying  in  his  path,  and  at  length 
stands  by  the  bedside  of  his  friend.  "  I  spoke  to  him,"  he  says, 
"  but  he  did  not  answer.  I  wished  to  embrace  him  ;  -his  lips 
were  rigid.  He  was  just  dead.  At  twenty-six  years  of  age, 
far  from  his  family,  his  country,  and  his  friends,  without  even 
the  succors  of  religion  at  his  departure  out  of  the  world,  he  had 
breathed  his  last.  In  beholding  this  youthful  victim  of  Chris 
tian  charity,  my  heart  was  oppressed  ;  I  fell  on  my  knees,  and 
being  unable  to  pray,  I  wept.  .  .  .  But  in  spite  of  the  sad  end 
of  my  poor  friend,  1  envied  his  lot ;  for  him  no  doubt  any 

*  Domenecli,  ch.  iii.,  p.  281 ;  3d  voyage. 


050  CHAPTER  IX. 

longer  existed  about  the  future ;  he  had  died  in  the  midst  of 
his  work."* 

But  it  is  time  to  leave  Texas,  where  missionaries  of  the  same 
class  continue  at  this  hour  the  same  valiant  and  patient  apos- 
tolate,  calmly  expecting,  amid  all  their  toils,  sufferings,  and 
dangers,  the  hour  when  they  shall  be  joined  to  their  brethren 
who  have  gone  before,  and  receive  the  recompense  to  which  St. 
Paul  looked  forward  during  all  the  vicissitudes  of  his  ministry, 
—the  bonds  and  scourging,  the  hunger  and  thirst,  the  perils 
and  contradictions, — and  which  such  as  they  have  earned  a 
right  to  share  with  him. 


CALIFORNIA. 

The  history  of  California,  a  land  which  effectively  illustrates 
the  peculiar  civilization  of  the  nineteenth  century,  has  been 
written  by  Yenegas  and  others.  Here  the  same  facts  meet  us, 
which  we  have  noticed  in  every  other  region  of  the  earth.  Not 
one  of  the  usual  phenomena  is  wanting.  The  zeal  and  devo 
tion  of  the  Catholic  missionaries  ;  their  unbounded  success  ; 
the  love  and  veneration  which  the  converted  natives  displayed 
towards  them  ;  the  commercial  and  agricultural  prosperity 
which  existed,  as  Humboldt  observes,  under  "  the  strict  though 
peaceful  rule  of  the  monks  ;"  and  finally,  the  swift  havoc  and 
ruin  introduced  by  men  of  the  Saxon  race  ;  all  recur  in  their 
accustomed  order,  and  all  are  eagerly  attested,  as  usual,  by 
Protestant  writers. 

"  The  name  of  California,"  says  Mr.  Berthold  Seemann,  in 
1853,  "is  forever  united  with  the  unselfish,  devotion  of  the 
Franciscan  friars."f  Yet  the  children  of  St.  Francis  had  been 
preceded  by  men  of  whom  another  Protestant  traveller  thus 
speaks  :  "  The  Jesuits,  before  they  were  supplanted  by  the 
Franciscans,"  observes  Sir  George  Simpson,  "  had  covered  the 
sterile  rocks  of  Lo\ver  California  with  the  monuments,  agricul 
tural,  architectural,  and  economical,  of  their  patience  and 
aptitude ;  not  only  leaving  to  their  successors  apposite  models 
and  tolerable  workmen,  but  also  bequeathing  to  them  the 
invaluable  lesson,  that  nothing  was  impossible  to  energy  and 
perseverance.''*  We  shall  presently  hear  what  the  same  im 
partial  writer  says  of  the  Protestant  missionaries  in  the  same 
regions,  and  the  results  of  their  apparition. 

*  Ch.  vi.,  p.  176. 

f  Voyage  of  H.M.8.  Herald,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  ix.,  p.  153. 

;  Journey  Hound  the  World,  vol.  i.,  ch.  vii.,  p.  334. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  251 

Mr.  Forbes, — who  celebrates  with  frank  admiration  "  the 
pure  and  disinterested  motives  of  the  Jesuits,"  whom  he  gen 
erously  lauds  as  "  true  soldiers  of  the  Cross,"  and  contrasts  in 
snergetic  terms  with  the  "  illiterate  fanatics"  whom  the  Sects 
have  sent  to  take  their  place, — records  also,  like  Sir  George 
Simpson,  "  the  minute  but  not  uninteresting  warfare  which 
they  maintained  for  so  many  years  against  the  rude  natives 
of  California  and  its  still  ruder  soil,  until  at  length  they  tri 
umphed  over  the  former,  and  as  much  over  the  latter  as  was 
possible."* 

He  describes,  too,  the  work  of  their  successors,  after  careful 
observation  of  it.  "The  best  and  most  unequivocal  proof  of  the 
good  conduct  of  the  Franciscan  Fathers  is  to  be  found  in  the 
unbounded  affection  and  devotion  invariably  shown  towards 
them  by  their  Indian  subjects.  They  venerate  them  not 
merely  as  friends  and  fathers,  but  with  a  degree  of  devoted- 
ness  approaching  to  adoration."  And  then  he  exclaims,  as  if 
he  found  it  impossible  to  restrain  the  unwelcome  confession, 
"  Experience  has  shown  how  infinitely  more  successful  the 
Catholic  missionaries  have  been  than  the  Protestant."  He 
even  becomes  enthusiastic  in  tracing  the  contrast,  and  adds, 
"Nor  can  there  be  agents  more  fitting  than  the  persevering  and 
well-disciplined  friar,  whose  whole  life  and  studies  have  been 
directed  to  this  end;  whose  angry  passions  no  injury  can  rouse, 
whose  humility  and  patience  no  insult  or  obstacle  can  overcome. 
With  him  our  missionaries  can  hear  no  comparison"^ 

Sir  George  Simpson  is  more  cautious,  for  he  was  a  British 
official,  yet  he  also  relates  how  the  Protestant  missionaries 
abandoned  in  despair  their  attempts  on  the  natives  of  Colombia, 
because  "  they  soon  ascertained  that  they  could  gain  converts 
only  by  buying  them  ;"  and  he  adds,  almost  resentfully,  "  The 
Church  of  Rome  is  peculiarly  successful  with  ignorant  savages." 
Yet  so  intelligent  a  person  can  hardly  suppose  that  these  were 
the  easiest  class  of  disciples  to  win — much  less,  that  they  wero 
the  easiest  to  retain. 

Let  us  hear  other  eye-witnesses,  but  all  Protestants.  "  We 
visited  the  missions,"  says  Dr.  Coulter,  in  1847,  "making  a  few 
days'  stay  at  each,  enjoying  the  lively,  humane,  and  agreeable 
conversation  of  the  padres,  who  were,  without  an  exception,  a 
pleasant  set  of  men The  padres  now  have  perfect  con 
trol  over  the  Indians  of  the  missions.";}: 

Captain  Beechey  had  made  exactly  the  same  observation  a 
few  years  earlier.  "  The  converts  are  so  much  attached  to  the 

*  California,  ch.  i.,  p.  17. 

f  Ch.  v.,  pp.  230,  242. 

\  Western  Coast  of  South  America,  vol.  i.,  ch.  xv.,  p.  154 ;  ch.  xvi.,  p.  1 70. 


252  CHAPTER  IX. 

padres,  that  I  have  heard  them  declare  they  would  go  with 
them  if  they  were  obliged  to  leave  the  country."* 

Mr.  Walpole,  writing  two  years  after  Dr.  Coulter,  and  with 
scant  sympathy  for  Catholics,  says,  "  To  me  the  Catholic  mis 
sionaries  of  America  always  appeared  far  superior  to  all  other 
Catholics  ;  under  their  fostering  rule  the  rude  savage  ceased 
his  wars,  settled  down  and  tilled  the  land  in  peace, — witness 
Paraguay  and  California  l"f 

These  witnesses  are  all  English  Protestants;  let  us  hear  what 
Americans  say  on  the  same  subject.  Captain  Benjamin  Morrell 
visits  the  mission  of  St.  Antony  of  Padua,  near  Monterey,  and 
this  is  his  report :  "  The  Indians  are  very  industrious  in  their 
labors,  and  obedient  to  their  teachers  and  directors,  to  whom 
they  look  up  as  to  a  father  and  protector,  and  who  in  return 
discharge  their  duty  towards  these  poor  Indians  with  a  great 
deal  of  feeling  and  humanity.  They  are  generally  well  clothed 
and  fed,  have  houses  of  their  own,  and  are  made  as  comfortable 
as  they  wish  to  be.  The  greatest  care  is  taken  of  all  who  are 
affected  with  any  disease,  and  every  attention  is  paid  to  their 
wants.":):  Such  testimonies  are  instructive,  yet  every  one  must 
feel  that  they  deal  only  with  the  surface  of  things,  and  do  not 
lay  bare  the  hidden  sources  from  which  all  these  blessings 
spring. 

Captain  Morrell  finds  one  thousand  two  hundred  Christian 
Indians  in  the  mission  of  St.  Clara.  "  ~No  person  of  unprejudiced 
mind,"  he  exclaims,  "could  witness  the  labors  of  these  Catholic 
missionaries,  and  contemplate  the  happy  results  of  their  philan 
thropic  exertions,  without  confessing  that  they  are  unwearied 
in  well-doing."  And  then  he  adds,  that  although  "the  Mex 
icans  and  Spaniards  are  very  indolent,  and  consequently  very 
filthy,"  "  the  converted  Indians  are  generally  a  very  industri 
ous,  ingenious,  and  cleanly  people."§ 

Mr.  Russell  Bartlett,  who  notices  in  1854  that  at  the  mission 
of  Cocopera,  in  Sonora,  "  the  increase  of  cattle  in  a  single  year 
amounted  to  ten  thousand  head,"  adds  that  in  that  of  San 
Ignacio,  founded  in  1687,  "though  abandoned  for  many  years, 
the  results  of  Jesuit  industry  are  still  apparent."  "The  mission 
of  San  Gabriel,"  he  says,  "  at  one  time  branded  fifty  thousand 
calves,  manufactured  three  thousand  barrels  of  wine,  and 
harvested  one  hundred  thousand  fanegas  (two  hundred  and 
sixty-two  thousand  bushels)  of  grain  a  year.  The  timber  for 
a  biigantine  was  cut,  sawed,  and  fitted  at  the  mission,  and  then 

*  Voyage  to  the  Pacific,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  i.,  p.  21. 

t  Four  Years  in  the  Pacific,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  i.,  p.  25. 

%  A  Narrative  of  Four  Voyages,  ch.  vi.,  p.  208  (1832). 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.     *  253 

transported  to  and  launched  at  San  Pedro.  Five  thousand  In 
dians  were  at  one  time  collected  and  attached  to  the  mission. 
They  are  represented  to  have  been  sober  and  industrious,  well- 
clothed  and  fed They  constituted  a  large  family,  of  which 

the  padres  were  the  social,  religious,  and,  we  might  almost  say, 
political  heads."  Then  noticing  the  ruin  which  other  men  and 
other  principles  have  wrought  among  thorn,  this  candid  Protest 
ant  adds :  "  Humanity  cannot  refrain  from  wishing  that  the 
dilapidated  mission  of  San  Gabriel  should  be  renovated,  and  its 
broken  walls  be  rebuilt,  its  roofless  houses  be  covered,  and  its 
deserted  halls  be  again  filled  with  its  ancient  industrious, 
happy,  and  contented  population." 

But  Mr.  Bartlett  appears  to  have  understood,  from  his  own 
observations,  and  from  converse  with  the  unhappy  survivors  of 
these  tribes,  that  the  Power  which  made  them  what  they  were 
is  withdrawn,  and  that  his  co-religionists,  incapable  of  emu 
lating  such  triumphs,  will  infallibly  complete  the  work  of 
destruction  which  they  have  commenced.  At  the  great  mission 
of  Los  Angeles,  once  a  proverb  throughout  the  whole  region, 
"  the  Indians  have  now  no  means  of  obtaining  a  living,  as  their 
lands  are  all  taken  from  them.  .  .  .  No  care  seems  to  be  taken 
of  them  by  the  Americans ;  on  the  contrary,  the  effort  seems  to 
be,  to  exterminate  them  as  soon  as  possible !"  Such  is  the 
contrast  between  Catholic  and  Protestant  colonization.  At  the 
modern  mission  of  San  Luis  Hey  he  converses  with  an  aged 
chief.  "  On  inquiring  as  to  the  state  of  things  when  the  padres 
were  here,  the  old  man  heaved  a  deep  sigh.  He  said  his  tribe 
was  large,  and  his  people  all  happy,  when  the  good  Fathers  were 
here  to  protect  them.  That  they  cultivated  the  soil,  assisted  in 
rearing  large  herds  of  cattle,  were  taught  to  be  blacksmiths  and 
carpenters,  as  well  as  other  trades,  and  were  happy.  .  .  .  He 
spoke  with  much  affection  of  Father  Peyri,  its  original  founder, 
who  had  resided  here  for  thirty-four  years."  Now  his  tribe 
were  scattered,  "  without  a  home  or  protectors,  and  were  in  a 
miserable  starving  condition." 

In  a  few  places,  not  yet  overwhelmed  by  the  Anglo-Saxon 
flood, 'the  Fathers  still  linger,  and  here  is  the  result  of  their 
presence,  attested  by  the  same  official  witness:  The  Yaqm 
Indians  of  Sonora,  he  says,  are  "invariably  honest,  faith 
ful,  and  industrious.  They  are  also  the  fishermen  and  the 
famous  pearl-divers  of  the  Gulf  of  California."  They  were 
"  among  the  first  to  be  converted  by  the  Jesuits."  Originally 
"  extremely  warlike,  on  being  converted  to  Christianity,  their 
savage  nature  was  completely  subdued,  and  they  became  the 
most  docile  and  tractable  of  people.  They  are  now  very  pop 
ulous  in  the  southern  part  of  Sonora." 


254:  CHAPTER  IX. 

Finally,  the  Opate  Indians,  whom  he  also  visited,  though 
"  noted  for  their  bravery,  being  the  only  ones  who  have  success 
fully  contended  with  the  savage  Apaches,"  "  have  ever  remained 
faithful  to  their  religion.  Of  their  attachment  to  law,  order, 
and  peace,  they  have  given  the  most  unequivocal  proofs."'34' 

One  exception  there  is  to  these  candid  testimonies,  and  it  is 
found,  as  might  be  anticipated,  in  the  writings  of  a  Protestant 
minister.  The  Rev.  Joseph  Tracy  gravely  informs  his  readers, 
in  the  face  of  all  the  evidence  which  Protestant  travellers  of 
various  classes  have  offered  on  this  subject,  that  the  Jesuits  and 
Franciscans  in  California  taught  only  the  "  forms  of  religion," 
"  without  improving  their  intellects,  their  morals,  or  their  habits 
of  life  /"f  Perhaps  there  are  no  two  works,  in  the  whole  range 
of  Protestant  literature,  at  once  so  trivial  and  so  profane, — so 
full  of  false  and  idle  words,  childish  vaunts,  and  iravrok/wp 
'a/uadia, — as  Mr.  Tracy's  history  of  American  missions,  and 
the  "  Reports  of  the  American  Board  for  Foreign  Missions." 

Once  more  we  have  noticed  one  of  those  peaceful  triumphs, 
rich  in  blessings  to  suffering  humanity,  and  which  have  extorted 
the  admiration  even  of  men  whose  unhappy  prejudices  they  fail 
to  correct,  and  whose  conscience  they  leave  unawakened.  The 
poor  Indians  were  wiser.  They  could  discern  Whose  ministers 
such  workmen  were,  and  that  it  was  only  by  the  communica 
tion  of  His  Spirit  that  they  found  strength  to  lead  such  lives, 
or  accomplish  such  victories. 

But  the  history  of  California  does  not  end  here.  The 
Catholic  missionaries  had  done,  in  this  land  as  in  every 
other,  all  that  men  having  the  gifts  and  the  calling  of  apostles 
could  do.  They  had  forced  the  rugged  soil  to  yield  ample 
harvests,  they  had  fertilized  the  yet  more  barren  heart  of  the 
eavage  with  the  dew  of  heavenly  graces.  Two  other  classes 
were  now  to  enter  these  regions, — Mexicans  who  had  forfeited 
their  birthright  as  Catholics,  and  Protestants  who  had  never 
possessed  it.  Both  have  inflicted  irreparable  injury  upon  the 
tribes  of  the  Northwest. 

Let  us  speak  of  the  Mexicans  lirst.  Affecting  to  follow  the 
precedents  of  modern  European  policy,  of  which  the  chief 
maxim  seems  to  be  the  exclusion  of  all  ecclesiastical  influence  in 
the  government  of  human  society,  the  civil  authorities  resolved 
to  secularize  all  the  missions.  The  result  has  been,  as  in  every 
land  where  the  same  experiment  has  been  tried,  a  swift  relapse 
into  the  barbarism  from  which  the  Church  alone  has  saved  the 


*  Personal  Narrative  of  Explorations  in,  Texas,  New  Mexico,  California,  &c. 
vol.  i.,  cli.  iix.,  pp.  442-4;  vol.  ii.,  ch.  xxv.,  pp.  82,  92. 
f  History  of  American  Missions,  p.  197. 


MISSIONS  IN   AMERICA.  255 

world,  the  immediate  decay  of  material  prosperity,  and  a  vast 
augmentation  of  human  suffering.  History  might  have  taught 
the  Mexicans  to  anticipate  these  inevitable  fruits.*  When 
England  laid  her  hand  on  the  possessions  of  the  Church,  which 
had  been  for  centuries  the  patrimony  of  the  poor,  she  took  her 
first  step  towards  her  present  social  condition.  Prisons  and  work 
houses  became  the  dismal  substitutes  for  monasteries,  and  jailers 
supplanted  monks.  England  has  not  profited  much  by  the 
change.  The  new  institutions  are  at  least  ten  times  more  costly 
than  the  old,  and  the  benefits  derived  from  them  have  been  in 
inverse  proportion.  They  now  receive  only  prisoners,  and  dis- 

forge  only  criminals,  while  a  whole  nation  of  heathen  poor,  a 
urden  on  the  present  resources  of  the  country  and  a  menace 
for  her  future  destiny,  have  sunk  down,  as  even  English  writers 
will  tell  us,  to  the  level  of  the  most  degraded  tribes  of  Africa  or 
America,  and  are  as  utterly  void  of  religion  or  of  the  knowledge 
of  God,  as  the  Sioux,  the  Carib,  or  the  Dahoman. 

Here  is  the  history  of  the  same  proceedings  in  California. 
"In  1833,"  says  Mollhausen,  "the  government  of  Mexico, 
jealous  of  the  great  influence  of  the  clergy,  secularized  the 
missions,  and  confiscated  their  property  to  the  State."  It  was 
Gomez  Farias  who  devised  the  felony,  and,  as  Mr.  Brantz 
Mayer  relates,  ruined  in  a  single  province  twenty-four  missions, 
inhabited  by  twenty-three  thousand  and  twenty-five  Christian 
Indians.  We  will  quote  immediately  the  exact  statistics  of  the 
operation  and  of  its  results. 

It  was  not  long  before  the  spoilers  were  ejected  in  their  turn 
by  the  Americans,  a  more  energetic  race,  who,  not  content 
with  destroying  the  missions,  have  proceeded  to  destroy  the 
Indians  also.  They  would  have  been  ashamed  not  to  surpass 
so  pusillanimous  a  criminal  as  Gomez  Farias,  who  contented 
himself,  like  a  mean  robber,  with  appropriating  the  property 
of  others.  "  When  California  became  attached  to  the  United 
States,"  says  Mollhausen,  "  the  former  property  of  the  missions 
of  course  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  American  government, 
arid  their  dwellings  are  now  lonely  and  desolate,  and  falling 
rapidly  to  decay ;  the  roofs  have  fallen  in,  the  stables  are 
empty,  the  once  blooming  gardens  and  orchards  are  choked  by 
a  wild  growth  of  Aveeds,  and  it  will  probably  not  be  long 
before  the  waves  of  commercial  activity  will  sweep  over  them 
and  obliterate  the  last  traces  of  their  existence."! 

"  I  asked  what  they  thought  of  the  abolition  of  tithes,  and  confiscation  of 
Church  property  ?  (in  Spain.)     The  answer  was,  '  The  poor  man  pays  more, 
and  the  rich  less.' "     The  Pillars  of  Hercules,  by  David  Urquhart,  Esq.,  M.P., 
vol.  i.,  ch.  v.,  p.  77. 
f  Journey  from  the  Mississippi  to  the  Coasts  of  the  Pacific,  ch.  xv.,  p.  334. 


256  CHAPTER  IX. 

A  few  merchants  may  perhaps  improve  their  fortunes  by  the 
change,  but  it  will  be  at  the  expense  of  the  whole  Indian 
population,  whom  they  are  now  busy  in  exterminating,  and 
who,  at  no  remote  day,  will  have  ceased  to  exist.  Already, 
except  in  a  few  of  the  missions,  where  the  Franciscans  still 
linger,  starving  amid  ruins,  but  protecting  the  Indian  to  the 
last,  they  begin  to  be  "  brandy-drinking,  wretched  creatures," 
says  Mollhausen  ;  and  then  lie  adds,  "  It  is  impossible  not  to 
wish  that  the  missions  were  flourishing  once  more,  or  to  see 
without  regret  the  fallen  roofs  and  crumbling  walls  of  their 
abode,  a  mere  corner  of  which  now  serves  as  a  shelter  for  a  few 

Catholic  priests The  energetic  and  heroic  sacrifices  of 

such  missionaries  as  the  Padres  Kino,  Salvatierra,  and  Ugarte, 
obtained  their  reward;  and,  up  to  1833,  when  three  new 
missions  had  been  founded,  they  enjoyed  the  fruits  of  their 
labors." 

"The  spoliation  of  the  missions,"  says  Sir  George  Simpson, 
"  excepting  that  it  opened  the  province  to  general  enterprise, 
has  directly  tended  to  nip  civilization  in  the  bud."  And  even 
the  new  "  enterprise"  to  which  it  has  furnished  a  field  is  so 
unfruitful,  as  he  admits,  except  in  unprincipled  speculations, 
which  enrich  a  few  and  ruin  many,  that  whereas  in  the  time  of 
the  missions  the  province  exported  wool,  leather,  soap,  wheat, 
beef,  and  wine,  the  policy  of  its  actual  possessors  has  annihi 
lated  almost  all  these  branches  of  commerce. 

Before  we  notice,  in  conclusion,  the  effect  of  the  American 
conquest  upon  the  Indians,  and  the  characteristic  operations  of 
American  missionaries,  let  us  show  what  have  been  the  admit 
ted  results,  up  to  the  present  date,  of  the  suppression  of  the 
missions.  In  1844,  M.  Duflot  de  Mofras  published  his  work 
on  Oregon  and  the  Northwestern  provinces  of  Mexico.  Here 
is  the  evidence  of  this  intelligent  and  impartial  writer. 

It  was  not  till  1842  that  Santa  Anna  robbed  the  Bishop  of 
California  of  all  the  religious  funds  which  still  remained  from 
former  spoliations,  and  committed  their  administration  to  a 
coarse  and  greedy  soldier  of  his  own  class.  "  You  see,"  said 
an  Indian  Alcalde  to  M.  de  Mofras,  "  to  what  misery  we  are 
brought ;  the  Fathers  can  no  longer  protect  us,  and  the  author 
ities  themselves  despoil  us."*  The  Indians  have  learned  once 
more  to  regard  the  white  man  as  their  natural  enemy,  and,  as 
M.  de  Mofras  observes,  "  since  the  destruction  of  the  missions" 
it  has  become  dangerous  to  travel  from.  Sonora  to  California. 
A  few  Fathers  still  linger  in  the  scene  of  their  once  happy 
labors ;  the  rest  have  been  driven  from  the  country,  carrying 

*  Exploration  du  Territoire  de  I' Oregon,  tome  i.,  ch.  vii.,  p.  345. 


MISSIONS  IN  AMERICA.  257 

with  them  for  all  their  wealth  the  humble  robe  of  their  order. 
In  1838,  Father  Sarria  died  of  exhaustion  at  the  foot  of  the 
altar,  at  the  mission  of  St.  Soledad,  when  about  to  say  Mass, 
after  an  apostolate  of  thirty  years.  Father  Guttierrez  received 
a  daily  but  insufficient  ration,  dispensed  by  a  man  who  had 
formerly  been  a  domestic  servant,  but  who  was  now  civil 
administrator  of  the  mission  !  The  Father  President  Sanchez 
died  of  grief,  when  he  beheld  the  havoc  and  ruin  to  which  he 
could  apply  no  remedy. 

The  mission  of  San  Francisco  Solano  was  only  founded  in 
1823  by  Father  Amoros.  It  increased  so  rapidly,  that  at  the 
time  of  the  suppression  it  contained  one  thousand  three  hundred 
Christian  Indians,  and  possessed  eight  thousand  oxen,  seven 
hundred  horses,  and  other  property  in  proportion.  Don  Mariano 
Yallejo,  the  new  civil  administrator,  seized  every  thing  which 
it  was  possible  to  carry  away  or  sell,  and  pulled  down  the 
mission  house  to  build  himself  a  dwelling  out  of  the  materials.* 

Yet  some  of  the  missions  still  remain,  perhaps  because  neither 
Mexicans  nor  Americans  have  yet  found  time  to  destroy  them, 
and  still  present  something  of  their  former  aspect.  "  We  cannot 
express  the  surprise,''  says  M.  de  Mofras,  "with  which  the 
traveller  is  struck,  on  seeing,  in  the  neighborhood  of  Indian 
villages,  where  the  land  is  cultivated  with  extreme  care,  and 
there  exists  a  perfect  system  of  irrigation,  the  pueblos  of  the 
whites  in  a  state  of  profound  misery,  under  the  free  government 
of  most  of  the  so-called  Republics !"  The  common  salutation, 
he  says,  of  a  Dominican  or  a  Franciscan  to  an  Indian  is  still 
"  Arnar  a  Dios,  hijo  !"  and  the  answer,  "  Amar  a  Dios,  padre  !" 
The  Americans  will  probably  introduce  another  language. 

Perhaps  it  would  be  impossible  to  indicate  more  briefly  or 
more  impressively  the  historical  results  of  the  secularization  of 
the  missions,  after  their  long  career  of  peace  and  prosperity, 
than  M.  de  Mofras  has  done  in  his  interesting  pages.  Even 
men  who  are  careful  only  about  financial  success  can  appreciate 
such  statistics  as  are  exhibited  in  the  following  table.  It  has 
sometimes  been  said  in  jest  that  there  is  nothing  so  eloquent  as 
figures ;  let  the  reader  consider,  in  sober  earnest,  what  lesson  he 
may  derive  from  these. 

UPPER  CALIFORNIA. 

UNDER   THE   ADMINISTRATION   OP  THE   RELIGIOUS,   IN   1834. 

Christian  Indians, 30,650 

Horned  Cattle 424,000 

Horses  and  Mules 62,000 

Sheep 321,500 

Cereal  Crops 70,000  hectares. 

*P.445. 

VOL.  II  18 


258  CHAPTER  IX. 


UNDER  THE  CIVIL  ADMINISTRATION,  IN  1842. 

Christian  Indians 4,450 

Horned  Cattle 28,220 

Horses  and  Mules 3,800 

Sheep 31,600 

Cereal  Crops* 4,000  hectares. 

It  appears,  then,  that  in  the  brief  space  of  eight  years,  the 
secular  administration,  which  aifected  to  be  a  protest  against 
the  inefficiency  of  the  ecclesiastical,  had  not  only  destroyed 
innumerable  lives,  replunged  a  whole  province  into  barbarism, 
and  almost  annihilated  religion  and  civilization,  but  had  so 
utterly  failed  even  in  that  special  aim  which  it  professed  to 
have  most  at  heart, — the  development  of  material  prosperity, — 
that  it  had  already  reduced  the  wealth  of  a  single  district  in 
the  following  notable  proportions  :  Of  horned  cattle  there 
remained  about  one-fifteenth  of  the  number  possessed  under 
the  religious  administration  ;  of  horses  and  mules  less  than  one- 
sixteenth ;  of  sheep  about  one-tenth ;  and  of  cultivated  land 
producing  cereal  crops  less  than  one-seventeenth.  It  is  not  to 
the  Christian,  who  will  mourn  rather  over  the  moral  ruin 
which  accompanied  the  change,  that  such  facts  chiefly  appeal ; 
but  the  merchant  and  the  civil  magistrate,  however  indifferent 
to  the  interests  of  religion  and  morality,  will  keenly  appreciate 
the  cruel  and  blundering  policy  of  which  these  are  the  admitted 
results,  and  will  perhaps  be  inclined  to  exclaim  with  Mr. 
Mollhausen,  "  It  is  impossible  not  to  wish  that  the  missions 
were  flourishing  once  more  !" 

And  these  facts,  which  even  worldly  craft  may  teach  men 
to  deplore,  are  everywhere  the  same.  Far  away  to  the  South, 
in  the  plain  where  the  Lake  of  Encinillas  lies,  on  the  borders 
of  Chihuahua,  is  "  one  of  the  richest  and  most  valuable  localities 
in  the  world  for  cattle-grazing,  in  times  past  supporting  innu 
merable  herds.  Noiv  it  is  almost  a  desert  /"f  It  is  the  history 
of  Paraguay  on  a  smaller  scale. 

Yet  there  are  American  writers,  whom  no  official  rebuke 
has  ever  disavowed,  who  appear  almost  to  exult  in  this  universal 
ruin.  Lieutenant  Whipple,  a  highly  respectable  officer  of  the 
United  States,  from  whom  Mr.  Schoolcraft  derived  some  of 
the  materials  for  his  great  work  on  the  Indian  nations,  after 
noticing,  in  1849,  that  the  Lligunos,  converted  by  the  Fran 
ciscans,  still  number  eight  thousand,  continues  as  follows : 
"  They  profess  the  greatest  reverence  for  the  Church  of  Home, 

*  P.  821. 

f  Froebel,  ch.  ix.,  p.  840. 


MISSIONS  IN  AMERICA.  259 

and,  glorying  in  a  Christian  name,  look  with  disdain  upon  their 
Indian  neighbors  of  the  desert  and  the  Rio  Colorado,  calling 
them  miserable  gentiles."  He  confesses,  too,  speaking  of  the 
single  mission  of  San  Diego,  that  "  for  many  miles  around,  the 
valleys  and  plains  were  covered  with  cattle  and  horses  belong 
ing  to  this  mission  ;  yet  the  only  reflection  which  the  Christian 
zeal  of  the  Indians  and  the  skilful  administration  of  their 
pastors  suggested  to  him  is  expressed  in  the  silly  taunt,  that 
they  were  "  slaves  of  the  priests,"  and  the  worse  than  silly 
boast,  that  "  now  they  are  freed  from  bondage  to  the  Francis 
cans,"  his  countrymen  will  teach  them  "  their  duties  as  Chris 
tians  and  men  !"*  We  shall  see  immediately  what  they  have 
really  taught  them. 

The  Americans,  whom  Mr.  Whipple  dishonors  by  such  indis 
creet  advocacy,  are  in  fact  completing  the  work  of  destruction 
with  characteristic  energy ;  arid  here  is  an  account  of  their 
proceedings.  After  emptying  every  other  province  of  the 
United  States,  they  are  now  rapidly  effecting  the  same  process 
in  California.  On  the  15th  of  March,  1860,  the  Times  news 
paper  contained  the  following  extract  from  the  San  Francisco 
Overland  and  Ocean  Mail  Letter:  "Never,  as  journalists, 
have  we  been  called  upon  to  comment  on  so  flagrant  and 
inexcusable  an  act  of  brutality  as  is  involved  in  General 
Kibbe's  last  Indian  war — a  scheme  of  murder  conceived  in 
speculation  and  executed  in  most  inhuman  and  cowardly 
atrocity.  If  the  account  of  Mr.  George  Lount,  a  resident  of 
Pitt  river,  be  true,  General  Kibbe  and  all  the  cowardly  band 
of  cut- throats  who  accompanied  him  should  be  hung  by  the 
law  for  murder;  for  murder  it  is,  most  foul  and  inexcusable. 
Sixty  defenceless  Indian  women  and  children  killed  in  their 
own  r.jncheria  at  night,  by  an  armed  band  of  white  ruffians ! 
The  massacre  of  Glencoe  does  not  aiford  its  parallel  for  atrocity. 
This  band  of  Indians  were  friendly,  had  committed  no  outrage, 
were  on  their  own  lands,  in  their  own  homes."  But  this  was 
only  a  beginning  ;  later  operations  are  thus  narrated  by  the 
same  witness. 

u  The  Indians  have  been  driven  from  their  hunting-ground 
by  the  white  man's  stock.  Their  fishing  racks  have  been  de 
stroyed  by  the  caprice  or  for  the  convenience  of  the  white  man. 
Their  acorns  are  exhausted  by  the  white  man's  hog,  and,  driven 
to  desperation  by  actual  want  and  starvation,  they  have  stolen 
the  white  man's  ox."  This  was  the  pretext  for  another  onslaught. 
"  When  Governor  Weller  authorized  W.  J.  Jarboe  to  organize  a 


*  Historical  and  Statistical  Information  respecting  the  Indian  Tribes  of  the 
U.  8.,  by  H.  R.  Schoolcraft,  LL.D.,  part  ii.,  p.  100  (1851). 


260  CHAPTER  IX. 

company  to  make  war  on  the  Indians  ...  in  seventy  days  they 
had  fifteen  battles  (?)  with  the  Indians ;  killed  more  than  four 
hundred  of  them ;  took  six  hundred  of  them  prisoners,  and  had 
only  three  of  their  own  number  wounded,  and  one  killed.  .  .  . 
Under  the  licence  of  the  law  ;  under  the  cover  of  night ;  in  the 
security  of  your  arms  ;  in  the  safety  of  your  ambush  ;  you  have 
murdered  in  cold  blood  more  than  four  hundred  sleeping, 
unarmed,  unoffending  Indians — men,  women,  and  children. 
Mothers  and  infants  shared  the  common  fate.  Little  children 
in  baskets,  and  even  babes,  had  their  heads  smashed  to  pieces 
or  cut  open.  It  will  scarcely  be  credited  that  this  horrible  scene 
occurred  in  Christian  California,  within  a  few  days'  travel  from 
the  State  capital."  And  not  only  were  the  actors,  or  promoters, 
of  this  enormous  crime  a  General  of  the  United  States  army 
and  a  Governor  of  a  province,  but  "  a  bill  of  nearly  seventy 
thousand  dollars  is  now  'before  the  Legislature  awaiting  payment, 
to  be  distributed,  in  part,  among  these  crimsoned  murderers !" 

More  than  forty  years  ago,  an  American  Protestant  clergy 
man,  alluding  to  the  early  atrocities  of  his  Protestant  country 
men  against  the  Indian  race,  exclaimed,  "Alas!  what  has  not 
our  nation  to  answer  for  at  the  bar  of  retributive  justice  !"*  If 
this  writer  had  lived  to  hear  of  the  scenes  just  described,  he 
would  perhaps  have  felt  that  his  nation  has  done  little  as  yet  to 
propitiate  the  justice  of  God,  and  that  it  would  have  been  well 
for  California  to  have  been  left,  as  of  old,  to  the  Jesuits,  the 
Franciscans,  and  the  Dominicans. 

We  have  been  told  that,  at  least  in  one  case,  the  victims  were 
"  friendly  and  unoffending."  In  the  early  history  of  North 
America,  as  we  shall  see  when  we  come  to  speak  of  the  Atlantic 
States,  this  was  almost  invariably  the  case.  The  Catholic 
colonists  on  both  banks  of  the  St.  Lawrence,  as  well  as  those  in 
Maryland  under  Lord  Baltimore,  were  always  on  the  best  terms 
witli  the  natives.  Even  Penn,  who  was  admonished  by  the 
religious  maxims  of  his  society  to  eschew  rapine  and  war,  had 
no  difficulty  in  making  amicable  treaties  with  the  Indians  in  his 
neighborhood,  though  he  appears  to  have  always  made  them 
to  his  own  advantage.  It  was  not  till  Protestants  had  robbed 
and  murdered  them,  and  had  repaid  their  good  offices,  as  the 
Indians  afterwards  reminded  them,  with  horrible  outrage  and 
ingratitude,  that  the  latter  swore  eternal  enmity  against  them. 
They  became  cruel  and  vindictive,  because  the  white  man  had 
set  them  the  example.  If  North  America  had  been  colonized 
by  Catholics  alone,  there  would  have  been  at  this  day,  as  in  the 
Southern  continent,  whole  nations  of  native  Christians. 

*  A  Star  in  me  West,  by  Ellas  Boudinot,  LL.D.,  ch.  viii.,  p.  255  (1816). 


MISSIONS  IN  AMERICA.  261 

But  it  was  the  doom  of  the  red  man  to  perish  before  the  face 
of  the  Anglo-Saxon.  He  might  be  friendly  and  unoffending, 
but  this  could  not  save  him.  "  I  never  found,"  says  Mr.  Ger- 
staecker,  speaking  of  the  Wynoot  Indians  of  California,  "  a 
more  quiet  and  peaceable  people  in  any  country  than  they 
were."  "While  of  the  tribes  of  this  region  generally  he  adds, 
"They  are  really  the  most  harmless  nations  on  the  American 
continent,  let  white  people,  who  have  driven  them  to  desper 
ation,  say  what  they  please  against  them."  And  then  he 
quotes  Mr.  Wozencraft,  United  States  Indian  agent,  who  made 
this  official  report.  "  A  population  perfectly  strange  to  them 
has  taken  possession  of  their  former  homes,  destroyed  their 
hunting-grounds  and  fisheries,  and  cut  them  off  from  all  those 
means  of  subsistence  a  kind  Providence  had  created  for  their 
maintenance,  and  taken  away  from  them  the  possibility  of  ex 
isting.  But  not  satisfied  with  that,  these  men  deny  them  even 
the  right  we  have  granted  to  paupers  and  convicts — the  right 
of  working  and  existing."*  "Goaded  by  hunger,"  says  a 
Wesleyan  writer,  "  and  stimulated  by  revenge,  they  have  begun 
to  trespass  on  the  lands  of  the  colonists,"f  because  they  can  no 
longer  find  subsistence  on  their  own.  Yet  Mr.  Kirkpatrick  re 
ported,  in  1848,  of  the  Oregon  Indians,  "Long  before  a  mis 
sionary  went  into  that  country,  these  people  were  as  honest, 
kind,  and  inoffensive  as  any  I  have  ever  met  with,  either  civil 
ized  or  savage."  Mr.  Townshend  declared  the  same  thing  of 
the  Chinook  and  Walla-Walla  tribes,  whose  "honesty  and  up 
rightness,"  as  well  as  friendly  and  cordial  hospitality,  he  satir 
ically  compares  with  "  the  habits  and  conduct  of  our  Christian 
communities  ;"J  and  Dr.  Rattray  reports,  in  1862,  of  those  in 
British  Columbia,  "  the  natives  are  quiet  and  inoffensive  to  a 
degree,  unless  provoked  or  made  victims  of  intemperance."§ 

And  now  a  word,  in  conclusion,  on  the  Protestant  mission 
aries.  There  are  not  many  of  them  here,  because,  as  Mr.  Ger- 
staecker  has  told  us,  "  there  is  no  profit  in  view ;"  but  there  are 
a  few,  and  of  the  usual  class.  The  same  writer  tells  us  that  he 
encountered  two  of  them,  of  rival  sects,  "  but  as  we  find  in  the 
present  age  only  very  few  men  who  really  teach  the  gospel  for 
Christ's  sake" — he  means  among  his  co-religionists — "  the 
two  pious  brethren  had  long  given  up  preaching  to  the  heathen. 
With  the  natives  they  would  have  nothing  at  all  to  do.  Should 
they  live  upon  acorns  and  young  wasps,  and  sleep  in  the  wet 

*  Journey  Round  the  World,  vol.  i.,  ch.  vi.,  pp.  343-7. 
f  Colonization,  by  Kev.  John  Beecham,  p.  7. 
j:  Rocky  Mountains,  ch.  xi.,  p.  272. 

§  Vancouver  Island  and  British  Columbia,  by  Alexander  Rattray.  M.D. 
B.  N.,  ch.  x.,  p.  172. 


262  CHAPTER   IX. 

woods  all  for  nothing  ?  They  did  not  find  sufficient  encourage- 
ment."*  Yet  some  of  them  appear  to  have  remained  there, 
for  Mr.  Chandless  observes,  in  185T,  "  Religious  freedom,  I 
suppose,  exists  ;  there  seemed  to  be  a  sort  of  Protestant  Church 
there  (in  South  California),  with  a  bishop,  self-ordained,  and 
pretending  to  some  direct  revelation  from  heaven,  "f 

Few  men,  we  may  believe,  are  so  undiscerning  as  to  need 
any  assistance  in  reflecting  upon  the  contrast  between  the 
Catholic  and  Protestant  history  of  California."^:  Yet  it  is  im 
possible  to  omit  the  following  observations  of  a  distinguished 
American  official,  who  presided  over  the  commission  for  the 
settlement  of  the  Mexican  boundary,  and  who  sums  up  the  facts 
of  that  history  in  terms  scarcely  less  honorable  to  himself  than 
to  the  subjects  of  his  candid  and  generous  eulogy. 

"  Christian  sects  may  cavil  about  their  success  among  the 
Indian  tribes,  but  it  is  an  undeniable  fact,  that  the  Jesuits 
during  their  sway," — he  probably  counts  the  Franciscans  with 
them — "  accomplished  more  than  all  other  religious  denomina 
tions.  They  brought  the  tribes  of  Mexico  and  California  under 
the  most  complete  subjection,  and  kept  them  so  until  their 
order  was  suppressed.  And  how  was  this  done  ?  Not  by  the 
sword,  nor  by  treaty,  nor  by  presents,  nor  by  Indian  agents, 
who  would  sacrifice  the  poor  creatures  without  scruple  or  re 
morse  for  their  own  vile  gains.  The  Indian  was  taught  Chris 
tianity,  with  many  of  the  arts  of  civilized  life,  and  how  to  sus 
tain  himself  by  his  labor.  By  these  simple  means  the  Society 
of  Jesus  accomplished  more  towards  ameliorating  the  condition 
of  the  Indians  than  the  United  States  have  done  since  the  set 
tlement  of  the  country.  The  Jesuits  did  all  this  from  a  heart 
felt  desire  to  improve  the  moral  and  social  as  well  as  the 
spiritual  condition  of  this  people,  and  at  an  expense  infinitely 
less  than  we  now  pay  to  agents  alone,  setting  aside  the  millions 
annually  appropriated  for  indemnities,  presents,  &c."§ 


OREGON. 

Let  us  pass  from  California  to  Oregon.  We  will  speak  of 
the  Protestant  missionaries  first,  and  all  our  information  will  be 

*  Vol.  ii.,  p.  10. 

f  A  Visit  to  Salt  Lake,  by  William  Chandless,  ch.  x.,  p.  316. 

|  It  is  an  instructive  fact,  that  when  the  Fathers  of  the  Society  of  Jesus  were 
banished  from  Piedmont,  the  exiles  immediately  resumed  their  apostolic 
labors  in  California !  In  1857,  they  had  already  one  hundred  and  fifty-one  stu 
dents  in  their  college  at  San  Francisco,  under  the  direction  of  thirteen  Fathers 
and  five  lay  professors.  Prospectus  of  Santa  Clara  College,  San  Francisco,  1858. 

§  Bartlett,  Personal  Narrative,  vol.  ii.,  ch.  xxxix.,  p.  432. 


MISSIONS    IN  AMERICA.  263 

derived,  as  in  other  cases,  from  themselves  or  their  friends. 
When  Oregon  was  annexed  to  the  United  States,  the  various 
sects  endeavored,  according  to  their  wonted  policy,  to  get  the 
start  of  each  other  in  appropriating  the  promising  field.  The 
very  first  missionaries,  however,  who  arrived,  and  whose  instruc 
tions  were  to  labor  amongst  the  Flatheads,  positively  declined, 
after  a  brief  trial,  to  execute  their  mission.  Mr.  Townshend, 
who  travelled  with  them,  discovered  that  they  had  "  arrayed 
themselves  under  the  missionary  banner,  chiefly  for  the  grati 
fication  of  seeing  a  new  country,  and  participating  in  strange 
adventures."*  The  motive  of  their  retreat  was  characteristic. 
"  The  means  of  subsistence,"  we  are  told  by  two  of  their  num 
ber, — for  as  they  see  no  dishonor  in  the  confession,  they  are  not 
ashamed  to  make  it, — "  in  a  region  so  remote  and  so  difficult 
of  access,  were,  to  say  the  least,  very  doubtful."!  The  doubt 
was  enough  to  put  them  to  flight.  Yet  these  gentlemen  were 
probably  familiar  with  certain  words  of  St.  Paul,  in  which  he 
thus  describes  the  life  of  a  true  missionary  :  "  Even  unto  this 
hour  we  both  hunger  and  thirst,  and  are  naked,  and  are  buf 
feted,  and  have  no  fixed  abode.":):  We  shall  presently  meet 
with  missionaries  of  the  school  of  St.  Paul  who  did  stay  with 
the  Flatheads,  in  spite  of  "  the  doubtful  means  of  subsistence," 
and  who  will  tell  us  what  was  the  result  of  their  residence 
among  them. 

One  of  the  most  influential  of  the  American  sects  is  the 
Methodist  Episcopal  body.  Here  is  an  account,  by  an  eminent 
Methodist  preacher,  of  their  proceedings  in  Oregon.  It  exactly 
resembles  their  proceedings  everywhere  else. 

"  No  missionary  undertaking  has  been  prosecuted  by  the 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church  with  higher  hopes  and  a  more 
ardent  zeal.  That  the  results  have  fallen  greatly  below  the 
usual  average  of  missionary  successes,  and  inflicted  painful 
disappointment  upon  the  society  and  its  supporters,  none,  we 
presume,  any  longer  hesitate  to  confess."  This  particular  mis 
sion,  he  adds,  "involved  an  expenditure  of  forty-two  thousand 
dollars  in  a  single  year /"  nor  can  we  be  surprised  even  at  such 
enormous  prodigality,  when  we  learn  how  it  was  composed. 
"At  the  end  of  six  years,  there  were  sixty-eight  persons  con 
nected  with  this  mission,  men,  women,  and  children,  all  sup 
ported  by  this  society!  How  such  a  number  of  missionaries 
found  employment  in  such  a  field,  it  is  not  easy  to  conjecture, 
especially  as  the  great  body  of  the  Indians  never  came  under 

*  Townshend's  Rocky  Mountains,  vol.  i.,  ch.  i.,  p.  29  (1848). 

f  Ten  Tears  in  Oregon,  by  D.  Lee  and  J.  H.  Frost,  missionaries,  ch.  xii.,  p.  127. 

\  \  Cor.  iv.  11. 


264:  CHAPTER   IX. 

the  influence  of  their  labor."  And  then  follows  this  curious 
narrative  :  "  They  were,  in  fact,  mostly  engaged  in  secular 
affairs — concerned  in  claims  to  large  tracts  of  land,  claims  to 
city  lots,  farming,  merchandizing,  blacksmithing,  grazing,  horse- 
keeping,  lumbering,  and  flouring.  We  do  not  believe  that  the 
history  of  Christian  missions  exhibits  another  such  spectacle." 
We  have  seen  that  it  exhibits  a  good  many  such,  and  in  every 
land.  "  The  mission,"  he  continues,  "  "became  odious  to  the 
growing  population  .  .  .  irreconcilable  differences  arose  among 
the  missionaries,  which  led  to  the  return  of  several  individuals 
to  the  United  States,  and  to  a  disclosure  of  the  real  state  01 
the  mission."  Finally,  he  adds,  that  of  all  the  Indians  who 
had  ever  held  relations  of  any  kind  with  these  men,  "none  now 
remain"* 

Another  American  writer  gives  the  same  account  of  the  Wes- 
leyan  operations,  especially  at  the  Great  Dalles  of  Columbia. 
After  describing  a  murder  of  a  very  atrocious  kind,  committed 
in  the  very  presence  of  the  preacher,  while  surrounded  by  his 
nominal  flock,  and  by  one  of  his  own  congregation,  he  adds, 
44  The  occurrence  is  but  a  type  of  a  thousand  atrocities  daily 
occurring  among  these  supposed  converts  to  the  merciful  pre 
cepts  of  Christianity Yet  these  men  had  been,  and  still 

are,  represented  as  evangelized  in  an  eminent  degree  !"f 

Another  Wesleyan  mission  was  established  in  the  Wallamette. 
Here  an  English  Protestant  traveller  found  one  hundred  fami 
lies,  "  by  far  the  greater  part  Catholics,  a  very  regular  congre 
gation,  ministered  to  by  M.  Blanchette,  a  most  estimable  and 
indefatigable  priest  of  the  Roman  Catholic  faith."  The  Wes 
ley  ans,  he  adds,  consisted  of  four  families,  "  a  clergyman,  a 
surgeon,  a  school-master,  and  an  agricultural  overseer  !*'J  But 
if  they  had  no  disciples,  they  had  their  salaries,  an  arrange 
ment  which  they  probably  considered  quite  satisfactory. 

The  Rev.  C.  J.  Nicolay,  apparently  an  English  Episcop'alian 
minister,  gives  exactly  the  same  account  of  the  other  sects  in 
Oregon.  "It  has  ever,"  he  says,  "  been  thought  a  just  ground 
of  complaint  against  men  whose  lives  are  devoted  to  the  service 
of  God,"  if  they  try  to  make  u  a  gain  of  godliness."  But  this 
reproach,  he  remarks,  u  will  appear,  by  their  own  showing,  to  lie 
at  the  door  of  the  American  missionaries  who  have  established 
themselves  in  Oregon.  In  their  settlements  at  Okanagan,  &c., 
<fec.,  this  charge  is  so  far  true,  that  their  principal  attention  ia 
devoted  to  agriculture,  but  in  the  Wallamette  they  sink  into 


*  The  Works  of  Stephen  Olin,  LL.D.,  vol.  ii.,  pp.  427-8. 
f  Traits  of  American  Indian  Life,  ch.  x.,  p.  174  (1853). 
\  The  Oregon  Territory,  by  Alex.  Simpson,  Esq.,  p.  38. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  265 

political  agents  and  would-be  legislators."  Presently  lie  adds, 
after  quoting  the  statement  of  the  American  navigator  Wilkes, 
that  "  their  missionary  intentions  have  merged  in  a  grea"t 
measure  in  others  more  closely  connected  with  ease  and  com 
fort  ;" — that  "  the  missionaries  had  made  individual  selections 
of  lands  to  the  amount  of  a  thousand  acres  each."  Finally,  this 
gentleman  cautiously  observes,  "  It  appears  that  the  Roman 
Catholic  missionaries  were  placed  in  advantageous  contrast  to 
their  Protestant  brethren."* 

The  same  familiar  contrast  is  thus  indicated  by  another 
Protestant  traveller,  at  the  same  date,  with  more  emphasis 
than  could  be  fairly  expected  from  an  Anglican  clergyman : 
"  There  are  at  this  time  between  thirty  and  forty  semi-religious 
semi-political  pioneers.  The  religious  mission  of  too  many  has 
been  adopted  merely  as  the  means  of  securing  snug  locations 
for  themselves  and  families  in  this  western  paradise  .  .  Several 
French  priests  are  also  laboring  in  this  wilderness,  and  putting 
to  shame  their  efforts  after  self-aggrandizement  by  a  singleness 
of  purpose,  which  purpose  is  propagandisrn,  and  entire  devo 
tion  thereto."f  The  heathen  make  the  same  observation,  but 
comprehend,  unlike  Protestants,  the  lessons  which  such  facts 
inculcate.  God,  they  argue,  must  be  witli  those  upon  whom 
alone  He  confers  His  gifts.  And  they  hasten  to  seek  com 
munion  with  Him  and  them. 

But  if  the  candid  narratives  of  Messrs.  Lee  and  Frost,  Olin 
and  Nicolay,  Wilkes  and  Simpson,  reveal  the  true  character 
and  results  of  all  the  Protestant  missions  in  this  region,  we  must 
not  suppose  that  the  missionaries  themselves  admitted,  as  long 
as  they  had  any  hope  of  concealing  them.  Their  commercial 
and  agricultural  pursuits  ;  their  dealings  in  "  city  lots  ;"  their 
"horsekeeping,  lumbering,  and  flouring  ;"  were  too  importantly 
aided  by  their  ample  salaries  to  permit  them  to  indulge  in 
such  imprudent  candor.  They  sent  home,  therefore,  exactly 
the  same  periodical  reports  which  missionaries  of  the  same 
class  were  constantly  forwarding  from  every  other  land,  and 
which  the  societies  at  home  expected  and  required,  as  the  only- 
means  of  obtaining  a  fresh  stream  of  subscriptions.  Their 
employers  were  willing  to  forgive  them  any  thing,  even  the 
cupidity  which  had  made  them  "  odious  to  the  growing  popu 
lation,"  so  long  as  they  abstained  from  the  additional  and  un 
pardonable  crime  of  confessing  their  failure.  And  so,  in  1814, 
these  well-instructed  agents  wrote  home  thus  :  "  A  gradual  ad 
vance  in  Christian  knowledge  is  perceptible  !"J  They  knew 

*  The  Oregon  Territory,  by  Rev.  C.  J.  Nicolay,  ch.  vii.,  pp.  155,  177,  183,  184 
(1846). 

f  The  Oregon  Territory,  by  Alexander  Simpson,  Esq.,  p.  31  (1816). 
\  U.  S,  American  Board  for  Foreign  Missions,  Reports,  p.  212  (1844). 


266  CHAPTER   IX. 

it  was  untrue,  and  when  they  had  nothing  more  to  gain,  they 
crudely  confessed  it.  "  It  is  acknowledged  on  all  hands,"  we 
are  told  in  this  very  year,  by  two  of  their  number,  who  were 
candid  because  they  were  abandoning  the  hopeless  work, 
u  that  the  present  prospects  in  respect  to  civilizing  and  chris 
tianizing  these  natives  are  exceedingly  gloomy."*  But  this 
lid  not  prevent  the  missionary  societies  from  publishing  re 
ports  which  they  knew  to  be  false,  in  order  to  raise  fresh  means 
for  perpetuating  the  same  lamentable  schemes,  in  which  the 
agents,  as  they  had  already  ascertained,  were  only  sordid 
speculators,  merchants,  and  horse-dealers,  who  had  adopted  for 
a  season  the  title  of  missionaries.  Let  us  notice  a  few  examples 
of  their  inexhaustible  ingenuity. 

In  1843,  only  a  few  months  before  their  own  agents  confessed 
the  whole  truth, — it  is  by  a  careful  collation  of  dates  that  we 
learn  to  appreciate  the  fidelity  of  Protestant  missionary  reports, 
—the  bait  held  out  to  languid  subscribers  at  home  was  contained 
m  the  published  statement,  that  "  Mr.  Spalding,"  one  of  the 
Oregon  missionaries,  "  believes  a  considerable  number  have 
experienced  the  renewing  grace  of  God."f  Mr.  Spalding  be 
lieved  nothing  of  the  kind,  as  they  very  well  knew,  and  had 
such  excellent  reasons,  as  we  learn  from  American  writers,  for 
repudiating  the  opinion  imputed  to  him,  that  he  was  himself 
only  saved  by  tae  influence  of  a  Catholic  missionary,  at  the 
risk  of  his  own  life,  from  being  slaughtered  by  the  homicidal 
fury  of  these  "  renewed"  savages."  "  For  this,"  we  are  told, 
"  he  was  indebted  to  the  timely  aid  and  advice  of  the  Rev. 
Mr.  Brouillet,  of  the  Roman  Catholic  mission.  .  .  his  Catholic 
friend  assisting  him  from  his  own  small  stock  of  provisions. "J 
For  two  days  the  Indians  appear  to  have  pursued  him,  but 
without  success,  Father  Brouillet  having  nobly  exposed  his  own 
life  by  putting  them  on  a  wrong  scent,  a  trick  which  only  their 
respect  for  him  induced  them  to  pardon.  But  he  was  too  late 
to  prevent  the  massacre  of  Dr.  Whitman  and  his  wife,  by  the 
Cayoux  Indians,  and  "the  entire  destruction  of  Wai-let-pu 
mission,"  consisting  of  fourteen  members,  over  which  that 
unfortunate  gentleman  presided.  AIL  he  could  effect  was  to 
rescue  their  bodies  from  further  dishonor  ;  and  Mr.  Paul 
Kane,  who  had  been  the  guest  of  Dr.  Whitman  just  before  thia 
lamentable  event,  relates  that  "  the  Catholic  priest  requested 
permission  to  bury  the  mangled  corpses,  which  he  did," — here 
Air.  Kane  is  certainly  mistaken, — u  with  the  rites  of  his  own 


*  Lee  and  Frost,  ch.  xxiii.,  pp.  215,  311. 

\  Reports,  p.  171  (1843). 

J  Traits  of  American  Indian  Life,  ch.  vi.,  p.  121. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  267 

Church.  The  permission  was  granted  the  more  readily,  as 
these  Indians  are  friendly  towards  the  Catholic  missionaries."* 
"This  terminated  the  mission,"  says  the  Rev.  Dr.  Brown, 
"  among  the  Indians  west  of  the  Rocky  Mountains,  "f  Such 
is  the  instructive  history  from  which  we  may  appreciate,  not 
only  the  relative  influence  of  Catholic  and  Protestant  mission 
aries,  but  the  immoral  fictions  by  which  the  revenues  of  Prot 
estant  "  societies"  are  annually  recruited. 

Eighty  miles  from  the  Dalles,  by  the  banks  of  the  A  tin  am, 
another  mission  is  thus  described  by  a  Protestant  traveller 
from  Boston,  who  had  learned  to  despise  what  he  calls  "  the 
crude  and  cruel  Hebraism"  of  his  Puritan  forefathers.  "  The 
sun  was  just  setting  as  we  came  over  against  it  on  the  hill 
side.  We  dashed  down  into  the  valley,  that  moment  aban 
doned  by  sunlight.  My  Indians  launched  forward  to  pay  their 
friendly  greeting  to  the  priests.  But  I  observed  them  quickly 
pause,  walk  their  horses,  and  noiselessly  dismount. 

"As  I  drew  near,  a  sound  of  reverent  voices  met  me, — ves 
pers  at  this  station  in  the  wilderness!  Three  souls  were  wor 
shipping  in  the  rude  chapel  attached  to  the  house.  It  was 
rude,  indeed, — a  cell  of  clay, — but  a  sense  of  the  Divine  pres 
ence  was  there,  not  less  than  in  many  dim  old  cathedrals,  far 
away,  where  earlier  sunset  had  called  worshippers  of  other 
race  and  tongue  to  breathe  the  same  thanksgiving  and  the 

same  heartfelt  prayer Never  in  any  temple  of  that 

ancient  faith,  where  prayer  has  made  its  home  for  centuries, 
has  prayer  seemed  so  mighty,  worship  so  near  the  ear  of  God, 
as  vespers  here,  at  this  rough  shrine  in  the  lonely  valley  of 
Atinam." 

A  friendly  welcome  greeted  the  Protestant  traveller,  who 
thus  sums  up  his  reflections  on  this  church  in  the  wilderness : 
"A  strange  and  unlovely  spot  for  religion  to  have  chosen  for 
its  home  of  influence.  It  needed  all  the  transfiguring  power 
of  sunset  to  make  this  desolate  scene  endurable.  The  mission 
was  a  hut-like  structure  of  adobe  clay,  plastered  upon  a  frame 
of  sticks.  It  stood  near  the  stony  bed  of  the  Atinam."  Here 
dwelt  two  Fathers  of  the  Society  of  Jesus,  "  cultivated  and 
intellectual  missionaries,"  who  had  forsaken  all  to  labor  among 
the  Yakimah  Indians.  "The  good  Fathers  were  lodged  with 
more  than  conventual  simplicity.  Discomfort,  and  often  pri 
vation,  were  the  laws  of  missionary  life  in  this  lonely  spot. 
Drearily  monotonous  were  the  days  of  these  pioneers.  There 

*  Wanderings  of  an  Artist  among  the  Indians  of  North  America,  cli.  xxi., 
p.  320. 
f  Hist.  Prop.  Christianity,  vol.  iii.,  p.  155. 


268  CHAPTER   IX. 

was  little  intellectual  exercise  to  be  had,  except  to  construct 
a  vocabulary  of  the  Yakimah  dialect."  .  .  .  And  the  traveller, 
familiar  with  missionaries  of  another  order,  marvelled  greatly 
that  such  men  could  accept  such  an  existence.* 

But  there  were  many  other  missions  in  these  distant  regions, 
conducted  like  that  on  the  Atinam,  by  men  who  were  not 
anxious  about  "  means  of  subsistence,"  knew  nothing  of  "lum 
bering"  or  "  city  lots,"  and  who  have  succeeded,  after  long 
and  patient  toil,  in  converting  multitudes  of  the  very  tribes 
with  whom  the  Protestant  agents,  as  their  own  friends  have 
told  us,  would  have  .nothing  at^all  to  do."  We  have  seen,  by 
their  own  confession,  how  speedily  the  latter  abandoned  the 
Flatheads ;  let  us  inquire  how  the  Catholic  missionaries  fared 
amongst  them. 


KOOKY   MOUNTAINS. 


The  Fathers  of  the  Society  of  Jesus  entered  twenty  years  ago 
the  territories  which  lie  to  the  west  of  the  Rocky  Mountains 
Here  such  men  as  de  Smet  and  Hoecken,  Dufour  and  Ver- 
haegen,  have  emulated  the  courage  and  fortitude  which  for 
more  than  three  centuries  have  been  a  tradition  in  their 
Society.  When  Father  de  Smet,  a  name  honored  throughout 
Christendom,  presented  himself  to  the  Flatheads,  they  had 
already  acquired  some  knowledge  of  Christian  truth  from  a 
band  of  Catholic  Cherokees,  who  had  been  driven  from  their 
own  hunting-grounds,  and  found  a  refuge  with  the  Flatheads. 
The  hospitality  of  the  latter  was  to  be  nobly  recompensed. 
"  During  twenty  years,"  says  Father  de  Smet,  "  according  to 
the  counsel  of  the  poor  Cherokees^  who  had  established  them 
selves  amongst  them,  they  had  approached,  as  much  as  possible, 
towards  our  "articles  of  belief,  ojnr  morals,  and  even  our  religious 
practices.  In  the  course  of  ten  years,  three  deputations  had 
the  courage  to  travel  as  far  as  St.  Louis,  that  is  to  say,  to  cross 
more  than  three  thousand  miles  of  valleys  and  mountains, 
infested  with  Black-Feet  and  other  enemies.  At  length  their 
prayers  were  heard,  and  beyond  their  hopes."f 

The  Christian  Cherokee's,  solicitous  to  impart  their  own 
blessings  to  others,  had  done  what  they  could,  and  their  work 
was  now  to  be  completed.  In  October,  1841,  Father  de  Smet 

*  Advejitures  among  the  NortJi-Weste™  Rivers  and  Forests,  by  Theodore 
Winthrop ;  ch.  xi.,  pp.  225,  232  (Boston,  1803). 
\  Annals,  vol.  iv.,  p.  231. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  269 

could  already  give  the  following  report :  "  All  that  is  passing 
before  our  eyes  in  the  Rocky  Mountains  strengthens  us  in  the 
hope,  which  we  have  long  since  conceived,  of  seeing  once  more 
a  new  Paraguay,  flourishing  under  the  shadow  of  the  Cross, 

with  all  its  marvels  and  affecting  recollections What 

proves  to  me  that  this  pleasing  imagination  is  not  merely  a 
dream,  is,  that  at  the  moment  while  I  write  these  lines,  the 
noisy  voices  of  our  carpenters,  and  the  smith  whose  hammer 
is  ringing  on  the  anvil,  announces  to  me  that  we  are  no  longer 
projecting  the  foundations,  but  fixing  the  roof,  of  the  house  of 
prayer.  This  very  day,  the  representatives  of  twenty-four  dif 
ferent  tribes  assisted  at  our  instructions ;  while  three  savages, 
of  the  tribe  of  the  Occurs-d"* Alene,  who  had  heard  of  the  hap 
piness  of  the  Flatheads,  came  to  entreat  us  to  have  compas 
sion  upon  them  also."  In  spite  of  these  successes,  and  of  still 
greater  ones  to  be  noticed  presently,  there  will  be  no  new 
Paraguay  in  Oregon,  for  a  reason  which  the  course  of  this  nar 
rative  will  sufficiently  indicate. 

Of  the  converted  Flatheads,  the  same  missionary  gives  an 
account,  full  of  interest  and  importance,  but  which  we  are 
compelled  to  abbreviate,  and  which  shall  be  confirmed  imme 
diately  by  Protestant  evidence.  "  They  never  attack  any  one," 
he  says,  "but  woe  to  him  who  unjustly  provokes  them."  In 
other  words,  in  becoming  good  Catholics  they  have  not  ceased 
to  be  valiant  warriors.  On  one  occasion  they  were  assaulted 
by  a  band  of  a  thousand  Black-Feet.  "  Already  the  enemy 
poured  down  upon  them,  while  they  were  on  their  knees, 
offering  to  the  Great  Spirit  all  the  prayers  they  knew,  for  the 
chief  had  said,  'Let  us  not  rise  until  we  have  well  prayed."1 
The  fight  lasted  five  successive  days,  when  the  Black-Feet 
retired,  leaving  the  ground  strewed  with  their  dead  and 
wounded. 

And  these  brave  Flatheads,  whose  chief,  says  Father  de 
Srnet,  "considered  as  a  warrior  and  a  Christian,  might  be 
compared  with  the  noblest  characters  of  ancient  chivalry," 
are  as  remarkable,  in  his  judgment,  for  their  virtues  as  for  their 
valor.  "I  have  spoken  of  the  simplicity  and  courage  of 
the  F  lathe  ads ;  what  more  shall  I  say?  that  their  disinter 
estedness,  generosity,  and  rare  devotedness  towards  their 
brethren  and  friends,  their  probity  and  morality,  are  irre 
proachable  and  exemplary ;  that  quarrels,  injuries,  divisions, 
enmities,  are  unknown  amongst  them.  I  will  add,  that  all 
these  qualities  are  already  naturalized  in  them  through  mo 
tives  of  faith.  What  exactness  do  they  show  in  frequenting 
the  offices  of  religion !  What  recollection  in  tto  house  of 
prayer !  What  attention  to  the  catechism !  What  fervor 


270  CHAPTER   IX. 

in  prayer!  What  humility,  especially  when  they  relate  actions 
which  may  do  them  honor!"*  The  Protestant  governor  of 
the  State  will  presently  give  us  his  testimony  on  the  same 
subject. 

Elsewhere  he  says :  "Often  we  remark  old  men,  even  chiefs, 
seated  beside  a  child  ten  or  twelve  years  old,  paying  for  hours 
the  attention  of  a  docile  scholar  to  these  precocious  instructors, 
who  teach  them  the  prayers,  and  explain  to  them  the  principal 
events  of  the  Old  and  New  Testament."  And  once  more.  On 
Christmas  Eve,  1843,  "Fathers  Mengarini  and  Zertinati  had 
the  happiness  of  seeing,  at  the  midnight  Mass,  almost  the  whole 
nation  of  the  Flatheads  approach  the  Holy  Table.  Twelve 
little  musicians,  trained  by  Father  Mengarini,  performed  with 
admirable  precision  several  pieces  of  the  best  German  and 
Italian  composers.  The  history  of  this  tribe  is  known  to  you  ; 
its  conversion  is  certainly  well  calculated  to  show  forth  the 
inexhaustible  riches  of  the  Divine  mercy.*'f  Such  was  the 
work  of  Catholic  missionaries  among  a  tribe  whom  the  Prot 
estants  had  abandoned,  because  "  the  means  of  subsistence  were, 
to  say  the  least,  very  doubtful." 

It  is  not  uninteresting  to  learn  how  the  apostles  who  had 
once  more  accomplished  such  a  triumph  as  this  were  content  to 
live,  in  the  earlier  years  of  the  mission,  among  their  wild  flock. 
The  "  means  of  subsistence,"  about  which  our  Lord  enjoined 
His  disciples,  and  principally  such  as  were  to  teach  others,  to 
"  take  no  thought,"  were  meagre  and  precarious.  The  Prot 
estant  ministers,  who  loved  not  this  distasteful  precept,  had 
promptly  made  the  discovery,  and  fled  away  to  more  genial 
regions.  Father  de  Smet,  who  might  have  been  taking  his 
ease  in  his  own  fair  land,  gayly  describes  what  he  calls  "  a  sup 
per,"  which  he  ate  with  his  disciples,  and  which  "  consisted 
of  a  little  flour,  a  few  roots  of  camash" — a  species  of  wild 
onion, — "  and  a  bit  of  buffalo  grease.  The  whole  was  flung 
together  into  the  cauldron,  to  form  a  single  ragout.  A  long 
pole,  for  the  heat  kept  us  at  a  respectful  distance,  was  trans 
formed  into  a  ladle,  which  it  was  necessary  to  turn  continually, 
until  the  contents  of  the  kettle  had  acquired  the  proper  thick 
ness.  We  considered  the  dish  delicious!  We  had  but  one 
porringer  for  six  guests.  But  necessity  makes  man  industrious. 
in  the  twinkling  of  an  eye  my  Indians  were  ready  for  the 
attack  on  the  cauldron.  Two  of  them  provided  with  bits  of 
bark,  two  others  with  bits  of  leather,  the  fifth  armed  with  a 
tortoise-shell,  plunged  again  and  again  into  the  cauldron  with 

*  IV.,  353. 
f  VII,  360. 


MISSIONS  IN  AMERICA.  271 

the  skill  and  regularity  of  a  smith  beating  on  his  anvil.  It  was 
soon  drained." 

At  another  time,  by  way  of  varying  their  delicacies,  it  was 
"  wild  roots  and  moss-cakes,  as  hard  as  dried  glne,"  which 
furnished  their  table,  and  of  which  a  broth  was  composed 
"  which  has  the  appearance  and  taste  of  soap."  But  enough  of 
these  trivial  hardships,  to  which  the  missionaries  rarely  refer, 
and  then  only  by  way  of  jest. 

The  Flatheads  were  not  the  only  tribe  won  to  Christianity 
by  the  Jesuits  in  this  remote  western  world.  When  they  had 
been  gathered  into  the  fold,  Father  de  Smet  started  for 
Columbia ;  where,  as  Sir  George  Simpson  has  told  us,  the 
Protestant  missionaries  "soon  ascertained  that  they  could  gain 
converts  only  by  buying  them."  The  Jesuits,  like  St.  Peter, 
had  "  neither  silver  nor  gold  ;"  but  they  worked,  as  he  did,  "  in 
the  name  of  Jesus  of  Nazareth,"  and  with  similar  fruits. 
"During  the  journey,"  says  Father  de  Smet,  "which  lasted 
forty-two  days,  I  baptized  one  hundred  and  ninety  persons, 
twenty-six  of  whom  had  arrived  at  extreme  old  age.  I  announced 
the  word  of  God  to  more  than  two  thousand  Indians,  who  will 
not  delay,  I  hope,  to  place  themselves  under  the  standard  of 
Jesus  Christ."  And  then  he  relates  an  anecdote  of  a  certain 
Protestant,  a  Mr.  Parkers,  one  of  that  class  who  have  inflicted 
so  much  injury  upon  the  heathen  in  every  land.  This  gentleman 
had  wilfully  broken  a  cross,  erected  over  the  grave  of  an  Indian 
child,  and  had  announced  that  he  did  it  "because  lie  did  not 
wish  to  leave  in  this  country  a  monument  of  idolatry,  set  up  in 
passing  l>y  some  Catholic  C/ierokees"  "  Poor  man !"  says 
Father  de  Smet,  "  if  he  now  returned  to  these  mountains,  he 
would  hear  the  praises  of  the  Holy  Name  of  Jesus  resounding 
on  the  banks  of  the  rivers  and  lakes  ;  in  the  prairies  as  well  as 
in  the  bosom  of  the  forests ;  he  would  see  the  Cross  planted 
from  shore  to  shore,  over  a  space  of  three  hundred  leagues, 
commanding  the  loftiest  summits  of  the  Cceurs-cVAlene,  and 
the  principal  chain  which  separates  the  waters  of  the  Missouri 
from  those  of  the  Columbia  ;  and  saluted  with  respect  in  the 
valleys  of  Wallamette,  of  Cowlitz,  and  of  the  Bitter-Root.  At 
the  moment  that  I  write,  Father  Demers  has  gone  to  carry  it 
to  the  different  nations  of  Caledonia ;  everywhere  the  word  of 
Him  who  has  said  that  this  glorious  sign  would  attract  men  to 
Him  begins  to  be  verified  in  favor  of  the  poor  sheep  so  long 
wandering  over  the  vast  American  continent.  Would  that  this 
cross-breaker  might  pass  again  through  these  same  places.  He 
would  see  the  image  of  Jesus  suspended  from  the  necks  of 
more  than  four  thousand  Indians;  and  the  youngest  child, 
who  is  but  learning  the  catechism,  would  tell  him,  '  Mr. 


272  CHAPTER    IX. 

Parkers,  it  is  God  alone  whom  we  adore,  and  not  the  cross;  do  not 
break  it,  for  it  reminds  us  that  a  God  has  died  to  save  us.'  "* 

Father  de  Srriet,  whom  we  must  now  quit,  has  been  joined 
since  that  date  by  many  fellow-laborers  of  his  own  school. 
In  1852,  lie  could  already  report,  speaking  only  of  his  per 
sonal  toils  amongst  the  Indians  west  of  the  Rocky  Mount 
ains,  "  The  total  number  of  baptisms  administered  by  me  in 
the  different  tribes  amounts  to  one  thousand  five  hundred 
and  eighty-six."  And  he  was  then  contemplating  a  still 
more  perilous  ministry.  "  The  account  which  I  receive  of 
the  dispositions  of  the  Black-Feet"  he  says  in  one  of  his 
letters,  "  is  frightful.  ...  I  place  all  my  confidence  in  the 
Lord,  who  can  change,  at  His  good  pleasure,  and  soften  these 
implacable  hearts.  My  business  is  to  carry  the  Gospel  to  the 
very  places  where  the  excursions  of  these  marauders  are  most 
frequent.  No  consideration  can  turn  me  aside  from  this 
project."f  It  appears  to  have  been  at  least  partially  executed, 
as  we  learn  incidentally  from  the  following  statement  in  an 
English  journal :  "  An  interesting  marriage  ceremony  has  been 
recently  performed  at  Illinois.  The  parties  were  Major  Culbert- 
son,  the  well-known  Indian  trader  and  agent  of  the  American 
Fur  Company,  and  Natowista,  daughter  of  the  chief  of  the 
Blackfoot  Indians.  .  .  .  They  were  married  a  few  days  since 
by  Father  Scanden,  of  St.  Joseph's,  Missouri,  according  to  the 
ritual  of  the  Catholic  Church.  Mrs.  Culbertson  is  said  to  be  a 
person  of  fine  native  talent,  and  has  been  at  times  a  very 
successful  mediator  between  the  American  government  and  the 
nation  to  which  she  belongs."^ 

The  Potawattomies  are  another  tribe  who  have  accepted  in 
great  numbers  the  teaching  of  the  Catholic  missionaries.  At 
the  request  of  their  chiefs,  Father  Yerhaegen  did  not  hesitate  to 
present  in  person  to  the  government  at  Washington  the  petition 
which  they  had  intrusted  to  him.  Fortified  by  the  generous 
co-operation  of  General  Clark,  agent  for  Indian  affairs  in  the 
district  west  of  the  Mississippi,  this  missionary  commenced  his 
labors  among  them,  accompanied  by  Father  lioecken.  They 
had  peremptorily  rejected,  like  the  Omahas,  and  many  other 
tribes,  th,e  Protestant  teachers  offered  to  them  by  the  govern 
ment.  They  had  detected,  as  Father  de  Smet  observes,  that 
"  the  chief  solicitude  of  the  ministers  is  reserved  for  their  com 
mercial  speculations,  and  when  they  have  amassed  large  profits, 
they  return  to  their  native  country,  under  pretence  that  there  is 
nothing  to  be  done  among  the  savages." 

*  IV.,  367. 

f  An.  vii.,  382  ;  xiii.,  319. 

%  Weekly  Register,  October  15,  1850. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  273 

Twelve  months  after  Father  Hoecken  had  entered  the  ter 
ritory  of  the  Potawattomies  lie  could  give  this  description  of 
them  :  "  They  are  sincerely  attached  to  the  practices  of  reli 
gion,  respectful  towards  the  missionaries,  assiduous  in  approach 
ing,  at  least  every  three  weeks,  the  sacred  tribunal' (of  penance) 
arid  the  Holy  Table.  Scarcely  a  day  passes  that  some  one  of 
them  is  not  seen  approaching  one  of  those  sacraments.  On 
festivals,  the  number  of  those  who  receive  Holy  Communion 
varies  from  twenty  to  thirty."  Already  more  than  a  thousand 
Potawattomies  professed  the  Catholic  faith  ;  and  the  same  mis 
sionary  adds,  that  they  manifest  "  an  entire  obedience,  not 
only  to  the  commands  of  the  priest,  but  to  the  slightest  intima 
tion  of  his  wishes.""* 

Yet  these  missionaries  were,  if  possible,  poorer  than  the 
savages  themselves,  willingly  accepted  their  humble  food  and 
lodging,  and  abased  themselves  to  share  their  daily  life.  "  For 
myself,"  says  Father  Hoecken,  in  one  of  his  letters  to  a  member 
of  the  same  society,  "  I  have  no  other  wish  than  to  live  among 
the  Indians,  and  to  find  on  the  other  side  of  the  Rocky  Mount 
ains  the  spot  from  which  I  am  to  rise  at  the  last  day." 

The  same  apostolic  missionary,  though  he  would  have  dis 
played  only  charity  and  courtesy  towards  the  men  who  had 
abandoned  in  disgust  the  work  to  which  he  had  devoted  his  life, 
gives  this  account  of  the  reception  which  they  experience  from 
the  Indians:  "The  Protestant  ministers  have  endeavored  to 
obtain  followers  among  these  savages,  but  their  efforts  have 
not  been  attended  with  success.  Instead  of  listening  to  them, 
they  are  questioned,  and  put  to  a  severe  examination.  'Where 
is  your  wife?'  said  an  Indian  to  one  of  them;  a  gesture  was 
the  only  answer  of  the  minister,  who  pointed  with  a  finger  to 
his  residence  where  his  wife  was.  '  Your  dress,  no  doubt,' 
continued  the  savage,  'is  a  black  robe?' — 'jSTo,'  replied  the 
minister,  'I  do  not  wear  one.'  'Do  you  say  Mass?' — 'Oh, 
never,'  answered  the  minister  eagerly.  *  Do  you  wear  the  ton 
sure?' — 'No.'  'Then,'  they  all  exclaimed  together,  'you  may 
go  back  from  whence  you  came.'"')' 

The  Winnebagoes  display  the  same  dispositions.  Father 
Cretin  relates  that  they  have  repeatedly  petitioned  the  govern 
ment  authorities  to  send  them  Catholic  priests,  but  that  their 
prayer  was  always  answered  by  an  embassy  of  Protestant 
ministers.  When  a  treaty  was  negotiated  in  1845  between 

*  An  English  gentleman  who  lately  visited  a  large  Potawattomie  village, 
several  days'  journey  beyond  the  Missouri,  found  that  "  they  were  all  of  them 
educated  in  the  Roman  Catholic  faith."  The  English  Sportsman  in  the  West 
ern  Prairies,  by  the  Hon.  Grantley  F.  Berkeley,  ch.  xix.,  p.  320  (1861). 

f  II,  40. 

VOL.  II  19 


274:  CHAPTER   IX. 

this  tribe  and  the  United  Spates,  a  solemn  assembly  was  con 
vened,  and  the  Governor  of  Wisconsin  unfolded  the  terms 
which  he  was  commissioned  to  offer  them.  Their  territory 
consisted  of  two  million  three  hundred  thousand  acres  of  ex 
cellent  land,. watered  by  six  considerable  rivers.  This  magnifi 
cent  tract  they  were  asked  to  abandon,  the  invitation  being 
equivalent  to  a  command,  for  a  recompense  which  they  neither 
wished  to  accept  nor  dared  to  refuse.  After  a  day's  delibera 
tion,  the  Indians  again  met  the  governor,  prepared  to  give  a 
reply  to  his  proposals.  Wdkoo^  an  aged  chief,  the  most  cele 
brated  orator  of  the  tribe,  rose  to  speak  in  the  name  of  his 
nation,  "  a  large  crucifix  glistening  on  his  breast."  From  his 
noble  address  we  extract  the  following  words : 

"  If  I  alone  speak  to-day,  far  be  it  from  you  to  suppose  that 
I  am  the  only  one  able  to  express  the  feelings  of  my  tribe. 
All  the  chiefs  here  present  know  how  to  make  known  their 
thoughts,  but  being  accustomed  from  my  youth  to  speak  in  the 
councils  of  my  nation,  I  have  been  chosen  as  the  eldest  to 
defend,  in  the  name  of  all,  our  common  interests.  Thou  comest 
on  the  part  of  our  great  father  (the  President)  to  demand  the 
cession  of  our  territory.  But  can  he  have  forgotten  the  mag 
nificent  promises  which,  on  two  different  occasions,  he  gave 
me  at  Washington  ?  I  remember  them,  for  my  part,  as  if  they 
had  been  spoken  only  to-day.  .  .  .  '  Depend  upon  me,'  said 
our  great  father,  '  I  will  always  defend  you.  You  shall  be  my 
children.  If  any  wrong  be  done  to  you,  address  yourselves 
always  to  me.  Your  causes  of  complaint  shall  cease  so  soon 
as  they  shall  be  known  to  me,  and  I  will  defend  you.'  And  I, 
a  child  of  nature,  who  have  but  one  tongue,  believed  in  the 
sincerity  of  these  promises.  Yet,  m  spite  of  our  remonstrance, 
all  our  affairs  have  been  arranged  without  our  being  even  con 
sulted.  They  have  sent  away  agents  whom  we  loved,  to  give 
us  others,  without  asking  our  opinion.  We  have  forwarded 
petitions,  to  which  no  attention  has  been  paid.  They  promised 
us  that  they  would  leave  us  always  the  lands  which  we  occupy, 
and  already  they  wish  to  send  us  I  know  not  where.  My 
brother,  thou  art  our  friend.  Tell  our  great  father,  that  his 
children  require  a  longer  halt  here,  before  they  enter  on  the 
path  of  a  new  exile.  The  tree  which  is  continually  trans 
planted  must  quickly  perish" 

Here  the  orator  interrupted  himself,  to  notice  the  charges 
brought  against  his  tribe  as  a  pretext  for  "dispensing  with 
justice  towards  them,"  and  for  palliating  the  tyranny  of  which 
they  were  to  be  victims.  "Why,"  said  he,  "reproach  us  with 
vices  which  you  have  yourselves  encouraged  ?  Why  come  to 
the  very  door  of  our  tents  to  tempt  us  with  your  fire-water  ?" 


MISSIONS  IN  AMERICA.  275 

And  then  he  went  on  thus :  "  Our  great  father  has  said  to  us, 
4 1  will  send  to  you  men  who  will  teach  you  how  to  live  well.' 
These  men  have  come,  but  though  they  are  tolerably  good,  our 
young  men  do  not  listen  to  them  any  better  than  to  ourselves ; 
we  wish  for  Catholic  priests.  They  will  make  themselves 
heard,  be  assured  of  it.  I  take  God  to  witness  that  what  I  say 
expresses  the  wishes  of  my  nation."  And  then  he  sat  down  amid 
the  applause  of  the  assembled  chiefs.* 

We  have  seen,  in  every  chapter  of  this  work,  the  triumphs 
of  Catholic  missionaries  attested  by  the  unsuspicious  evidence 
of  Protestant  witnesses.  Here  is  their  testimony  to  the  same 
order  of  facts  in  the  valleys  of  the  Rocky  Mountains.  In  1855, 
Governor  Stephens  forwarded  to  the  President  of  the  United 
States  an  official  report  on  the  territory  committed  to  his 
charge,  to  which  the  President  himself  referred  in  his  annual 
"  Message  to  Congress."  Of  the  Flatheads  he  speaks  as  fol 
lows  :  "  They  are  the  best  Indians  in  the  territory,  honest, 
brave,  and  docile.  They  profess  the  Christian  religion,  and  I 
am  assured  that  they  live  according  to  the  precepts  of  the 
Gospel."  After  describing  their  manner  of  life,  the  same 
authority  adds,  that  they  are  "sincere  and  faithful,"  and 
"strongly  attached  to  their  religious  convictions"-^ 

Of  the  tribe  called  Pend-(T Oreilles,  Governor  Stephens 
observes,  that  the  mission  established  among  them  has  been 
in  existence  nine  years,  and  that  for  a  long  time  the  mission 
aries  lived  in  huts,  and  fed  on  roots.  "They  have  now  a 
church,"  he  says,  "of  which  all  the  ornaments  are  so  well 
executed,  that  one  is  tempted  to  suppose  they  must  have  been 
imported  ;"  yet  they  are  entirely  the  work  of  the  missionaries 
and  their  neophytes.  "  When  the  missionaries  arrived,"  he 
adds,  "  these  Indians  were  impoverished,  wretched,  and  almost 
destitute  of  clothes.  They  were  in  the  habit  of  burying  alive 
both  the  aged  and  infant  children.  At  this  day  almost  the 
entire  tribe  belongs  to  the  Saviour's  fold.  I  have  seen  them 
assembled  at  prayer,  and  it  appears  to  me  that  these  savages 
are,  in  every  respect,  in  the  way  of  true  progress.  These 
Indians  have  a  great  veneration  for  their  Fathers,  the  Blabk 
Kobes.  They  say  if  the  missionaries  were  to  leave  them,  it 
would  certainly  cause  their  death."  He  then  praises  their 
habits  of  industry,  and  adds,  that  while  the  Fathers  have 
brought  one  hundred  and  sixty  acres  under  cultivation,  "the 
produce  of  the  harvest  belongs  to  the  Indians,  because  very 

*  VI.,  364. 

f  Quoted  in  the  work  entitled,  Oinquante  Nouvettes  Lettres  du  J?.  P.  de  8mett 
i-p  293  ct  seq.  (Paris,  1858). 


276  CHAPTER  IX. 

little  suffices  for  the  wants  of  the  missionaries."  Finally,  after 
noticing  their  "pious  fervor,"  the  Governor  remarks,  that  "re 
ligion  has  destroyed  the  state  of  slavery  in  which  woman 
groans  in  all  the  unbelieving  tribes." 

Of  the  Cmurs-cPAUtie,  of  whom  there  are  five  hundred 
Christians,  the  same  official  reports  thus:  "Thanks  to  the 
labors  of  these  good  Fathers,  they  have  made  great  progress 
in  agriculture.  Instructed  in  the  Christian  religion,  they  have 
abandoned  polygamy ;  their  morals  have  become  pure,  and 
their  conduct  edifying.  The  work  effected  l>y  the  missionaries 
is  really  prodigious.  There  is  a  magnificent  church,  almost 
finished,  entirely  built  by  the  Fathers,  the  Brothers,  and  the 
Indians." 

Lastly,  he  declares  of  the  Potawattomies,  among  whom 
Father  Iloecken  desired  to  live  and  die,  and  who  are  one 
of  the  latest  conquests  of  the  children  of  St.  Ignatius,  "  they 
are  hardly  Indians  now  /"  Such,  by  Protestant  testimony,  are 
the  works  of  men  by  whom  the  Most  High  delights  to  display 
His  power,  and  whom  He  fills  with  the  abundant  graces  by 
which  alone  apostolic  victories  are  gained.  And  as  this 
favored  tribe  has  found  in  the  Fathers  of  the  Society  of 
Jesus  masters  and  doctors,  from  whom  they  have  received 
"  the  promise  of  the  life  that  now  is,  as  well  as  of  that  which  is 
to  come ;"  so  their  daughters,  once  half-naked  savages,  doomed 
to  bondage  and  degradation,  have  become  the  pupils  of  those 
Sisters  of  the  Sacred  Heart  of  Jesus,  who  have  not  feared  to 
traverse  an  ocean  and  a  continent,  that  they  might  carry 
religion  and  civilization  to  the  most  hidden  recesses  of  the 
Rocky  Mountains,  and  dispense  in  their  obscure  valleys  the 
same  instruction  which  the  noblest  of  other  races  receive  at 
their  hands  in  all  the  capitals  of  Europe. 


BRITISH    COLUMBIA. 

In  the  year  1862,  two  British  officers,  whose  frank  but  inof 
fensive  Protestantism  colors  every  chapter  of  their  works, 
assist  us  to  trace,  in  Vancouver's  Island  and  British  Columbia, 
the  contrast  which  witnesses  of  the  same  class  have  detected  in 
the  other  provinces  of  Western  America.  It  is  right  to  add 
that  nothing  was  further  from  their  intention  than  to  do  what 
they  have  unwittingly  done. 

"The  close  contiguity  of  the  Songhies  Indians  to  Victoria," 
says  Commander  Mayne,  "  is  seriously  inconvenient ;"  and  the 
sentiment  was  so  universal  among  the  English  authorities,  that 


MISSIONS   IN    AMERICA.  277 

the  colonial  legislature,  he  adds,  has  already  devised  "  various 
plans  for  removing  them  to  a  distance."  To  get  the  natives  out 
of  their  way  was,  therefore,  the  first  thought  of  these  British 
colonists. 

"  In  consequence  of  their  intercourse  with  the  whites,"  con 
tinues  the  same  authority,  "  this  tribe  has  become  the  most 
degraded  in  the  whole  island,"  or,  as  he  observes  in  another 
place,  "  the  most  debased  and  demoralized  of  all  the  Indians." 
In  these  two  reports  he  unconsciously  records  the  prompt  and 
invariable  results  of  Protestant  colonization.*" 

"  The  Cowichens,"  we  learn  from  this  gentleman,  "  are  rather 
a  fine  and  somewhat  powerful  tribe,  numbering  between  three 
thousand  and  four  thousand  souls;"  but  "  the  Nanaimo  Indians, 
who  at  one  time  were  just  as  favorably  spoken  of,  have  fallen 
off  much  since  the  white  settlement  at  that  place  has  increased." 
Now  the  Nanaimos  have  sunk  morally  by  contact  with  Prot 
estants,  while  the  superiority  of  the  Cowichens,  we  are  told  by 
Captain  Barrett  Lennard,  is  owing  to  their  conversion  to  the 
Catholic  faith.  "  The  missionaries  of  the  Romish  Church," 
says  that  officer,  "have  long  labored  assiduously  among  these 
different  Indian  tribes,  and  with  considerable  apparent  success, 
in  some  instances,  especially  among  the  Cowichens,  a  good 
many  of  whom  attend  Mass  in  the  little  chapel  of  the  mission." 
lie  adds,  indeed,  that  u  there  is  now  a  very  effective  staff  of 
Protestant  missionaries  in  Vancouver,"  but  his  sympathy  with 
their  projects  does  not  impel  him  to  say  a  word  about  their 
disciples,  nor  even  to  inform  us  if  they  have  any.f 

At  the  mouth  of  the  Harrison  River,  Captain  Lennard  found 
the  tribe  of  the  Skaholets.  "These  Indians,"  he  observes,  in 
reluctant  and  somewhat  ungenerous  phrase,  "make  a  great 
profession  of  their  adherence  to  the  Roman  Catholic  faith," — a 
sufficient  proof  that  at  least  they  are  not  indifferent  to  it. 
They  were  very  exact,  he  confesses,  in  the  due  observance  of 
Sunday,  earnest  in  rejecting  "any  kind  of  intoxicating  drink," 
and  both  brave  and  industrious,  as  his  own  account  of  their 
habits  sufficiently  indicates. J 

Near  Fort  Hope  he  visits  the  Turn-Sioux  Indians,  and, 
though  no  missionary  was  then  with  them,  he  finds  "  a  party 
of  Indians,  to  the  number  of  thirty  or  forty,  engaged  in  bowing 
and  crossing  themselves  in  the  intervals  of  chanting."  Most 
Protestants  would  probably  give  much  the  same  account  of  a 

*  Four  Tears  in  British  Columbia  and  Vancouver  Island,  by  Commander 
R.  C.  Mayne,  R.N.,  F.R.G.S.,  ch.  ii.,  p.  30  (1862). 

f  Travels  in  British  Columbia,  by  Capt.  C.  E.  Barrett  Lennard,  ch.  iv.,  p.  57 
(1862). 

\  Ch.  x.,  p.  143. 


278  CHAPTER   IX. 

Catholic  congregation  in  Paris  or  London.  "  I  doubt,"  he 
adds,  "  whether  these  poor  savages  attached  any  particular 
meaning  or  significance  to  any  of  the  rites  and  ceremonies  in 
the  performance  of  which  they  were  engaged."*  It  was  per 
haps  only  to  pass  away  the  time  that  they  were  secretly  occu 
pied  in  chanting  hymns,  and  in  what  Captain  Lennard  calls 
"  bowing  and  crossing  themselves,"  though  it  was  certainly  an 
unusual  mode  of  recreation  for  savages.  Protestant  witnesses  of 
this  school  are  invaluable.  Their  utter  inability  to  comprehend 
the  most  impressive  phenomena,  and  their  diligent  perversion  of 
the  simplest  facts,  only  lend  additional  force  to  their  testimony. 

Commander  Mayne,  who  is  more  copious  in  details,  gives  us 
the  following  information.  "While  in  Henry  Bay  we  witnessed 
the  arrival  of  some  Roman  Catholic  priests,  which  caused  the 
greatest  excitement  among  the  natives.  They  were  scattered 
in  all  directions,  fishing,  &c.,  many  on  board  and  around  the 
ship" — that  is,  the  ship  of  Commander  Mayne — "when  a  canoe 
with  two  large  banners  flying  appeared  in  sight."  Both  profit 
and  curiosity,  the  strongest  passions  of  the  uncivilized  man, 
were  overpowered  in  a  moment  by  a  deeper  sentiment.  "  Im 
mediately  a  shout  was  raised  of  'Le  Pretre!  Le  Pretre!'  and 
they  all  paddled  on  shore  as  fast  as  they  could  to  meet  them. 
There  were  two  priests  in  the  canoe,  and  in  this  way  they  trav 
elled,  visiting  in  turn  every  village  on  the  coast.  A  fortnight 
afterwards,  when  I  was  in  Johnstone  Strait  with  a  boat-party, 
I  met  them  again.  It  was  a  pouring  wet  day,  cold,  and  blow 
ing  hard,  and  they  were  apparently  very  lightly  clothed,  hud 
dling  in  the  bottom  of  their  canoe,  the  Indians  paddling 
laboriously  against  wind  and  tide  to  reach  a  village  by  night, 
and  the  sea  washing  over  them,  drenching  them  to  the  skin. 
I  never  saw  men  look  in  a  more  pitiable  plight.  .  *.  .  Certainly 
if  misery  on  this  earth  will  be  compensated  hereafter,  those 
two  priests  were  laying  in  a  plentiful  stock  of  happiness."f  We 
cannot  be  surprised  when  this  officer  goes  on  to  observe  that 
these  missionaries,  who,  he  says,  are  "  thorough  masters"  of  the 
native  language,  "  undoubtedly  possess  considerable  influence 
over  the  Indians." 

"  I  remember  one  Sunday  in  Port  Harvey,"  says  the  same 
gentleman,  "  when  we  were  all  standing  on  deck,  looking  at 
six  or  eight  large  canoes  which  hung  about  the  ship,  they 
suddenly  struck  up  a  chant,  which  they  continued  for  about 
ten  minutes,  singing  in  beautiful  time,  their  voices  sounding 
over  the  perfectly  still  water  and  dying  away  among  the  trees 

*  P.  149. 

t  Ch.  xiii.,  p.  175. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  270 

with  a  sweet  cadence  that  I  shall  never  forget."  And  the 
singers  were  Vancouver  Indians  !  "  I  have  no  idea,"  he  adds, 
"  what  the  words  were,  but  they  told  us  they  had  been  taught 
them  by  the  priests.  The  Roman  Catholic  priest  has  indeed 
little  cause  to  complain  of  his  reception  by  the  Indians."* 

Once  more.  "  At  Esquimalt  all  the  Indians  attend  the  Romish 
mission  on  Sunday  morning,  and  at  eight  o'clock  the  whole 
village  may  be  seen  paddling  across  the  harbor  to  the  mission- 
house,  singing  at  the  top  of  their  voices."  For  a  moment  the 
contemplation  of  these  scenes  puts  to  flight  national  and  religious 
prejudices,  and  he  goes  on  thus.  "  Certainly  the  self-denying 
zeal  and  energy  with  which  the  priests  labor  among  them 
merit  all  the  success  they  meet  with.  To  come  upon  them,  as 
I  have  done,  going  from  village  to  village,  alon.e  among  the 
natives,  in  a  dirty  little  canoe,  drenched  to  the  skin,  forces 
comparisons  between  them  and  the  generality  of  the  laborers  of 
other  creeds  that  are  by  no  means  flattering  to  the  latter."f 

We  have  seen  so  many  examples  in  these  volumes  of  inveterate 
prepossessions  conquered  by  the  same  irresistible  influence,  and 
have  read  so  many  similar  confessions  of  unwilling  sympathy 
and  admiration,  that  this  particular  instance  claims  no  special 
comment.  But  we  must  not  conclude  without  a  few  details  in 
further  illustration  of  the  contrast  which  this  officer  attests. 

'•  Before  1857,"  he  observes,  "  no  Protestant  missionary  had 
ever  traversed  the  wilds  of  British  Columbia,  nor  had  any 
attempts  been  made  to  instruct  the  Indians."  The  statement  is 
not  quite  exact,  as  he  seems  to  have  felt,  for  he  adds  immedi 
ately,  "  I  must  except  the  exertions  of  the  Roman  Catholic 
priests."  They  had  not  waited  till  forts  were  built,  commerce 
established,  and  a  military  police  organized.  Before  even  the 
trapper  or  the  hunter,  they  had  tracked  the  streams  and  pene 
trated  the  forests  of  Columbia,  without  protection,  and  without 
salary,  except  from  Him  who  "  rewardeth  in  secret."  They 
were  now  to  be  jostled  on  every  side  by  men  of  another  order. 
By  1859,  u  eleven  missionaries  of  different  denominations," 
of  whom  four  were  Wesleyans,  each  receiving  the  annual  stipend 

*  Ch.  xi.,  p.  274. 

f  P.  275.  Commander  Mayne  makes  an  exception  in  favor  of  "  Mr.  W  illiam 
Duncan,"  a  Protestant  missionary,  of  whose  energy  and  perseverance  he  speaks 
in  terms  which  the  conduct  of  that  gentleman  appears  to  merit.  Mr.  Duncan 
has  judiciously  labored  for  their  "  temporal  welfare,"  and  endeavored  to  estab 
lish  schools  for  their  instruction  ;  but  we  can  see  little  more  in  Commander 
Mayne's  account  of  his  work  than  the  skilful  adaptation  of  natural  means  to  a 
natural  end.  We  are  so  far,  however,  from  questioning  Mr.  Duncan's  merits, 
that  we  should  be  glad  to  be  forced  to  recognize  them  in  all  his  co-religionists. 
When  Protestants  can  be  found,  who,  from  supernatural  motives,  are  willing 
to  devote  themselves  without  reserve,  and  without  salary,  to  the  service  of 
God,  they  will  soon  cease  to  be  Protestants. 


280  CHAPTER  IX. 

which  was  deemed  an  appropriate  recompense  of  his  labors, 
had  entered  this  region  ;  but ''  their  mission,"  says  Commander 
Mayne,  "  like  that  of  our  own  Church,  has  ~been  more  to  the 
whites  than  the  Indians"*  The  Anglican  bishop  "  reached 
Esquimalt  in  1860,"  bringing  "  an  iron  church  which  had  been 
sent  from  England,"  but  which  had  cost  so  much  money  that 
"  the  edifice  was  not  free  from  debt  when  I  left  the  island." 
What  this  Protestant  functionary  will  do  for  the  natives  in 
general  we  may  judge  from  the  operations  of  his  colleagues  in 
other  lands  ;  what  he  will  accomplish  at  Esquimalt  in  partic 
ular,  may  be  inferred  from  the  fact  already  recorded,  that  "  at 
Esquimalt  all  the  Indians  attend  the  Romish  mission." 

But  we  are  not  without  information  as  to  the  proceedings  of 
this  gentleman.  Mr.  Macdonald,  who  speaks  of  him  with 
warm  friendship,  relates  in  1862  such  facts  as  the  following. 
"  Although  the  magnificent  gift  of  twenty-five  thousand  pounds 
by  that  most  estimable  Christian  lady,  Miss  Burdett  Coutts,  is  a 
fit  foundation,  nevertheless  more  money  is  urgently  required.1' 
Yet  the  immensre  sums  already  expended  seem  to  have  been 
utterly  fruitless  as  far  as  the  heathen  are  concerned  "  It  is 
well  known,"  says  Mr.  Macdonald,  "  that  the  Rev.  Mr.  Cridge 
has  labored  zealously  amongst  these  Indians  for  years,  without 
even  the  shadow  of  a  hope  of  success.  The  Rev.  W.  Clark  and 
family  also  failed,  and  have  left  the  country  ;  and  another  highly 
esteemed  clergyman  has  likewise  left."  These  facts,  he  adds, 
are  so  notorious,  that  "  it  does  seem  rather  marvellous  that  Dr. 
Hill,"  the  Anglican  bishop,  "  should,  in  a  few  days  after  his 
arrival  in  the  colony,  produce  the  following  effect  upon  some 
Indian  children."  The  words  quoted  are  from  an  official  report 
by  Dr.  Hill  himself.  "  We  sang  heartily,  .  .  .  and  when  we 
finished,  we  found  a  remarkable  impression  to  be  produced. 
All  were  reverently  hushed  in  a  fixed  and  thoughtful  manner  /" 
It  is  probably  the  fatal  necessity  of  producing  a  sensation  at 
home,  and  the  fact  that  "  more  money  is  urgently  required," 
which  alone  compel  a  man  of  education  thus  to  expose  himself 
to  the  satire  of  his  own  friends  and  adherents.f 

Mr.  Macdonald,  differing  in  this  particular  from  Captain 
Lennard  and  Commander  Mayne,  insinuates  that  the  Catholic 
missionaries  have  had  only  feeble  success.  But  in  this  case  his 
testimony  is  no  longer  founded  on  personal  observation.  Pere 
Cheroux,  he  observes,  "  is  said  to  have  exclaimed,  '  He  who 
would  sow  the  seed  of  instruction  in  the  heart  of  these  savages 
has  selected  a  soil  truly  sterile ;' "  while  Pere  Lamfrett  is 

*  Cli.  xii.,  p.  341. 

\  British  Columbia  and  Vancouver's  Island,  by  Duncan  G.  F.  Macdonald, 
C.E.,  ch.  v.,  pp.  162-9  (1862). 


MISSIONS  IN  AMERICA.  281 

reported  to  have  remarked,  that  "  they  were  spoiled  by  their 
intercourse  with  the  white  man."  If  it  be  so,  it  is  only  a  fresh 
example  of  the  fact  which  we  have  encountered  in  every  land, 
that  Protestants  not  only  fail  to  convert  the  heathen  them 
selves,  but  make  it  almost  impossible,  by  their  presence,  for 
Catholics  to  remedy  the  evil. 

Yet  we  have  reason  to  hope  that  the  remarkable  instances 
cited  by  Captain  Lennard  and  Commander  Mayne,  in  spite  of 
their  religious  prepossessions,  are  found  throughout  a  wider 
region  than  they  were  able  to  explore.  Father  Demers,  we 
have  been  told  by  Father  de  Smet,  quitted  him  a  few  years 
ago,  to  preach  the  Gospel  in  these  very  provinces.  He  does 
not  seem  to  have  preached  in  vain.  "  On  the  15th  of  October 
(1861),"  says  a  Californian  Protestant  journal,  "  the  Right  Rev. 
Bishop  Demers  left  here  (San  Francisco)  for  British  Columbia, 
to  attend  a  muster  meeting  of  Indians  in  that  colony.  The 
bishop  is  known  by  all  the  Indians,  and  has  great  influence 
over  the  tribes.  When  the  news  reached  the  camp  that  the 
bishop  had  arrived,  one  hundred  Indians  in  forty  canoes  were 
sent  to  escort  him.  .  .  .  The  Indians  know  a  great  deal  about 
religion.  It  must  have  been  grand  and  solemn  to  hear  in  the 
wilderness  of  the  far  North  one  thousand  five  hundred  Indians 
praying  and  singing  together."* 

It  is  not  expedient  to  pursue  with  further  detail  the  history 
of  missionary  labors  in  these  remote  western  regions,  nor  to 
multiply  the  illustrations  which  it  affords  both  of  the  character 
of  the  missionaries  and  the  results  of  their  toil.  We  have  suf 
ficiently  traced,  here  as  elsewhere,  the  contrast  which  it  is  the 
main  object  of  these  volumes  to  exhibit.  One  remark,  how 
ever,  may  be  added,  before  we  enter  those  more  famous  prov 
inces  of  the  East  which  lie  between  the  frozen  wastes  of 
Hudson's  Bay  and  the  sun-lit  waters  of  the  Gulf  of  Mexico. 

We  have  read  the  words  in  which  Father  de  Smet  avows  the 
noble  ambition,  worthy  of  himself  and  his  order,  of  reviving  on 
the  other  side  of  the  Rocky  Mountains  the  glories  of  Paraguay. 
Would  that  it  were  possible  for  us  to  share  his  generous  hopes. 
If  such  a  triumph  could  indeed  be  accomplished  in  Oregon  or 
Columbia,  Father  de  Smet  and  his  colleagues  sufficiently  re 
semble  their  illustrious  predecessors  of  the  Society  of  Jesus 
both  to  attempt  and  to  effect  it.  Even  Protestant  writers  have 
recognized  this  fact.  "There  is  an  unseen  element  at  work," 
says  one  of  those  candid  witnesses  of  whom  we  have  quoted  so 
many,  "in  the  remote  wilderness  of  the  Oregon,  whose  success 
is  guaranteed  by  all  the  precedents  of  history ;  it  is  the  agency 

*  San  Francisco  Monitor,  quoted  in  Weekly  Register,  January  4,  1862. 


282  CHAPTER  IX. 

of  the  Catholic  Churc/i."*  But  the  conditions  of  her  warfare 
are  no  longer  the  same.  In  Paraguay,  the  enemy  whom  the 
missionaries  of  the  Cross  fought  and  vanquished,  rescuing  more 
than  a  million  victims  from  his  grasp,  had  no  such  army  of 
auxiliaries  as  are  now  doing  his  fatal  work  on  the  shores  of  the 
Pacific.  The  apostles  who  converted,  one  after  another,  the 
ferocious  hordes  of  South  America,  and  built  up  whole  nations 
of  peaceful,  civilized,  and  Christian  men,  where  before  their 
coming  only  bloodthirsty  savages  dwelt,  owed  their  astonishing 
success,  not  only  to  their  own  patient  valor  and  invincible 
charity,  but  to  the  oneness  of  the  faith  and  the  unalterable 
harmony  of  the  doctrine  which  they  carried  with  them.  Never 
during  two  centuries  was  the  half-awakened  pagan  of  the 
Southern  continent  embarrassed  by  the  divisions,  the  contradic 
tions,  or  the  worldly  lives  of  another  order  of  teachers,  who 
have  made  Christianity  hateful  to  his  brethren  in  so  many 
other  lands,  both  in  the  east  and  west.  And  thus  it  came  to 
pass,  as  we  have  seen,  that  even  the  brutal  Omagua  or  the  can 
nibal  Chiri guana  confessed,  at  first  with  reluctant  admiration, 
a  little  later  with  loving  reverence,  that  men  who  were  always 
pure,  meek,  and  just,  came  forth  from  God,  and  that  the  mes 
sage  which  they  brought,  since  it  never  varied,  must  have 
come  from  Him  also.  This  is  an  advantage  which  the  less  for 
tunate  tribes  on  the  other  side  of  the  Rocky  Mountains  are  now 
losing  forever.  Twenty  sects  will  soon  be  fighting  together 
before  their  eyes.  The  Anglicans  have  recently  entered  Co 
lumbia,  carrying  with  them  the  two  weapons  which  they  have 
used  in  other  lands, — unlimited  pecuniary  resources,  and  un 
dying  hatred  of  the  Church.  They  cannot  convert  the  heathen 
themselves,  but  they  can  prevent  others  doing  so.  This  is 
their  mission.  And  therefore  there  will  be  no  new  Paraguay 
to  the  west  of  the  Rocky  Mountains.  "I  am  fully  impressed 
with  the  belief,"  is  the  official  report  of  Mr.  Nathaniel  Wyefth, 
"  that  these  Indians  must  become  extinct  under  the  operation 
of  existing  causes."f  There  are  indeed  laborers  in  that  distant 
field  who,  if  they  had  fair  play,  could  convert,  as  their  fathers 
did,  the  inhabitants  of  a  whole  continent ;  but  even  hope  hides 
her  face  in  the  presence  of  the  deadly  evils  which  Protestant 
ism  generates  in  every  pagan  land.  The  inevitable  fate  of  the 
Indian,  when  once  lie  comes  in  contact  with  its  emissaries,  is 
to  perish  from  the  face  of  the  earth.  We  are  about  to  consider 
the  last  and  most  afflicting  proof  of  this  fact  in  the  sorrowful 
history  of  Canada  and  the  United  States. 


*  The  Statesmen  of  America  in  1846,  by  S.  Mytton  Maury,  p.  309. 
f  Schoolcraft,  part  i.,  p.  226. 


MISSIONS  IN  AMERICA.  283 


CANADA. 

The  first  European  settlements  in  Canada,  as  in  India,  were 
made  by  a  company  of  merchants ;  in  the  former  country  by 
French  Catholics,  in  the  latter  by  English  Protestants.  The 
usual  significant  contrast  marked  the  proceedings  of  the  two 
classes.  "  "The  stockholders  and  directors  of  the  East  India 
Company,"  says  an  English  writer,  "  never  gave  education  or 
religion  a  thought  in  their  earliest  enterprises ;  and  when  they 
had  attained  to  sovereign  power  in  the  East,  the  use  they  made 
of  it  was  to  prohibit  both  the  one  and  the  other  for  a  long 
period.  .  .  .  The  French  Company  for  trading  to  Canada  were, 
on  the  contrary,  so  impressed  with  the  duty  of  providing 
instruction  and  religion  for  the  Indians  among  whom  they 
were  going  to  place  settlers,  that  they  undertook" — and  then 
he  describes  at  length  the  noble  efforts  which  they  made,  and 
of  which  we  are  going  to  examine  the  results.* 

The  Canadian  Company  established  under  the  auspices  of 
Cardinal  Richelieu,  who  wisely  prohibited  the  admission  of 
Protestant  colonists  as  sure  to  be  fatal  to  the  welfare  of  the 
heathen,  bound  themselves  by  a  solemn  compact,  "to  maintain 
missionaries  for  the  conversion  of  the  savages. "f  The  pledge 
was  faithfully  observed,  in  the  same  religious  spirit  which  made 
Cham  plain  exclaim,  "  The  salvation  of  one  soul  is  of  more  value 
than  the  conquest  of  an  empire."  "The  principal  design  of 
French  settlements  in  Canada,"  says  Mr.  Alfred  Hawkins, — 
we  shall  quote,  as  usual,  only  Protestant  authorities, — "  was 
evidently  to  propagate  the  Christian  religion."  With  this 
object,  they  sent  the  agents  whom  the  Catholic  Church  always 
provides  for  such  labors,  and  it  is  in  the  following  words  that 
Mr.  Hawkins  attempts  to  describe  them. 

"The  early  history  of  Canada  teems  with  instances  of  the 
purest  religious  fortitude,  zeal,  and  heroism  ;  of  young  and 
delicate  females  relinquishing  the  comforts  of  civilization  to 
perform  the  most  menial  offices  towards  the  sick,  to  dispense 
at  once  the  blessings  of  medical  aid  to  the  body,  and  of  religions 
instruction  to  the  soul,  of  the  benighted  and  wondering  savage." 
He  alludes,  no  doubt,  though  he  does  not  name  them,  to  such 
ministers  of  consolation  as  Marguerite  Bourgeoys,  Marie  Barbier, 
Marguerite  Le  Moine,  Marie  Louise  Dorval,  and  a  hundred 
more,  "  renowned  for  their  piety,"  as  the  Swedish  traveller 

*  J.  S.  Buckingham,  Canada,  ch.  xv.,  p.  203 

f  Histoire  du  Canada  et  de  ses  Missions,  par  M.  1'Abbe  Brasseur  de  Bour- 
bourg,  tome  i.,  ch.  ii.,  p.  33  (1852). 


284:  CHAPTER   IX. 

Kalm  observed  in  the  last  century,*  and  of  whose  labors  Mi- 
Hawkins  thus  speaks:  "They  must  have  been  upheld  by  a 
strong  sense  of  duty.  But  for  such  impressions,  it  would  have 
been  beyond  human  nature  to  make  such  sacrifices  as  the 
Ilospitalieres  made,  in  taking  up  their  residence  in  New 
France.  Without  detracting  from  the  calm  philosophic  de 
meanor  of  religion  at  the  present  day," — it  is  a  Protestant  who 
speaks, — "  it  is  doubtful  whether  any  pious  persons  could  be 
found  willing  to  undergo  the  fatigues,  uncertainty,  and  per 
sonal  danger,  experienced  by  the  first  missionaries  of  both 
sexes  in  New  France.  Regardless  of  a  climate  to  whose  horrors 
they  were  entirely  unaccustomed,  of  penury  and  famine,  of 
danger,  of  death,  of  martyrdom  itself;  sustained  by  something 
more  than  human  fortitude,  by  Divine  patience,  they  succeeded 
at  length  in  establishing,  on  a  firm  foundation,  the  altars  and 
the  faith  of  their  country  and  their  God."f 

We  shall  see  them  presently  at  their  work,  but  a  preliminary 
consideration  claims  a  moment's  attention.  Before  we  examine 
their  labors,  it  is  necessary  to  show,  by  a  few  examples,  what 
kind  of  reception  the  new  teachers  met  with  from  the  Indians, 
before  the  latter  were  finally  estranged  by  actions  which  would 
have  embittered  a  more  forgiving  temper  than  theirs.  In  the 
South,  we  know  what  greeting  awaited  the  missionaries  of  the 
Cross ;  let  us  see  how  they  were  welcomed  in  the  North. 

"  The  untutored  Indians,"  says  Mr.  Hawkins,  "  treated  the 
first  Europeans  with  true  Christian  charity.  The  eiforts  of  the 
Jesuits  for  the  conversion  and  instruction  of  the  savages,  the 
universal  kindness  and  benevolence  of  the  missionaries  wherever 
they  ..succeeded  in  establishing  themselves,  perpetuated  this 
friendly  spirit  towards  the  French  "$ 

When  the  Ursulines  arrived  at  Quebec  in  1639,  "as  the 
youthful  heroines  stepped  on  shore,"  observes  Mr.  Bancroft, 
"  they  stooped  to  kiss  the  earth  which  they  adopted  as  their 
country,  and  were  ready,  in  case  of  need,  to  tinge  with  their 
blood.  The  governor,  with  the  little  garrison,  received  them 
at  the  water's  edge.  Hurons  and  Algonquins,  joining  in  the 
shouts,  filled  the  air  with  yells  of  joy.  Is  it  wonderful  that 
the  natives  were  touched  by  a  benevolence  which  their  poverty 
and  squalid  misery  could  not  appal  ?"§ 

A  little  later  Mr.  Bancroft  will  tell  us,  that  the  sympathy  of 
the  Indians  towards  the  French  never  waned,  and  that  as  the 

*  Travels  in  North  America,  Pinkerton,  vol.  xiii.,  p.  658. 
f  Picture  of  Quebec,  with  Historical  Recollections,  ch.  x.,  p.  177. 
i  Ibid.,  ch.  i.,  p.  5. 

§  History  of  the  United  States,  by  George  Bancroft,  vol.  ii.,  p.  787 ;  ed. 
Routledge. 


MISSIONS  IN  AMERICA.  285 

latter  "  made  their  last  journey"  down  the  valley  of  the  Missis 
sippi,  after  the  English  conquest,  "they  received  on  every  side 
the  expressions  of  passionate  attachment  from  the  many  tribes 
of  red  men."  In  the  last  years  of  the  eighteenth  century,  when 
Chateaubriand  visited  them,  they  still  remembered  the  flag  of 
France,  and  "  a  white  handkerchief,"  says  theillustrious  traveller, 
"  is  sufficient  to  insure  you  a  safe  passage  through  hostile  tribes, 
and  to  procure  you  everywhere  lodging  and  hospitality."* 
Familiarity,  therefore,  had  only  confirmed  the  love  which  they 
had  inspired  on  their  first  arrival,  and  which  had  been  deepened 
by  an  intercourse  of  more  than  a  century.  It  is  not  easy  to 
exaggerate  the  importance  of  this  fact,  from  which  impartial 
writers  have  justly  concluded,  that  if  the  French  alone  had 
colonized  America,  conversion,  and  not  extermination,  would 
have  been  the  lot  of  its  native  tribes. 

But  a  welcome  as  sincere,  though  less  enthusiastic,  had 
greeted  the  Protestant  emissaries  from  England  and  Holland. 
They  confessed  it  themselves.  "To  us,"  said  the  Rev.  Mr. 
Cushman,  one  of  the  early  Protestant  missionaries,  "  the 
Indians  have  been  like  lambs;  so  kind,  so  submissive  and 
trusty,  as  a  man  may  truly  say,  many  Christians  are  not  so 
kind  or  sincere. '?f 

From  every  part  of  the  Eastern  States  came  the  same  reports. 
"The  Virginia  tribes,"  destined  to  be  repaid  with  merciless 
cruelty  and  ingratitude,  "literally  sustained  the  colony  planted 
at  Jamestown  with  supplies  of  Indian  corn  from  their  own 
fields.";}:  Of  those  in  New  England  an  Anglican  minister 
gave  this  account :  "  The  Indians  doe  generally  professe  to 
like  well  of  our  comming  and  planting  here."§  When  the 
English  first  arrived  at  Pokanoket,  where  they  afterwards 
massacred  men,  women,  and  helpless  children,  leaving  not  a  soul 
alive,  u  the  native  inhabitants  received  them  with  joy,  and 
entertained  them  in  their  best  manner."!  Even  the  so-called 
"  Pilgrim  Fathers,"  though  they  made  not  so  much  as  an 
attempt  to  convert  them,  reported  soon  after  their  arrival,  "We 
have  found  the  Indians  very  faithful  in  their  covenant  of  peace 
with  us,  very  loving,  and  ready  to  pleasure  us."lf 

In  the  Carolinas,  the  same  tacts  occurred,  though  we  learn 
from  a  public  petition  presented  to  "  the  Lords  Proprietors  of 

*  Genius  of  Christianity,  p.  561  ;  ed.  White. 
f  Schoolcraft,  part  i.,  p.  25. 
\  Id.,  part  ii.,  p.  29. 

§  New  England's  Plantations,  by  a  Reverend  Divine  now  there  resident,  p. 
13  (1630). 

I  History  of  the  Town  of  Plymouth,  by  James  Thacher,  M.D.,  p.  39  (1835). 
t  The  Pilgrim  Fathers,  by  George  B.  Cheever,  D.D.,  p.  73. 


286  CHAPTER  IX. 

Carolina,"  that  "  the  Indian  nations  in  the  neighborhood  of 
the  said  province  had  been  so  inhumanly  treated,  that  they 
were  in  great  danger  of  revolting  to  the  French."*  Lastly,  in 
that  region  which  was  more  than  any  other  exclusively  English 
in  its  character,  laws,  and  traditions,  but  of  which  the  injured 
natives  learned  to  cherish  a  more  deadly  hostility  towards  their 
guests  than  in  any  other  part  of  America,  Mr.  Howison  relates, 
that  on  their  first  arrival,  "  a  friendly  interchange  of  courtesies 
took  place."  In  the  Isle  of  Roanoke,  where  the  English 
landed,  "  the  wife  of  the  chief  ran,  brought  them  into  her 
dwelling,  caused  their  clothes  to  be  dried,  and  their  feet  to 
be  bathed  in  warm  water  ;  and  provided  all  that  her  humble 
store  could  afford  of  venison,  fish,  fruits,  and  hominy  for  their 
comfort."  And  when  "  the  English,  in  unworthy  distrust, 
seized  their  arms,  this  noble  Indian  woman  obliged  her  fol 
lowers  to  break  their  arrows,  in  proof  of  their  harmless 
designs" — so  that  the  colonists  themselves  described  them,  in 
letters  to  England,  as  "  gentle  and  confiding  beings."t 

We  shall  see  hereafter  more  ample  and  affecting  illustrations 
of  the  same  truth,  and  these  may  suffice  for  the  present. 
Enough  has  been  said  to  indicate  the  contrast  which  we  shall 
presently  exhibit  in  all  its  details,  and  to  prepare  us  for  the 
future  consideration  of  these  two  impressive  facts, — that  while 
in  the  South^  where  the  preachers  of  the  Gospel  were  every 
where  received  with  clubs  and  arrows,  and  everywhere  dyed 
the  soil  with  their  blood,  they  converted  the  whole  continent ; 
in  the  North,  where  a  simple  and  confiding  hospitality  greeted 
the  emissaries  of  Protestantism,  they  have  only  created  a  desert. 
This  is  the  lesson  which  we  shall  learn  from  the  history  upon 
which  we  are  about  to  enter. 

It  was  not  at  the  same  date,  nor  in  the  same  spot,  that  the 
English  and  Dutch  began  to  arrive  in  America,  but  they 
brought  with  them  the  same  religious  ideas,  as  well  as  the 
same  motives  and  aims ;  and  as  their  sole  object  was  to  acquire 
territory  and  amass  wealth,  they  began  by  deliberately  bribing 
the  unconverted  tribes,  after  stimulating  them  with  strong 
liquors,  to  make  war  on  the  Christian  Indians  in  alliance  with 
France.  Even  Gookin,  a  fierce  adversary  of  the  Catholic 
religion,  who  vehemently  deplored  the  rapid  success  of  the 
early  missionaries  among  the  natives,  confessed,  that  "  this 
besetting  sin  of  drunkenness  could  not  be  charged  upon  the 
Indians  before  the  English  and  other  Christian  nations  came 

*  An  Histoi*ical  Account  of  the  Protestant  Episcopal  Church  in  South  Caro* 
Una,  by  Frederick  Ualcho,  M.D.,  p.  83. 

f  History  of  Virginia,  by  Robert  K.  Howison,  ch.  i.,  p.  53. 


MISSIONS  IN  AMERICA.  287 

to  dwell  in  America."*  He  had  reason  to  say  it.  When  lien' 
drick  Hudson  was  received  by  the  Indian  tribe  with  whom  ho 
came  in  contact  on  landing,  his  first  act  was  to  intoxicate  them 
all  with  whiskey,  which  they  drank  with  repugnance,  and  only 
to  show,  by  an  admirable  courtesy,  their  confidence  in  their 
new  visitors.f  Monseigneur  de  Laval,  Bishop  of  Quebec,  who 
anticipated  the  terrible  effects  which  intemperance  would  pro 
duce  among  the  inhabitants  of  North  America,  denounced  the 
penalties  of  mortal  sin  upon  all  who  should  give  spirits  to  the 
Indians ;;{:  and  Mr.  Bancroft  will  tell  us  hereafter  that  the  admo 
nition  was  entirely  successful ;  but  the  English  and  Dutch  were 
not  subject  to  his  authority,  and  would  have  laughed  at  his 
censures.  And  the  natives  quickly  distinguished  the  different 
policy  of  their  Catholic  and  Protestant  guests.  "You  your 
selves,"  they  said  to  the  Dutch,  "  are  the  cause  of  this  evil  ; 
you  ought  not  to  craze  the  young  Indians  with  brandy.  Your 
own  people,  when  drunk,  light  with  knives,  and  do  foolish 
things ;  you  cannot  prevent  mischief,  till  you  cease  to  sell  strong 
drink  to  the  Indian. "§  To  the  English  they  addressed,  again 
and  again,  still  more  earnest  reproaches.  "It  is  the  English," 
they  were  accustomed  to  say,  "  who  corrupt  us."||  When  their 
chiefs  implored  that  the  traders  might  not  be  permitted  to 
bring  rum  into  their  villages,  the  English  officials,  incapable 
of  any  higher  ambition  than  commercial  success,  haughtily 
replied,  "  that  the  traders  could  not  be  prevented  from  going 
where  they  might  best  dispose  of  their  goods."*[  And  the 
natives  appreciated  the  brutality  which  did  not  even  affect  any 
disguise.  When  the  English  governor  of  Boston,  striving  to 
alienate  the  natives  from  the  French,  made  them  enticing  offers, 
on  condition  that  they  should  consent  to  admit"  an  English 
minister,"  the  answer  which  he  received  from  their  representa 
tives  is  perhaps  as  worthy  of  record  as  any  which  the  Indian 
annalists  have  preserved. 

"  Your  speech  astonishes  me,"  said  the  orator  whom  they 
deputed  to  speak  on  their  behalf.  "  I  am  amazed  at  your 
proposal ;  you  saw  me  long  before  the  French  did  ;  yet  neither 
you  nor  your  ministers  ever  spoke  to  me  of  prayer,  or  of  the 
Great  Spirit.  They  saw  my  furs,  and  my  beaver-skins,  and 
they  thought  of  them  only.  These  were  what  they  sought. 

*  Gookin's  Historical  Collections,  sec.  3,  p.  7  (1772). 

f  Schoolcraft,  part  ii.,  p.  24. 

\  Brasseur  de  Bourbourg,  tome  i.,  ch.  vii.,  p.  140.  Cf.  Relations  des  Jesuites 
dans  la  Nowcelle  France,  Annee  1671. 

£  Bancroft,  vol.  ii.,  p.  563. 

I  Henrion,  tome  ii.,  2de  partie,  p.  609. 

1  An  Inquiry  into  the  Causes  of  the  Alienation  of  the  Delaware  and  Shawanese 
Indians  from  the  British  Interest,  p.  32. 


288  CHAPTER   IX. 

When  I  brought  them  many,  I  was  their  great  friend.  That 
was  all.* 

"On  the  contrary,  one  day  I  lost  my  way  in  my  canoe,  and 
arrived  at  last  at  an  Algonquin  village  near  Quebec,  where  the 
Black  Robes  taught,  t  had  hardly  arrived  when  a  Black  Robe 
came  to  see  me.  I  was  loaded  with  peltries.  The  French 
Black  Robe  disdained  even  to  look  at  them.  He  spoke  to  me 
at  once  of  the  Great  Spirit,  of  Paradise,  of  Hell,  and  of  the 
Prayer  which  is  the  only  path  to  heaven.  I  heard  him  with 
pleasure.  I  stayed  long  in  the  village  to  listen  to  him.  At 
length  prayer  was  pleasing  to  me.  I  begged  him  to  instruct 
me.  I  asked  for  baptism,  and  I  received  it.  Then  I  returned 
to  my  own  country  and  told  what  had  happened  to  me.  They 
envied  my  happiness,  and  wished  to  share  it.  They  set  out  to 
find  the  Black  Robe,  and  asked  him  to  baptize  them.  This  is 
how  the  French  behaved  to  us.  If  when  you  first  saw  me,  you 
had  spoken  to  me  of  prayer,  I  should  have  had  the  misfortune 
to  learn  to  pray  like  you,  for  I  was  not  then  able  to  find  out  if 
your  prayer  was  good.  But  I  have  learned  the  prayer  of  the 
French.  I  love  it,  and  will  follow  it  till  the  earth  is  consumed 
and  comes  to  an  end.  Keep,  then,  your  money  and  your  min 
ister.  I  speak  to  you  no  more."f 

The  Swedish  traveller  Ivalm  appears  to  allude  to  this,  or  to 
some  similar  oration,  when  he  says,  to  the  great  displeasure  of 
his  editor,  Pinkerton,  '-The  English  do  not  pay  so  much  atten 
tion  to  a  work  of  so  much  consequence  as  the  French  do,  and  do 
not  send  such  able  men  to  instruct  the  Indians  as  they  ought 
to  do.":J:  Mr.  Talvi,  also,  an  American  author,  but  contrasting 
unpleasantly  with  the  candid  and  generous  writers  of  that 
country, — his  solitary  allusion  to  the  Catholic  missionaries 
being  a  vulgar  and  heartless  jest, — confesses,  that  "  the  Indians 
themselves,  now  that  the  Christianity  was  to  be  enforced  upon 
them  which  the  whites,"  he  means  the  English,  "  had  not 
taught  them  to  love,  asked,  why  the  latter  had  been  silent  about 
it  twenty-six  years,  when  the  matter  was  so  weighty  that  their 
salvation  depended  upon  it?"§  And  lastly,  Mr.  Halkett  forcibly 
observes,  "  It  cannot  be  doubted  that  the  Indians,  for  successive 
generations,  have  looked  upon  the  whites  as  a  fraudulent, 
unjust,  and  immoral  race,  preaching  what  they  did  not  practice. 

*  In  one  of  the  earliest  excursions  of  the  so-called  ''Pilgrim  Fathers"  into 
the  interior  of  Massachusetts,  the  same  sordid  temper  was  displayed.  "Some 
few  skins  we  got  there,"  is  the  characteristic  entry  in  the  Puritan  journal, 
"  but  not  many."  Of  any  attempt  to  convert  the  natives,  they  make  no  men 
tion.  The  Pilgrim  Fathers,  by  George  B.  Cheever,  D.D.,  p.  60. 

f  Lcttres  Edifiantcs  et  Curieuses,  tome  vi.,  p.  211. 

\  Pinkerton,  vol.  xiii.,  p.  588. 

§  Talvi's  History  of  America,  vol.  ii.,  cli.  xix.,  p.  78. 


MISSIONS  IN   AMERICA.  289 

We  need  not,  therefore,  be  surprised  to  find  that  the  Indians  do 
not  scruple,  even  at  the  present  day,  to  express,  through  their 
chiefs,  their  decided  reluctance  to  receive  the  instructions  of 
the  missionaries."* 

We  shall  see  presently  further  examples,  both  of  the  con 
trast  and  of  the  native  comments  upon  it ;  meanwhile,  let  us 
endeavor,  by  the  aid  of  Protestant  writers,  to  sketch  the  out 
lines  of  the  history  of  missions  in  Canada,  and  of  the  fortunes 
of  its  aboriginal  tribes. 

The  first  mission  to  the  Hurons  was  commenced  in  1615,  by 
one  whom  Mr.  Bancroft  calls  "  the  unambitious  Franciscan,  Le 
Caron,"  who,  "years  before  the  Pilgrims  anchored  within  Cape 
Cod,  had  penetrated  the  land  of  the  Mohawks,  had  passed  to 
the  north  into  the  hunting-grounds  of  the  Wyandots,  and,  bound 
by  his  vows  to  the  life  of  a  beggar,  had,  on  foot,  or  paddling  a 
bark  canoe,  gone  onward  and  still  onward,  taking  alms  of  the 
savages,  till  he  reached  the  rivers  of  Lake  Huron."  "It  was 
neither  commercial  enterprise,"  says  the  same  distinguished 
writer,  "  nor  royal  ambition  which  carried  the  power  of  France 
into  the  heart  of  our  continent ;  the  motive  was  .Religion ;" 
and  he  adds,  the  only  "policy"  which  inspired  the  French 
conquests  in  America  "  was  congenial  to  a  Church  which 
cherishes  every  member  of  the  human  race  without  regard  to 
lineage  or  skin."f 

By  the  year  1636,  fifteen  Fathers  of  the  Society  of  Jesus 
had  entered  Canada,  and  commenced  that  astonishing  warfare, 
celebrated  with  honest  enthusiasm  by  American  writers,  of 
which  the  fruits  were  long  ago  described  by  Father  Bressany, 
who  had  himself  no  mean  share  in  producing  them.  "  Whereas 
at  the  date  of  our  arrival,"  he  says, — writing  with  the  hand 
which  the  savages  had  cruelly  mutilated,  after  tormenting  him 
for  a  whole  month, — "  we  found  not  a  single  soul  possessing 
a  knowledge  of  the  true  God;  at  the  present  day,  in  spite  of 
persecution,  want,  famine,  war,  and  pestilence,  there  is  not  a 
single  family  which  does  not  count  some  Christians,  even  where 
all  the  members  have  not  yet  professed  the  faith.  Such  has 
been  the  work  of  twenty  years.";):  A  little  later,  as  is  well 
known,  the  whole  Huron  nation  was  Christian. 

It  was  in  June,  1611,  that  Fathers  Biart  and  Masse  arrived 
in  Canada ;  and  it  is  a  notable  fact  that  the  first  Jesuit  slain  in 
America,  in  1613,  fell  by  the  hands,  riot  of  the  savages,  but  of 

*  Notes  on  North  American  Indians,  by  John  Halkett,  Esq.,  cli.  xiii., 
p.  305. 

f  Vol.  ii.,  p.  783. 

i  Missicns  dans  la  Nomelle  France,  par  le  R.  P.  F.  G.  Bressany,  S.J.,  p.  109 ; 
ed.  Martin  (1852). 

VOL.  ir. 

20 


290  CHAPTER  IX. 

the  English.*  American  Protestants  have  described  the  labors 
of  these  first  missionaries  and  of  their  successors.  A  few  exam 
ples  of  the  language  which  they  employ  will  fitly  introduce 
the  history  which  we  are  briefly  to  trace. 

"  Long  before  the  consecration  of  Plymouth  Rock,"  observes 
Mr.  Bartlett,  an  official  of  the  United  States  government,  "the 
religion  of  Christ  had  been  made  known  to  the  Indians  of  New 
Mexico  ;  the  Rocky  Mountains  were  scaled  ;  and  the  Gila  and 
Colorado  rivers,  which  in  our  day  are  attracting  so  much  in 
terest  as  novelties,  were  passed  again  and  again.  The  broad 
continent,  too,  to  cross  which,  with  all  the  advantages  we 
possess,  requires  a  whole  season,  was  traversed  from  ocean  to 
ocean,  before  Raleigh,  or  Smith,  or  the  Pilgrim  Fathers,  had 
touched  our  shores."* 

"  Within  thirteen  years,"  says  professor  Walters,  "  the  wil 
derness  of  the  Htirons  was  visited  by  sixty  missionaries, 
chiefly  Jesuits."  One  of  them,  Claude  Allouez,  discovered 
Lake  Superior.  Marquette,  of  whom  Mr.  Bancroft  says,  "  the 
people  of  the  West  will  yet  build  his  monument,"  "embarks 
with  his  beloved  companion  and  fellow-missionary,  Joliet,  upon 
the  Mississippi,  and  discovers  the  mouth  of  that  king  of  rivers, 
the  Missouri.  A  third  member  of  this  devoted  band,"  continues 
Mr.  Walters,  "  the  fearless  Menan,  settles  in  the  very  heart  of 
the  dreaded  Mohawk  country,  on  the  banks  of  the  river  which 
still  bears  that  name.  The  Onondagas  welcome  the  missionaries 
of  the  same  illustrious  society.  The  Oneidas  and  Senecas 
likewise  lend  an  attentive  ear  to  the  sweet  tidings  of  the  Gospel 
of  peace.  When  we  consider  that  these  missionaries  were 
established  in  the  midst  of  continual  dangers  and  life-wasting 
hardships,  that  many  of  the  Jesuits  sealed  with  their  blood  the 
truth  of  the  doctrines  they  preached,  and  the  sincerity  of  their 
love  for  these  indomitable  sons  of  the  American  forest,  we 
are  not  surprised  at  the  eloquent  encomiums  which  have  been 
passed  upon  their  dauntless  courage  and  their  more  than  human 
charity  and  zeal."  And  then  he  adds,  with  that  singular 
freedom  from  peevish  bigotry  and  irrational  prejudice  which  is 
the  characteristic  of  so  many  American  Protestants,  "  We  have 
sufficient  data  to  prove,  that  there  is  not  a  State  of  our  Union 
wherein  Catholicity  has  obtained  a  footing,  whose  history  does 
not  exhibit  many  interesting  traits  of  heroic  self-denial,  of 
dangers  overcome,  of  opposition  meekly  borne,  of  adversaries 
won  to  our  faith  by  the  Catholic  missionaries."^: 


*  Charlevoix,  Hixtoire  de  la  Nouxelle  France,  tome  i.,  liv.  iii.,  p.  211  (1744). 
f  Personal  Narrative  of  Explorations  in  Texas,  New  Mexico,  &c.,  by  John 
Russell  Bartlett,  U.  S.  Commissioner,  vol.  i.,  ch.  viii.,  p.  183  (1854). 
%  Rupp,  £Rst.  of  lid.  Denominations  of  U.  S.,  pp.  119-20. 


MISSIONS   IN  AMERICA.  291 

Mr.  "Washington  Irving  is  not  less  emphatic  in  his  generous 
admiration  of  the  same  great  company  of  apostles.  "  All  per 
sons,"  he  observes,  "  who  are  in  the  least  familiar  with  the 
early  history  of  the  West,  know  with  what  pure  and  untiring 
zeal  the  Catholic  missionaries  pursued  the  work  of  conversion 
among  the  savages.  Before  a  Virginian  had  crossed  the  Blue 
Ridge,  and  while  the  Connecticut  was  still  the  extreme  frontier 
of  New  England,  more  than  one  man  whose  youth  had  been 
passed  among  the  warm  valleys  of  Languedoc,  had  explored 
the  wilds  of  Wisconsin,  and  caused  the  hymn  of  Catholic 
praise  to  rise  from  the  prairies  of  Illinois.  The  Catholic  priest 
went  even  before  the  soldier  and  the  trader ;  from  lake  to  lake, 
from  river  to  river,  the  Jesuits  pressed  on  unresting,  and, 
with  a  power  which  no  other  Christians  have  exhibited,  won 
to  their  faith  the  warlike  Miamis  and  the  luxurious  Illinois."* 

Even  Protestant  ministers,  forgetting,  in  presence  of  so  much 
heroism  and  virtue,  their  conventional  phraseology,  which  they 
seem  to  have  agreed  to  suspend  over  the  graves  of  martyrs, 
have  caught  up  the  strain.  "  How  few  of  their  number,"  ex 
claims  the  Rev.  Mr.  Kip,  "  died  the  common  death  of  all  men  !" 
And  then,  after  enumerating  the  various  kinds  of  death  by 
which  they  finished  their  course,  he  continues  thus  :  "  But  did 
these  things  stop  the  progress  of  the  Jesuits?  The  sons  of 
Loyola  never  retreated.  The  mission  they  founded  in  a  tribe 
ended  only  with  the  extinction  of  the  tribe  itself.  Their  lives 
were  made  up  of  fearless  devotedness  and  heroic  self-sacrifice. 
Though  sorrowing  for  the  dead,  they  pressed  forward  at  once 
to  occupy  their  places,  and,  if  needs  be,  share  their  fate. 
'Nothing,'  wrote  Father  Le  Petit,  after  describing  the  mar 
tyrdom  of  two  of  his  brethren,  'nothing  has  happened  to  those 
two  excellent  missionaries  for  which  they  were  not  prepared 
when  they  devoted  themselves  to  the  Indian  missions.'  If  the 
flesh  trembled,  the  spirit  seemed  never  to  falter.  Each  one 
indeed  felt  that  he  was  '  baptized  for  the  dead,'  and  that  his 
own  blood,  poured  out  in  the  mighty  forests  of  the  West,  woiild 
bring  down  perhaps  greater  blessings  on  those  for  whom  he 
died,  than  he  would  win  for  them  by  the  labors  of  a  life.  He 
realized  that  he  was  'appointed  unto  death.'  ' Ibo,  et  non 
redibo?  were  the  prophetic  words  of  Father  Jogues,  when  for 
the  last  time  he  departed  for  the  Mohawks.  When  Lallemand 
was^  bound  to  the  stake,  and  for  seventeen  hours  his  excru 
ciating  agonies  were  prolonged,  his  words  of  encouragement  to 
his  brother  were,  '  Brother !  we  are  made  a  spectacle  unto  the 
world,  and  to  angels,  and  to  men.'  When  Marquette  was 

*  Ibid.,  Knickerbocker,  June,  1838. 


292  CHAPTER   IX. 

setting  out  for  the  sources  of  the  Mississippi,  and  the  friendly 
Indians  who  had  known  him  wished  to  turn  him  from  his  pur 
pose,  by  declaring  'Those  distant  nations  never  spare  the 
stranger,'  the  calm  reply  of  the  missionary  was,  'I  shall  gladly 
lay  down  my  life  for  the  salvation  of  souls.'  "  * 

Yet  these  candid  men,  who  could  thus  applaud  in  all  sincerity 
the  gifts  and  graces  which  they  recognize  in  the  missionaries  of 
the  Cross,  and  sometimes  confess  in  glowing  words  the  super 
natural  "constancy  and  patience  which,"  as  Mr.  Hawkins 
observes,  "  must  always  command  the  wonder  of  the  historian 
and  the  admiration  of  posterity,"  were  content  to  utter  barren 
applause !  Less  impressed  by  actions  which  they  often  attrib 
ute  only  to  enthusiasm,  or  peculiarity  of  temperament,  than 
the  more  discerning  Huron  or  Oneida,  who  knew  how  to  trace 
them  to  their  true  source,  and  who  quickly  comprehended  that 
only  the  "  Master  of  Life"  could  form  such  men  or  inspire  such 
actions,  these  Protestant  historians  derive  no  lessons  from  deeds 
which  they  record  without  comprehending,  and  of  which  their 
own  annals  contain  not  even  a  solitary  example,  and  deem 
their  task  fully  accomplished  when  they  have  elaborated  the 
unprofitable  panegyric  which  they  would  apply,  with  hardly 
the  variation  of  a  phrase,  to  the  prowess  of  a  Hannibal  or  the 
constancy  of  a  Regulus. 

One  advantage,  however,  we  derive  from  their  unsuspicious 
testimony,  that  it  renders  all  Catholic  evidence  superfluous; 
one  inference  we  draw  from  the  facts  which  they  proclaim,  that 
the  missionaries  would  have  done  in  the  Northern  what  they  did 
in  the  Southern  continent,  if  they  had  not  been  hindered  in  the 
former  by  a  fatal  impediment,  from  which  they  were  delivered 
in  the  latter.  If  Canada  and  the  United  States  had  belonged 
to  France  or  Spain,  instead  of  to  England  or  Holland,  no  one 
can  doubt,  with  the  history  of  Brazil  and  Paraguay  in  his 
hands,  that  the  inhabitants  of  both  would  have  remained  to 
this  day ;  and  that  the  triumphs  of  Anchieta  and  Vieyra,  of 
Solano  and  Baraza,  would  have  been  renewed  by  the  banks 
of  the  St.  Lawrence  and  the  Ohio,  in  the  forests  of  Michigan, 
the  prairies  of  Illinois,  and  the  savannahs  of  Florida  and 
Alabama. 

In  both  fields  of  apostolic  warfare,  the  agents  were  exactly 
the.>same.  "  Every  tradition,"  says  the  most  laborious  historian 
of  the  United  States,  "bears  testimony  to  their  worth.  They 
had  the  faults  of  ascetic  superstition," — they  shared  them  with 
St.  Paul  and  St.  Francis  Xavier, — "  but  the  horrors  of  a 

*  The  Early  Jesuit  Missions  in  North  America,  by  the  Rev.  Wm.  Ingraham 
Kip,  M.A. ;  preface,  p.  8. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  293 

Canadian  life  in  the  wilderness  were  resisted  by  an  invincible 
passive  courage,  and  a  deep  internal  tranquillity.  Away  from 
the  amenities  of  life,  away  from  the  opportunities  of  vain-glory, 
they  became  dead  to  the  world,  and  possessed  their  souls  in 
unalterable  peace.  The  history  of  their  labors  is  connected 
with  the  origin  of  every  celebrated  town  in  the  annals  of 
French  America ;  not  a  cape  was  turned,  not  a  river  entered, 
but  a  Jesuit  led  the  way."*  Let  us  see  through  what  perils 
and  sufferings  it  conducted  them. 

In  1641,  a  bark  canoe  left  the  Bay  of  Penetangushene,  for 
the  Sault  Ste.  Marie,  at  the  invitation  of  the  Chippewas,  who 
had  heard  of  the  messengers  of  the  Great  Spirit.  "  There,  at 
the  falls,  after  a  navigation  of  seventeen  days,  they  found  an 

assembly  of  two  thousand  souls Thus  did  the  religious 

zeal  of  the  French  bear  the  Cross  to  the  banks  of  the  St.  Mary 
and  the  confines  of  Lake  Superior,  and  look  wistfully  towards 
the  homes  of  the  Sioux  in  the  valley  of  the  Mississippi,  five 
years  before  the  New  England  Eliot  had  addressed  the  tribe  of 
Indians  that  dwelt  within  six  miles  of  Boston  harbor!"  Raym- 
bault  and  Jogues  travelled  in  that  canoe.  The  former  perished 
by  the  rigor  of  the  climate,  the  latter  was  destined  to  a  more 
tragical  fate.  Returning  by  the  Ottawa  and  the  St.  Lawrence 
to  Quebec,  with  "  the  great  warrior  Ahasistari"  and  a  party  of 
Christian  Hurons,  he  was  attacked  by  a  band  of  Mohawks. 
The  llurons  leaped  ashore,  to  hide  in  the  thick  forest.  "Jogues 
might  have  escaped  also  ;  but  there  were  with  him  converts 
who  had  not  yet  been  baptized  ;  and  when  did  a  Jesuit  mis 
sionary  seek  to  save  his  own  life,  at  what  he  believed  the  risk 
of  a  soul?  Ahasistari  had  gained  a  hiding-place;  observing 
Jogues  to  be  a  captive,  he  returned  to  him,  saying,  '  My 
brother,  I  made  oath  to  thee  that  I  would  share  thy  fortune, 
whether  death  or  life:  I  am  here  to  keep  my  vow.'"f 

Ahasistari  was  burned  alive.  He  had  been  baptized,  after 
due  trial  of  his  sincerity,  Mr.  Bancroft  relates,  "  and  enlisting 
a  troop  of  converts,  savages  like  himself,  '  Let  us  strive,'  he  ex 
claimed,  i  to  make  the  whdle  world  embrace  the  faith  in 
Jesus!'"  The  noble  barbarian  accepted  martyrdom  with  ex 
ultation,  and  sang  at  the  stake,  not  his  own  warlike  deeds,  but 
the  praises  of  Jesus  and  Mary.  Rene  Goupil,  a  novice,  in  the 
act  of  reciting  the  rosary  with  Father  Jogues,  was  killed  by 
the  blow  of  a  tomahawk,  "  lest  he  should  destroy  the  village  by 
his  charms."  Jogues  was  not  yet  to  die.  They  allowed  him, 
because  of  his  infirmities,  to  wander  about,  and  often  "he  wrote 

*  Bancroft,  ?'.,  783. 
1  Ibid,  791. 


294:  CHAPTER  ix. 

the  name  of  Jesns  on  the  bark  of  trees,  as  if  taking  possession 
of  these  countries  in  the  name  of  God."  His  torments  were 
long  and  horrible,  but  his  martyrdom  was  to  be  postponed  for 
four  years.  They  tore  out  his  hair  and  nails  by  the  roots,  cut 
off  his  lingers  by  one  joint  at  a  time,  and  only  suspended  his 
tortures  when  they  seemed  likely  to  deprive  him  of  life.  Yet 
he  never  wavered!  Uansomed  at  length  by  the  Dutch,  he  was 
released,  and  having  visited  Rome  to  obtain  a  dispensation  to 
say  Mass  in  spite  of  his  mutilated  hands,  the  Sovereign  Pontiff 
replied,  "  Indignum  esset  Christi  martyrem  Christi  non  bibere 
sangiiincm"  Having  obtained  the  permission  which  he  so 
licited,,  instead  of  seeking  the  repose  which  his  sufferings 
seemed  to  have  earned,  he  returned  immediately  to  America, 
and  being  recaptured  by  the  Iroquois  in  1646,  was  again 
cruelly  tortured,  and  finally  obtained,  on  the  18th  of  October, 
the  crown  of  martyrdom.*  His  actual  murderer  was  burned 
to  death  in  the  following  year  by  the  Algonquins,  "  but  the 
holy  martyr  seems  not  to  have  abandoned  him  in  his  last  hour," 
says  Charlevoix,  "  for  he  died  a  Christian." 

'On  the  4th  of  July,  1648,  Father  Antoine  Daniel,  while 
laboring  in  a  Huron  village,  was  surprised  in  his  turn  by  the 
Mohawks.  His  flock  was  cut  down  on  every  side,  while  he 
moved  amongst  them,  calm  and  fearless,  baptizing  the  cate 
chumens  and  absolving  the  Christians,  and  when  his  task  was 
done,  quietly  advanced  to  meet  his  murderers.  "Astonishment 
seized  the  barbarians,"  says  Mr.  Bancroft,  who  thus  describes 
the  closing  scene:  "At  length,  drawing  near,  they  discharge 
at  him  a  flight  of  arrows.  All  gashed  and  rent  by  wounds,  he 
still  continued  to  speak  with  surprising  energy,  now  inspiring 
fear  of  the  Divine  anger,  and  again,  in  gentle  tones,  yet  of  more 
piercing  power  than  the  whoops  of  the  savages,  breathing  the 
affectionate  messages  of  mercy  and  grace."  At  last  they  slew 
him,  "  the  name  of  Jesus  on  his  lips."  The  whole  Huron  na 
tion  mourned  him,  and  some  of  them  related,  as  Mr.  Bancroft 
notices,  "  that  he  appeared  twice  after  his  death,  youthfully 
radiant  in  the  sweetest  form  of  celestial  glory."f 

On  the  16th  and  17th  of  March,  1649,  Fathers  Jean  de 
Brebeuf  and  Gabriel  Lallemand,  both  apostles  of  the  Hurons, 
passed  to  their  eternal  reward  through  one  of  the  most  appalling 
trials  which  man  ever  inflicted  or  endured.  The  first  had  been 
twenty  years  in  the  mission,  and  had  converted  more  than 
seven  thousand  Indians  ;  the  last  was  weak  and  delicate,  and 
had  only  just  commenced  the  apostolic  career.  Among  his 

*  Charlevoix,  tome  i.,  liv.  vi.,  p.  390.  "  Verissimum  patientiae  et  in  proximuin 
cliaritatis  portentum."    Tanuer,  Vita  et  Mon.  Martyr.  Soc.  Jesu,  p.  510. 
f  Bancroft,  ii.,  790. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  295 

private  papers  was  found,  after  his  death,  a  writing  in  which 
he  devoted  himself  to  martyrdom.  "  Oh,  my  Jpsus,  sole  object 
of  my  love,"  he  had  written,  "  it  is  necessary  that  Thy  blood, 
shed  for  the  savages  as  well  as  for  us,  should  be  efficaciously 
applied  to  their  salvation.  It  is  on  this  account  that  I  desire 
to  co-operate  with  Thy  grace,  and  to  immolate  myself  for 
Thee."* 

They  were  both  captured  by  the  Iroquois,  allies  of  the 
English,  and  implacable  enemies  of  the  Hurons,  after  a  battle 
in  which  every  combatant  of  the  latter  tribe  was  either  killed 
or  taken.  Occupied  during  the  conflict  in  baptizing  the  dying, 
and  in  exhorting  all  u  to  have  God  alone  in  view,"  they  only 
ceased  to  teach  and  console  when  there  was  no  longer  a  Huron 
left  to  need  their  ministry.  De  Brebeuf  was  first  led  to  the 
stake,  and  as  he  continued  to  proclaim  with  a  loud  voice  the 
faith  for  which  he  was  about  to  die,  "  the  savages,  unable  to 
silence  him,  cut  off  his  lower  lip  and  his  nose,  applied  burning 
torches  to  all  parts  of  his  body,  burned  his  gums,  and  at 
length,''  for  he  still  continued  to  admonish  them,  "plunged  a 
red  hot  iron  into  his  throat."  And  then  they  brought  forth 
his  young  companion,  stripped  him  naked,  and  covered  him 
with  sheets  of  bark  that  he  might  be  slowly  roasted.  It  was 
at  this  moment,  when  he  saw  the  horrible  condition  of  his 
venerable  friend,  that  he  cried  out,  "  We  are  made  a  spectacle 
to  the  world,  to  angels,  and  to  men !"  De  Brebeuf  replied  to 
him  by  a  gentle  inclination  of  the  head,  when  Lallemand, 
whose  fetters  had  been  consumed  by  the  h're,  ran  to  him,  cast 
himself  at  his  feet,  and  respectfully  kissed  his  wounds.  Shortly 
after  De  Brebeuf  was  scalped,  while  still  living,  and  then 
Lallemand's  agony  began.  They  poured  boiling  water  on  his 
head,  in  mockery  of  baptism  ;  they  plucked  out  one  of  his  eyes, 
and  placed  a  burning  coal  in  the  empty  socket ;  the  smoke  from 
the  burning  sheets  of  bark  filled  his  mouth  so  that  he  could  no 
longer  speak,  but  as  the  flame  had  again  burst  his  bonds,  he 
lifted  up  his  hands  to  heaven.  Finally,  after  an  agony  which 
was  skilfully  protracted  during  seventeen  hours,  the  victim  was 
immolated,  and  the  sacrifice  complete.  "  The  lives  of  both," 
says  Mr.  Bancroft,  "had  been  a  continual  heroism;  their 
deaths  were  the  astonishment  of  their  executioners."  The 
Protestant  historian  omits  to  add  the  impressive  fact,  that 
many  of  their  murderers  were  afterwards  converted,  and  that 
it  was  from  their  voluntary  account  that  the  details  of  their 
martyrdom  were  collected. f 

*  Bressany,  p.  258. 

f  Charlevoix,  tome  ii.,  liv.  vii.,  p.  18  ;  Bressany,  eh.  v.,  p.  251. 


296  CHAPTER   IX. 

"  It  may  be  asked,"  adds  Mr.  Bancroft,  "  if  these  massacres 
quenched  enthusiasm  ?  I  answer,  that  the  Jesuits  never 
receded  one  foot."  Father  Bressany,  who  wrote  his  own 
history  with  his  mutilated  hand,  has  described,  as  if  speaking 
of  another,  the  tortures  which  made  him  say,  "  I  did  not  think 
it  possible  for  man  to  survive  such  an  ordeal."  Yet  he 
lived  to  return  to  Europe,  where  he  had  professed  literature, 
philosophy,  and  mathematics,  before  he  devoted  himself  to  the 
conversion  of  the  heathen ;  and  it  was  a  common  remark  of 
those  who  heard  him  preach  in  the  churches  of  Italy,  "  lie 
has  no  need  to  say,  '  I  bear  in  my  body  the  marks  of  the  Lord 
Jesus.' "  Even  the  Indians  used  to  say  to  him,  "  Show  us 
your  wounds,  they  speak  to  us  of  Him  for  whom  you  received 
them." 

In  the  same  year  which  saw  the  death  of  De  Brebeuf  and 
Lallemand,  Father  Gamier  was  also  martyred.  He  had  already 
been  pierced  through  the  breast  and  stomach,  and  was  dragging 
himself  along  the  ground  in  order  to  give  absolution  to  a  dying 
Huron,  when  he  was  cut  in  two  by  a  hatchet.  On  the  18th  of 
December,  still  in  the  same  year,  Father  Noel  Chabanel  met  a 
similar  fate.  Leonard  Garreau,  Nicolas  Viel,  and  "  the  fearless 
Rene  Mesnard  ;"  Buteux  and  Poncet ;  Le  Maistre  and  Vignal ; 
Souel  and  Constantine ;  Du  Poisson  and  Doutreleau  ;  all  gave 
their  lives  for  the  faith,  after  toils  which  only  Divine  charity 
could  inspire  or  support.  Besides  these,  the  historian  of  the 
United  States,  as  if  a  moment  of  transient  enthusiasm  made  him 
almost  a  partaker  in  their  faith,  celebrates  Pinet,  "  who  became 
the  founder  of  Cahokia,  preaching  with  such  success  that  his 
chapel  could  not  contain  the  multitude  that  thronged  to  him ;" 
and  Binrietau,  "  who  left  his  mission  among  the  Abenakis  to 
die  on  the  upland  plains  of  the  Mississippi ;"  and  Gabriel 
Marest,  "  who,  after  chanting  an  ave  to  the  cross  among  the 
icebergs  of  Hudson's  Bay,"  was  captured  by  the  English,  but 
found  his  way  back  to  America  ;  and  Mermet,  "  whose  gentle 
virtues  and  fervid  eloquence  made  him  the  soul  of  the  mission 
at  Kaskaskia,"  far  away  in  the  valley  of  the  Mississippi ;  and 
Marquette,  "still  honored  in  the  West;"  and  Guignes,  who 
had  travelled  six  hundred  leagues  from  Quebec  to  the  territory 
of  the  Sioux,  and  when  on  the  point  of  being  burned  alive  by 
the  Kickapoos,  was  saved  by  an  aged  chief  who  adopted  him  as 
his  son  ;*  and  Pierron,  of  whom  the  Mohawks  said, "  this  French 
man  has  changed  our  hearts  and  souls,  his  desires  and  thoughts 
are  ours:"  and  Du  Jan  nay,  whose  memory  is  still  preserved  at 
Detroit,  and  his  name  dear  to  the  Ottawa's ;  and  Milet,  whom 

*  Lettrt*  Edif  antes,  tome  vii.,  p.  67. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  297 

the  Onondagas  called  "  the  one  who  looks  up  to  heaven  ;"  and 
Etienne  de  Carheil,  "  revered  for  his  genius  as  well  as  for  his 
zeal,"  and  "  who  spoke  the  dialects  of  the  Huron-Iroquois 
tribes  with  as  much  facility  and  elegance  as  though  they  had 
been  his  mother  tongue ;"  and  Dmillettes,  whom  even  the 
English,  after  plotting  his  death,  extolled  for  his  incomparable 
charity  ;*  and  Ficquet,  who  for  more  than  thirty  years  labored 
amongst  the  savages,  and  in  three  years  gathered  round  him 
three  hundred  and  ninety-six  heads  of  families, — of  whom  the 
Marquis  du  Quesne  used  to  say,  "The  Abbe  Ficquet  is  worth 
more  than  ten  regiments," — whom  de  Bougainville  eulogized 
as  "  theologian,  orator,  and  poet," — and  whom  Amherst  tried 
to  conciliate,  after  the  conquest  of  Quebec,  though  the  English 
had  often  set  a  price  on  his  head.f 

To  these  let  us  add  one  whom  Mr.  Bancroft  calls  "the  faithful 
Senat,"  who,  "  when  D'Artaguette  lay  weltering  in  his  blood, 
might  have  fled,"  but  "  remained  to  receive  the  last  sigh  of  the 
wounded,  regardless  of  danger,  mindful  only  of  duty  ;"  and 
Lamberville,  who,  as  an  English  writer  observes,  captivated 
even  the  hereditary  enemies  of  the  Christian  Huron s,  and  "  so 
won  the  confidence  of  the  Iroquois  by  his  unaffected  piety,  his 
constant  kindness,  and  his  skill  in  healing  their  differences  and 
their  bodily  ailments,"  that  even  these  irreclaimable  savages, 
hired  by  the  English  to  fight  against  their  Christian  brothers, 
"  looked  upon  him  as  a  father  and  a  friend  ;";£  and  Marest, 
who,  after  travelling  many  weeks  to  the  distant  home  of  the 
Potawattomies,  "  carrying  with  him  only  a  crucifix  and  a 
breviary,"  found  himself  clasped  in  the  arms  of  a  brother  whom 
he  had  not  seen  for  fifteen  years,  but  who,  in  the  interval,  had 
become  a  Jesuit  like  himself,  and  whom  he  was  destined  to 
meet  for  the  first  time  in  an  Indian  cabin  more  than  two  thou 
sand  miles  from  the  sea. 

Lastly,  let  us  allude  to,  though  we  cannot  name  them,  that 
multitude  of  generous  apostles  who,  like  Anne  de  JSToue,  tasted 
the  martyrium  sine  sanguine,  drowned,  starved,  or  frozen  to 
death,  and  "whose  fate,"  as  Mr.  Ilalkett  observes,  "was  not 
ascertained,  and  who  were  never  afterwards  heard  of."§ 

Yet  their  labor  was  not  in  vain,  and  its  fruits  survive  even 
to  this  hour,  in  spite  of  the  multiplied  disasters  of  every  kind 
which  have  concurred  to  blight  them.  "  If  any  Indians  still 
remain  in  Canada,"  says  M.  Brasseur  de  Bourbourg,  "  it  is  to 

*  Relations  des  Jesuites  dans  la  Nouxelle  France,  Annee  1652  ;  ch.  viii.,  tomo 
li.,  p.  29. 

f  Bancroft,  ii.,  838,  916,  964  ;  Lettres  Edifiantes,  tomo  xxvi.,  pp.  18-63. 
\  Howitt,  Colonization  and  Christianity,  ch.  xx.,  p.  821. 
^  Notes  on  N.  American  Indians,  ch.  ii.,  p.  43. 


298  CHAPTER   IX. 

the  Catholic  Church  alone  that  their  preservation  is  due." 
We  shall  see  presently  how  much  reason  he  had  to  say  it. 
The  whole  Huron  nation  was  converted,  and  Protestant 
writers  will  tell  us  that  its  survivors  still  do  honor  to  their 
apostolic  teachers.  Abenakis  and  Algonquins,  Ottawas  arid 
Onondagas,  received  the  message  of  peace,  "  and  in  the  heart 
of  the  State  of  New  York  the  solemn  services  of  the  Roman 
Church  were  chanted  as  securely  as  in  any  part  of  Christen 
dom."*  The  Cayugas  and  Oneidas,  the  Senecas  and  Miamis, 
welcomed  the  preachers  of  the  Gospel ;  and  a  single  missionary, 
Claude  Allouez,  u  lighted  the  torch  of  faith  for  more  than 
twenty  different  nations."f  "  To  what  inclemencies,  from 
nature  and  from  man,"  says  the  Protestant  historian,  "  was 
each  missionary  among  the  barbarians  exposed  !  He  defies 
the  severity  of  climate,  wading  through  water,  or  through 
snows,  without  the  comfort  of  fire ;  having  no  bread  but 
pounded  maize,  and  often  no  food  but  the  unwholesome  moss 
from  the  rocks ;  laboring  incessantly  ;  exposed  to  live,  as  it 
wrere,  without  nourishment,  to  sleep  without  a  resting-place, — • 
to  carry  his  life  in  his  hand,  or  rather  daily,  and  oftener  than 
every  day,  to  hold  it  up  as  a  target,  expecting  captivity,  death 
from  the  tomahawk,  tortures,  fire."  And  yet,  as  he  judiciously 
adds,  these  heroes  had  abundant  consolation.  "  How  often 
was  the  pillow  of  stones  like  that  where  Jacob  felt  the  presence 
of  God !  How  often  did  the  ancient  oak  seem  like  the  tree 
of  Mamre,  beneath  which  Abraham  broke  bread  with  angels!'':): 
One  reflection  only  he  fails  to  make, — that  the  doctrine  which 
such  men  delivered  in  every  land  was  the  same  which  St.  Paul 
or  St.  Philip  preached,  by  the  same  method,  and  which  they 
also  illustrated  by  the  same  actions,  and  sealed  by  the  same 
death. 

The  men  who  preached  the  faith  in  Canada  continued  to 
the  end  such  as  its  first  apostles  had  been.  One  after  another 
they  displayed  the  same  supernatural  character,  and  even  their 
enemies  acknowledged  in  them  the  marks  of  the  same  apostolic 
vocation.  But  they  were  now  to  encounter  that  peculiar 
obstacle,  unknown,  as  we  have  several  times  observed,  in  the 
age  of  St.  Peter  and  St.  Paul,  and  which  has  proved  fatal  in 
so  many  lands  to  the  salvation  of  the  heathen.  They  were 
rapidly  converting  one  tribe  after  another,  as  their  brethren  had 
done  in  the  South,  and  would  not  have  rested  from  their  labor 
till  they  had  converted  them  all ;  but  a  price  was  now  to  be 
set  on  their  heads,  by  men  calling  themselves  Christians,  and 

*  Bancroft,  ii.,  799. 
f  Id.,  804. 
\  Id,  806. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  299 

representing  the  government  and  the  religion  of  England ! 
"In  1700,  the  legislature  of  New  York  made  a  law  for  hang 
ing  every  Popish  priest  that  should  come  voluntarily  into  the 
province;"*  and  Lord  Bellamont,  the  English  governor,  de 
clared  his  intention  to  execute  the  law  immediately  upon 
every  Jesuit  whom  he  could  seize. f  They  had  tried  every 
other  plan  ;  they  had  surpassed  even  the  Mohawk,  whom  they 
made  their  ally  in  hunting  down  the  missionaries  of  the  Cross ; 
and  now  they  announced  to  the  world,  by  a  solemn  legislative 
enactment,  that  they  were  prepared  to  murder  every  Catholic 
priest,  upon  whom  they  could  lay  hands.  Their  success,  it 
must  be  admitted,  was  complete ;  but  in  accomplishing  it,  they 
not  only  destroyed  Christianity  and  those  who  alone  could 
propagate  it,  but  extirpated  by  the  same  fatal  policy  the  nations 
whom  they  could  neither  convert  themselves,  nor  would  suffer 
others  to  convert. 

The  conduct  of  Lord  Bellamont,  who  only  executed  faith 
fully  the  instructions  of  his  masters,  was  thus  noticed  by  Mr. 
Talbot,  an  Anglican  missionary  in  America,  in  1702.  After 
expressing  generally  his  reluctant  admiration  of  the  "zealous 
and  diligent  papists,"  the  Protestant  preacher  continued  as 
follows.  "  'Tis  wonderfully  acted,  ventured,  and  suffered  upon 
that  design  ;  they  have  indeed  become  all  things,  and  even 
turned  Indians,  as  it  were,  to  gain  them.  One  of  their  priests 
lived  half  a  year  in  their  wigwams  without  a  shirt;  and  when 
he  petitioned  my  Lord  Bellamont  for  a  couple,  he  was  not  only 
denied  hut  banished;  whereas  one  of  ours,  in  discourse  with 
my  Lord  of  London,  said,  Who  did  his  Lordship  think  would 
come  hither  that  had  a  dozen  shirts?":): 

The  Dutch,  though  they  twice  humanely  ransomed  a  Catholic 
missionary,  were  not  in  other  respects  superior  to  their  co 
religionists  of  England.  As  early  as  1657,  they  were  established 
at  Orange,  now  the  city  of  Albany,  where  they  lived  after  a 
fashion  which  provoked  such  comments  as  the  following.  Of 
one  preacher,  who  was  sent  out  by  the  "  Lutheran  Consistory 
at  Amsterdam,"  his  Dutch  Calvinist  colleagues  gave  the  follow 
ing  graphic  account.  "  This  Lutheran  parson  is  a  man  of  a 
godless  and  scandalous  life,  a  rolling,  rollicking,  unseemly  carl, 
who  is  more  inclined  to  look  into  the  wine-can,  than  to  pore 
over  the  Bible,  and  would  rather  drink  a  can  of  brandy  for  two 
hours  than  preach  one."  He  and  his  flock  were  accustomed, 
"  when  full  of  brandy,  to  beat  each  other's  heads  black  and 

*  Bancroft,  ii.,  835. 

f  Brasseur  de  Bourbourg,  tome  i.,  ch.  xii.,  p.  216. 

j  Missions  of  the  Church  of  England  in  the  JV.  American  Colonies,  by  Earnest 
Hawkins,  B.D.,  ch.  ii.,  p.  33  (1845). 


300  CHAPTER   IX. 

blue,"  their  pastor  being  "  excessively  inclined  to  fight  whom 
soever  he  meets."*  The  disciples  of  the  Dutch  clergy  generally 
are  thus  described,  in  1710,  by  the  Rev.  Thomas  Barclay,  an 
Episcopalian  minister,  in  an  official  report  on  the  "  State  of  the 
Church  in  Albany."  "  There  are  about  thirty  communicants 
of  the  Dutch  Church,  but  so  ignorant  and  scandalous,  that  they 
can  scarce  be  reputed  Christians."f  It  is  fair,  however,  to 
add,  that  we  shall  hear  exactly  the  same  account,  by  their  own 
friends,  of  the  Episcopalian  clergy  and  their  flocks.  It  was 
probably  their  experience  of  such  teachers  and  such  congrega 
tions  which  made  the  neighboring  Indian  tribes  reason  as 
follows.  "  What  a  difference  between  the  Christians  and  the 
Dutch !  They  say  that  they  all  acknowledge  the  same  God, 
but  how  unlike  are  they  in  their  conduct !  When  we  go  to 
visit  the  French,  we  always  come  back  with  a  desire  to  pray. 
At  Albany  they  never  say  any  thing  to  us  about  prayer.  We 
do  not  even  know  whether  they  pray  there  at  all.";]: 

Yet  at  this  very  date,  the  Indians  collected  in  the  island  of 
Montreal  had  been  so  effectually  converted  to  God, — and  in 
many  of  the  fixed  missions,  notably  at  the  Sault  Ste.  Marie, 
the  same  thing  was  true, — that  European  visitors  could  report, 
"  The  whole  island  of  Montreal  resembles  a  religious  com 
munity;"!  or?  as  tiie  Bishop  of  Quebec  observed  in  1688, 
"  You  would  take  this  village  for  a  monastery,  so  extraordinary 
is  their  daily  life."||  At  Kaskaskia,  far  away  in  the  valle}^  of 
the  Mississippi,  Mr.  Bancroft  says,  "  the  success  of  the  mission 
\vas  such,  that  marriages  of  the  French  emigrants  were  some 
times  solemnized  with  the  daughters  of  the  Illinois  according  to 
the  rites  of  the  Catholic  Church ;"  while  the  Indians,  he  allows, 
were  so  thoroughly  converted,  that  not  only  did  they  all  assemble 
"  at  early  dawn"  to  assist  at  Mass,  and  again  "  at  evening  for 
instruction,  for  prayer,  and  to  chant  the  hymns  of  the  Church," 
but,  as  the  Protestant  historian  adds,  "every  convert  confessed 
once  in  a  fortnight,"  and  "  at  the  close  of  the  day,  parties  wTould 
meet  in  the  cabins  to  recite  the  rosary,  in  alternate  choirs,  and 
sing  psalms  into  the  night. "T  By  the  end  of  the  seventeenth 
century,  as  Mr.  Owen  observes,  "the  total  of  the  Confederacy 
(Six  Nations)  who  professed  the  Roman  Catholic  religion  was 
computed  to  exceed  eight  thousand.'***  And  this  was  only  one 

*  Documentary  History  of  New  York,  vol  iii..  p.  105. 

f  Ibid.,  p.  898 

i  Charlevoix,  tome  ii.,  liv.  viii.,  p.  80. 

§  Ibid.,  liv.  ix.,  p.  163. 

I  Lett  res  Edifiantes,  tome  vi.,  p,  126. 

1  Bancroft,  ii.,  839. 

**  History  of  the  Bible  Society,  vol.  i.,  p.  128. 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  301 

example  of  their  success.  "  The  whole  Abenakis  nation,"  the 
martyr  Rasles  could  say  in  172-2,  "  is  Christian,  and  full  of  zeal 
for  their  religion."  "  Among  the  Five  Nations,"  as  a  bitter 
Puritan  lamented,  "  there  is  a  great  number  of  French  Jesuits, 
and  the  chief  of  the  poor  silly  Indians  do  entirely  confide  in 
them."*  As  early  as  1670,  Roger  Williams,  a  famous  Prot 
estant  preacher,  confessed  to  Mason,  in  the  frightful  language 
of  his  class,  that  "  the  French  and  Romish  Jesuits,  the  fire 
brands  of  the  world  for  their  god-belly  sake,  are  kindling  at 
our  back  in  this  country  their  hellish  fires,  with  all  the  natives 
of  this  country  T\  So  that  Judge  Hall  could  truly  observe, 
"  The  French  Catholics,  at  a  very  early  period,  were  remark 
ably  successful  in  gaining  converts,  and  conciliating  the  confi 
dence  and  aifection  of  the  tribes ;"  while,  as  he  adds,  with  singu 
lar  candor,  "  Protestants,  similarly  situated,  were  bloodthirsty 
and  rapacious.":); 

In  truth,  as  respects  the  fruits  of  their  labors,  it  was  the  his 
tory  of  Brazil  and  Peru  in  another  clime.  In  many  a  mission, 
from  the  Mohawk  to  the  Genesee,  and  from  the  Hudson  to  the 
Mississippi,  were  gathered  Christian  Indians,  who,  as  one 
whom  Mr.  Bancroft  styles  "  the  honest  Charlevoix"  has  re 
corded,  "  would  have  done  honor  to  the  first  ages  of  Chris 
tianity."  "I  give  my  life  willingly,"  said  Tegananokoa,  a 
native  martyr,  "  for  a  God  who  shed  all  His  blood  for  me." 
When  his  fingers  had  been  cut  off  by  the  heathen,  because  he 
lifted  them  up  in  prayer,  and  he  was  scoffingly  bidden  to  con 
tinue  his*  supplications,  "  Yes,"  he  replied,  u  I  will  pray,"  and 
then  made  the  sign  of  the  cross  with  his  mutilated  hand.  But 
men  who  could  defy  all  the  arts  of  the  pagan,  and  who  were 
once  more  converting  a  continent,  wrere  vanquished  by  the 
more  subtle  wickedness  of  so-called  Christians.  The  Iroquois, 
a  nation  remarkable  for  their  natural  gifts,  so  that  even  Dr. 
Timothy  Dwight  compares  them  with  "  the  Greeks  and  Ro 
mans,"  appear  to  have  become  perfectly  demoniacal  after  inter 
course  with  their  white  allies,  by  whom  they  were  paid  to 
fight  against  the  French.  They  were,  says  a  Protestant  ethnol 
ogist,  '•  a  people  advancing  in  many  ways  towards  the  full" 
initiation  of  a  self-originated  civilization,  when  the  intrusion  of 
Europeans  abruptly  arrested  its  progress,  and  brought  them  in 
contact  with  the  elements  of  a  foreign  civilization  pregnant 
only  with  the  sources  of  their  degradation  and  final  destruc 
tion.'^  "  I  have  often,"  says  Charlevoix,  "  asked  some  of  our 

*  Discoveries  of  the  English  in  America,  Pinkerton,  vol.  xii.,  p.  410. 
f  Massachusetts  Historical  Collections,  1st  series,  vol.  i.,  p.  283. 
J  Rupp,  Hist.  Eel.  Denom.,  p.  163. 
§  Dr.  Wilson,  Prehistoric  Man,  vol.  i.,  ch.  vii.,  p.  235. 


302  CHAPTER   IX. 

Fathers,  with  many  of  whom  who  labored  longest  in  this  part 
of  the  Lord's  vineyard  I  had  the  happiness  of  living,  what  had 
hindered  the  seed  of  the  Word  from  taking  root  amongst  a 
people  whose  intelligence,  good  sense,  and  noble  feelings  they 
so  much  praised.  All  gave  me  the  same  reply, — that  the  chief 
cause  of  this  evil  was  the  neighbor  hood  of  the  English  and 
Dutch,  whose  want  of  piety,  though  professing  to  be  Christians, 
had  induced  these  savages  to  regard  Christianity  as  a  mere  re 
ligion  of  caprice — comme  une  religion  arbitraire" 

But  we  have  not  been  accustomed  in  these  volumes  to  rely 
upon  Catholic  evidence,  however  weighty,  and  the  testimony 
of  Charlevoix,  as  we  shall  see  immediately,  is  amply  confirmed 
from  other  sources.  On  the  10th  of  August,  1654,  at  a  general 
council  of  all  the  Iroquois  nations,  as  we  read  in  the  Documen 
tary  History  of  New  York  they  solemnly  invited  the  Catholic 
missionaries,  in  a  moment  of  freedom  from  English  influence, 
to  take  up  their  abode  amongst  them.  "  It  is  you"  they  said, 
"  who  ought  to  possess  our  hearts."  And  it  was  from  Chris 
tian  Huron  captives,  the  very  race  whom  they  had  most  hated 
and  injured,  that  they  had  learned  "the  great  value  of  the 
Faith,  and  to  prize  without  being  acquainted  with  it."  They 
had  seen  the  Catholic  Indian  suffer,  and  they  had  seen  him 
die,  and  the  lesson  had  not  been  lost  upon  them.  ISTor  can  it 
be  reasonably  doubted  that,  but  for  the  counsels  and  example 
of  the  English,  these  noble  tribes  would  all  have  been  won  to 
Christianity  and  civilization.  It  was  not  till  they  had  learned 
to  despise  the  religion  of  their  Saxon  allies,  and  to  inritate  their 
vices,  that  they  closed  their  hearts  forever  against  the  message 
of  peace.  It  has  been  the  mission  of  the  English,  in  all  lands, 
to  make  the  conversion  of  the  heathen  impossible.  Here  are 
fresh  examples,  recorded  by  themselves,  of  their  mode  of  pro 
ceeding  in  the  Atlantic  provinces  of  America.  * 

In  1687,  Governor  Dongan  of  New  York,  after  reporting 
officially  to  the  Lords  of  the  Committee  of  Trade,  that  the 
Iroquois  were  "a  bulwark  between  us  and  the  French,"  added 
these  characteristic  words,  "/  suffer  no  Christians  to  converse 
with  them  anywhere  but  at  Albany,  and  that  not  without  my 
licence."  It  was  more  advantageous  to  English  interests  that 
they  should  continue  pagans,  because  if  they  embraced  Chris 
tianity  they  were  sure  to  be  Catholics.  He  even  avowed,  with 
crude  brutality,  the  odious  treachery  which  he  knew  the  English 
government  would  approve  and  reward.  "  The  French  Fathers 
have  converted  many  of  them, — Mohawks,  Senecas,  Cayugas, 
Oneidas,  and  Onondagas, — to  the  Christian  Faith,  and  doe  their 
utmost  to  draw  them  to  Canada,  to  which  place  there  are 
already  six  or  seven  hundred  retired,  and  more  like  to  doe,  to 


MISSIONS   IN   AMERICA.  303 

the  great  prejudice  of  this  government,  if  not  prevented;"  and 
then  he  tells  his  masters  how  he  had  induced  some  to  return 
by  fraud,  promising  "to  furnish  them  with  priests," — a  promise 
kept,  thirteen  years  later,  by  enacting  a  law  "  to  hang  every 
Popish  priest  that  should  come  into  the  province. v*  It  was 
against  such  deadly  influences  that  the  apostles  of  North 
America  contended,  till  both  they  and  their  flocks  were  anni 
hilated. 

Yet  not  a  few  even  of  the  Iroquois  had  proved  how  powerfully 
grace  could  work  in  them,  when  they  were  suffered  to  come 
within  its  reach.  All  the  early  Canadian  records  speak, 
amongst  others,  of  the  Iroquois  Saint,  Catherine  Teguhkouita. 
Born  "in  1656,  and  converted  in  early  youth  by  the  missionaries 
from  Montreal,  she  led  until  her  death,  in  1680,  a  hidden  life 
of  prayer,  seeking  by  her  austerities  to  make  atonement  for  the 
errors  of  her  tribe.  "  She  had  placed  a  cross  in  the  trunk  of  a 
tree,  by  the  side  of  a  stream,  and  this  solitary  spot  served  her 
for  an  oratory.  There  in  spirit  she  placed  herself  at  the  foot  of 
the  altar,  united  her  intention  to  that  of  the  priest,  and  implored 
her  angel  guardian  to  assist  at  the  sacrifice  of  the  Mass  in  her 
place,  and  to  apply  to  her  the  fruit  of  it."  Accustomed  to 
practise  in  secret  the  most  painful  mortifications,  and  making 
her  bed  of  rough  thorns,  a  Christian  companion  suggested  to 
her  that  this  was  an  error  in  the  sight  of  God,  who  does  not 
approve  austerities  performed  without  the  sanction  of  author 
ity,  and  not  consecrated  by  obedience.  "  Catherine,  who 
dreaded  even  the  appearance  of  sin,"  says  Father  Cholenec, 
"came  immediately  to  search  for  me,  to  acknowledge  her  fault, 
and  ask  pardon  of  God.  I  blamed  her  indiscretion,  and  directed 
her  to  throw  the  thorns  into  the  fire.  This  she  instantly  did." 
When  she  died,  at  the  age  of  twenty-four,  the  same  missionary 
relates  that  the  very  sight  of  her  corpse  filled  the  spectators 
with  surprise  and  edification :  "  It  might  be  said  that  a  ray  of 
glory  illuminated  even  her  body."f 

Margaret,  another  of  these  Indian  virgins,  was  martyred  by 
the  pagan  members  of  her  own  tribe,  and,  amidst  the  greatest 
tortures  which  savage  cruelty  could  inflict,  "  continued  to  in 
voke  the  holy  names  of  Jesus,  Mary,  and  Joseph."  The  agony 
of  thirst  made  her  crave  for  water,  yet  when  they  offered  it  to 
her,  she  refused,  saying,  "  My  Saviour  thirsted  for  me  on  the 
cross;  it  is  just  that  I  should  suffer  the  same  torment."  She 
survived  so  long  under  her  tortures,  that  her  murderers  ex 
claimed  with  surprise,  u  Is  this  dog  of  a  Christian  unable  to 
die  ?" 

*  Documentary  History  of  New  York,  vol.  i.,  pp.  41,  154. 
f  Lettres  Edifiantes,  tome  vi.,  pp.  67,  97. 


304  CHAPTER  IX. 

The  apostles  who  had  raised  up  to  God,  in  many  an  Indian 
tribe,  such  worshippers  as  these,  would  not  have  failed  in  due 
time  to  renew  the  triumphs  which  their  brethren  had  effected  in 
Brazil,  Peru,  and  Paraguay.  They  had  begun,  and  would  have 
completed,  the  same  work.  The  Indian  of  the  North,  until 
brutalized  by  drink  and  maddened  by  cruelty,  was  at  least  as 
capable  of  appreciating  Christian  heroism  and  sanctity  as  his 
fellow-barbarian  of  the  South ;  and  when  he  saw  both  displayed 
before  his  eyes,  did  homage  after  his  kind.  "  The  North 
American  Indian,"  says  an  eminent  English  writer,  "  is  of  a 
disposition  peculiarly  religious,"*  though  the  emissaries  of 
Protestantism  could  riot  turn  the  disposition  to  account. 
When  the  tribes  of  Kentucky  had  declared  implacable  war 
against  the  seed  of  the  oppressor,  they  still  respected,  even  in 
the  paroxysm  of  their  rage,  one  class,  and  one  alone.  The 
French  Trappists,  far  from  all  human  succor,  dwelt  without 
fear  in  the  midst  of  them  ;  and  u  the  monks  themselves," 
though  blood  was  flowing  all  around  them,  "were  never 
molested  in  their  own  establishment.  The  savages  seemed 
even  to  be  awed  into  reverence  for  their  sanctity;  and  often 
did  they  pause  in  the  vicinity  of  the  rude  Trappist  chapel,  to 
listen  to  the  praises  of  God  chanted  amidst  the  bones  of  their 
own  fathers."f 

Such  is  the  spell,  as  we  have  seen  in  many  lands,  which 
Catholic  holiness  exerts  even  over  the  rudest  natures.-  "So 
wide,"  says  Mr.  Bancroft,  with  his  usual  candor,  "  was  the  in 
fluence  of  the  missionaries  in  the  West,"  that  when  Da  Buisson, 
defending  Fort  Detroit  with  only  twenty  Frenchmen  against 
the  forces  of  the  English,  "  summoned  his  Indian  allies  from 
the  chase;  Ottawas,  and  Hurons,  and  Potawattomies,  with  one 
branch  of  the  Sacs,  Illinois,  Menomonies,  and  even  Osages  and 
Missouris,  each  nation  with  its  own  ensign  came  to  his  relief. 
'Father,'  said  they,  'behold!  thy  children  compass  thee  round. 
We  will,  if  need  be,  gladly  die  for  our  father.' "if  Multitudes, 
no  doubt,  would  have  shared  the  fate  of  Jogues  and  Lallemand 
and  De  Brebeuf,  before  the  victory  was  finally  accomplished  ; 
but  others  would  immediately  have  taken  their  place,  until 
Mohawk  and  Sioux,  Shawnee  and  Delaware,  subdued  by 
their  invincible  courage,  and  won  by  their  surpassing 
charity,  would  have  imitated  the  Moxos  and  Chiquitos  of 
the  southern  continent,  and,  like  them,  would  have  survived 

*  Lectures  on  Colonization,  by  Herman  Merivale,  A.M.,  Professor  of  Political 
Economy  ;  lect.  xix.,  p.  526. 

f  Sketches  of  the  Early  Catholic  Missions  of  Kentucky,  by  M.  J.  Spalding,  D.D., 
ch.  x.,  p,  173. 

\  II.,  858. 


MISSIONS   IN  AMERICA.  305 

to  tins  day,  dwelling  in  the  land  of  their  fathers,  and  praising 
the  God  of  Christians.  But  an  enemy  had  now  entered  the 
field,  before  whom  both  the  missionary  and  his  flock  disap 
peared,  and  whose  operations  it  is  time  to  notice.  Two  or 
three  examples,  out  of  many,  will  sufficiently  indicate  their 
scope  and  character. 

<k  On  the  banks  of  the  Kennebec,"  says  the  historian  whom 
we  have  so  often  quoted,  "  the  venerable  Sebastian  Easles,  for 
more  than  a  quarter  of  a  century  the  companion  and  instructor 
of  savages,  had  gathered  a  flourishing  village  round  a  church 
which,  rising  in  the  desert,  made  some  pretensions  to  magnifi 
cence.  Severely  ascetic, — using  no  wine,  and  little  food  except 
pounded  maize, — he  built  his  own  cabin,  tilled  his  own  garden, 
drew  for  himself  wood  and  water,  prepared  his  own  hominy 
and,  distributing  all  that  he  received,  gave  an  example  of  re 
ligious  poverty.  .  .  .  Following  his  pupils  to  their  wigwam, 
he  tempered  the  spirit  of  devotion  with  familiar  conversation 
and  innocent  gayety,  winning  the  mastery  of  their  souls  by  his 
powers  of  persuasion.  He  had  trained  a  little  band  of  forty 
young  savages,  arrayed  in  cassock  and  surplice,  to  assist  in  the 
service  and  chant  the  hymns  of  the  Church,  and  their  public 
processions  attracted  a  great  concourse  of  red  men."'51 

The  apostolic  labors  of  Father  Rasles,  and  their  success, 
made  him  odious  to  the  English.  They  tried  two  plans  for  his 
destruction,  of  which  Mr.  Bancroft  mentions  only  one.  u  The 
government  of  Massachusetts,"  he  says,  "  attempted,  in  turn, 
to  establish  a  mission  ;  and  its  minister  made  a  mocking  of 
purgatory  and  the  invocation  of  saints,  of  the  cross  and  the 
rosary.  .  .  .  Thus  Calvin  and  Loyola  met  in  the  woods  of 
Maine.  But  the  Protestant  minister,  unable  to  compete  with 
the  Jesuit  for  the  affections  of  the  Indians,  returned  to 

Boston."f 

Their  first  project  having  failed,  they  adopted  a  second  ;  and 
the  English  authorities  now  offered  by  proclamation  one  thousand 
pounds  sterling  for  the  head  of  the  too  successful  missionary  ! 
u  The  English  regard  me,"  said  the  venerable  man  who  was 
soon  to  be  their  victim,  "  as  an  invincible  obstacle  to  the  design 
which  they  have  formed  of  acquiring  all  the  lands  of  the  Abena- 
kis.";f  His  crime  was  unpardonable,  but  it  will  be  well  to  learn  by 
Protestant  testimony  how  it  was  avenged.  "  After  vainly 
soliciting  the  savages,"  says  Mr.  Bancroft,  "  to  surrender  Rasles, 
in  midwinter,  Westbrooke  led  a  strong  force  to  Norridgewock, 
to  take  him  by  surprise."  They  had  often  hunted  him  before, 

*  Bancroft,  ii.,  938. 

f  Ibid.,  p.  939. 

J  Lettres  Edifiantes,  tome  vi.,  p.  148. 

VOL.  II  21 


306  CHAPTER   IX. 

but  tliis  time  they  were  to  be  successful.  In  vain  his  flock  had 
implored  him  to  fly  betimes.  "The  aged  man,  foreseeing  the 
impending  ruin  of  Norridgewock,  replied,  '  I  count  not  my  life 
dear  unto  myself,  so  I  may  finish  with  joy  the  ministry  which 
I  have  received.' ':  When  the  English  arrived,  "  Rasles  went 
forward  to  save  his  flock,  by  drawing  down  upon  himself  the 
attention  of  the  assailants  ;  and  his  hope  wra